ammonium chloride

Summary

Summary: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.

Top Publications

  1. Schwarz C, Ferrea S, Quasthoff K, Walter J, Gorg B, Haussinger D, et al. Ammonium chloride influences in vitro-neuronal network activity. Exp Neurol. 2012;235:368-73 pubmed publisher
    ..interaction of excitatory and inhibitory neurons was recorded in vitro on microelectrode arrays (MEAs) after ammonium chloride exposure...
  2. Marquez B, Suarez S. Soluble adenylyl cyclase is required for activation of sperm but does not have a direct effect on hyperactivation. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2008;20:247-52 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that, while the SACY/cAMP signalling pathway is required for motility activation, it is not directly involved in triggering hyperactivation...
  3. Marquez B, Suarez S. Bovine sperm hyperactivation is promoted by alkaline-stimulated Ca2+ influx. Biol Reprod. 2007;76:660-5 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that a rise in pH increases intracellular Ca(2+)and promotes hyperactivation primarily by stimulating Ca(2+) influx, but also by other mechanisms...
  4. Walsh S, Shirley D, Wrong O, Unwin R. Urinary acidification assessed by simultaneous furosemide and fludrocortisone treatment: an alternative to ammonium chloride. Kidney Int. 2007;71:1310-6 pubmed
    ..This disorder is normally diagnosed by means of an oral ammonium chloride-loading test; however, the procedure often leads to vomiting and abandonment of the test...
  5. Yang Q, She H, Gearing M, Colla E, Lee M, Shacka J, et al. Regulation of neuronal survival factor MEF2D by chaperone-mediated autophagy. Science. 2009;323:124-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, chaperone-mediated autophagy modulates the neuronal survival machinery, and dysregulation of this pathway is associated with Parkinson's disease...
  6. Martín Acebes M, González Magaldi M, Sandvig K, Sobrino F, Armas Portela R. Productive entry of type C foot-and-mouth disease virus into susceptible cultured cells requires clathrin and is dependent on the presence of plasma membrane cholesterol. Virology. 2007;369:105-18 pubmed
  7. Fürnkranz U, Nagl M, Gottardi W, Köhsler M, Aspöck H, Walochnik J. Cytotoxic activity of N-chlorotaurine on Acanthamoeba spp. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:470-6 pubmed
    ..The addition of ammonium chloride can be considered to enhance the activity.
  8. Nowik M, Lecca M, Velic A, Rehrauer H, Brändli A, Wagner C. Genome-wide gene expression profiling reveals renal genes regulated during metabolic acidosis. Physiol Genomics. 2008;32:322-34 pubmed
    ..Our analysis suggests that many of these genes may participate in various processes leading to adaptation and restoration of normal systemic acid-base and electrolyte homeostasis...
  9. Essa M, Subramanian P. Pongamia pinnata modulates the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2006;20:299-303 pubmed
    ..in India) leaf extract (PPEt) on circulatory lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status was evaluated in ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats...

More Information

Publications84

  1. Chernyshev A, Tarasov P, Semianov K, Nekrasov V, Hoekstra A, Maltsev V. Erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride: theoretical modeling and experimental verification. J Theor Biol. 2008;251:93-107 pubmed
    A mathematical model of erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride is presented in frames of a statistical approach...
  2. Yang Y, Liang Z, Gao B, Jia Y, Qin Z. Dynamic effects of autophagy on arsenic trioxide-induced death of human leukemia cell line HL60 cells. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2008;29:123-34 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the contribution of an autophagic mechanism to the As2O3- induced death of human acute myeloid leukaemia cell line HL60 cells...
  3. Hotta C, Fujimaki H, Yoshinari M, Nakazawa M, Minami M. The delivery of an antigen from the endocytic compartment into the cytosol for cross-presentation is restricted to early immature dendritic cells. Immunology. 2006;117:97-107 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that only the early immature stage of DC interferes with endosomal maturation, even after uptake of exogenous antigens, and then transports the antigens into the cytosol...
  4. Hiong K, Loong A, Chew S, Ip Y. Increases in urea synthesis and the ornithine-urea cycle capacity in the giant African snail, Achatina fulica, during fasting or aestivation, or after the injection with ammonium chloride. J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol. 2005;303:1040-53 pubmed
    ..fulica is to defend against ammonia toxicity, but suggest that urea may have more than an excretory role in terrestrial pulmonates capable of aestivation...
  5. Vincent M, Bergeron E, Benjannet S, Erickson B, Rollin P, Ksiazek T, et al. Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread. Virol J. 2005;2:69 pubmed
    ..Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a newly discovered coronavirus (SARS-CoV). No effective prophylactic or post-exposure therapy is currently available...
  6. Hafner P, Grimaldi R, Capuano P, Capasso G, Wagner C. Pendrin in the mouse kidney is primarily regulated by Cl- excretion but also by systemic metabolic acidosis. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C1658-67 pubmed publisher
    ..However, metabolic acidosis caused by acetazolamide or (NH(4))(2)SO(4) loading prevented the increase or even reduced pendrin expression despite low urinary Cl(-) excretion, suggesting an independent regulation by acid-base status...
  7. Teuchner B, Schmid E, Ulmer H, Gottardi W, Nagl M. Tolerability of N-chlorotaurine plus ammonium chloride in the rabbit and human eye--a phase 1 clinical study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;246:1723-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Animal tests revealed improved efficacy of a combination of NCT with ammonium chloride in adenoviral conjunctivitis...
  8. Nordgren A, Karlsson T, Wiklund L. Ammonium chloride and alpha-ketoglutaric acid increase glutamine availability in the early phase of induced acute metabolic acidosis. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2006;50:840-7 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that ammonium chloride (NH(4)Cl) and alpha-ketoglutaric acid (alpha-KGA) infusions could increase glutamine availability possibly ..
  9. Di Trani L, Savarino A, Campitelli L, Norelli S, Puzelli S, D Ostilio D, et al. Different pH requirements are associated with divergent inhibitory effects of chloroquine on human and avian influenza A viruses. Virol J. 2007;4:39 pubmed
    ..Overall, the present study highlights the critical importance of a host cell factor such as intravesicular pH in determining the anti-influenza activity of chloroquine and other lysosomotropic agents...
  10. Gottardi W, Arnitz R, Nagl M. N-Chlorotaurine and ammonium chloride: an antiseptic preparation with strong bactericidal activity. Int J Pharm. 2007;335:32-40 pubmed
    ..activity of the endogenous antiseptic N-chlorotaurine (NCT) is significantly enhanced in the presence of ammonium chloride which induces the formation of monochloramine (NH(2)Cl) whose strong bactericidal activity is well known...
  11. Dabydeen S, Meneses P. The role of NH4Cl and cysteine proteases in Human Papillomavirus type 16 infection. Virol J. 2009;6:109 pubmed publisher
    ..HPV16 infection was shown to decrease in the presence of the lysosomotrophic neutralizing agent ammonium chloride (NH4Cl)...
  12. Martín Acebes M, Rincón V, Armas Portela R, Mateu M, Sobrino F. A single amino acid substitution in the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus can increase acid lability and confer resistance to acid-dependent uncoating inhibition. J Virol. 2010;84:2902-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the increased propensity to dissociation into pentameric subunits of virions bearing substitution VP3 A118V indicates that this replacement also facilitates the dissociation of the FMDV capsid...
  13. Mohebbi N, Mihailova M, Wagner C. The calcineurin inhibitor FK506 (tacrolimus) is associated with transient metabolic acidosis and altered expression of renal acid-base transport proteins. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F499-509 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that FK506 impacts on several major acid-base transport proteins in the kidney, and its use is associated with transient metabolic acidosis and altered expression of key renal acid-base transport proteins...
  14. Alesutan I, Daryadel A, Mohebbi N, Pelzl L, Leibrock C, Voelkl J, et al. Impact of bicarbonate, ammonium chloride, and acetazolamide on hepatic and renal SLC26A4 expression. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2011;28:553-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The observations point to expression of pendrin in the liver and to opposite effects of acidosis on pendrin transcription in liver and kidney...
  15. Matsui H, Ito H, Taniguchi Y, Takeda S, Takahashi R. Ammonium chloride and tunicamycin are novel toxins for dopaminergic neurons and induce Parkinson's disease-like phenotypes in medaka fish. J Neurochem. 2010;115:1150-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, ammonium chloride, tunicamycin, and lactacystin were tested for their ability to disturb lysosomal proteolysis, N-..
  16. Clark K, Wetzel J, Gu Y, Ebert D, McAbee S, Stoneman E, et al. Reovirus variants selected for resistance to ammonium chloride have mutations in viral outer-capsid protein sigma3. J Virol. 2006;80:671-81 pubmed
    ..b>Ammonium chloride (AC) is a weak base that blocks disassembly of reovirus virions by inhibiting acidification of intracellular ..
  17. Frische S, Kwon T, Frøkiaer J, Madsen K, Nielsen S. Regulated expression of pendrin in rat kidney in response to chronic NH4Cl or NaHCO3 loading. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003;284:F584-93 pubmed
  18. Narayan S, Barnard R, Young J. Two retroviral entry pathways distinguished by lipid raft association of the viral receptor and differences in viral infectivity. J Virol. 2003;77:1977-83 pubmed
    ..The TVA800/ASLV-A system should prove useful for the molecular analysis of lipid raft-dependent endocytosis and may provide a tool for the biochemical dissection of the poorly understood uncoating step of retroviral replication...
  19. Haghighat N, McCandless D, Geraminegad P. The effect of ammonium chloride on metabolism of primary neurons and neuroblastoma cells in vitro. Metab Brain Dis. 2000;15:151-62 pubmed
    ..Neuroblastoma cells consumed more glucose than primary neurons in absence of NH4Cl, but generated the same amount of lactate as neurons...
  20. Benjannet S, Rhainds D, Essalmani R, Mayne J, Wickham L, Jin W, et al. NARC-1/PCSK9 and its natural mutants: zymogen cleavage and effects on the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and LDL cholesterol. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:48865-75 pubmed
    ..overexpressing NARC-1 or its natural mutant S127R, and this reduction is abrogated in the presence of 5 mm ammonium chloride, suggesting that overexpression of NARC-1 increases the turnover rate of the LDLR...
  21. Quentin F, Chambrey R, Trinh Trang Tan M, Fysekidis M, Cambillau M, Paillard M, et al. The Cl-/HCO3- exchanger pendrin in the rat kidney is regulated in response to chronic alterations in chloride balance. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004;287:F1179-88 pubmed
    ..Conversely, NaCl depletion induced by furosemide was associated with increased Pds expression. We conclude that Pds expression is specifically regulated in response to changes in chloride balance...
  22. Haghighat N, Oblinger M, McCandless D. Cytoprotective effect of estrogen on ammonium chloride-treated C6-glioma cells. Neurochem Res. 2004;29:1359-64 pubmed
    ..We examined the ability of estrogen to protect glial cells from ammonium chloride toxicity using an in vitro model system...
  23. Diaz Griffero F, Hoschander S, BROJATSCH J. Endocytosis is a critical step in entry of subgroup B avian leukosis viruses. J Virol. 2002;76:12866-76 pubmed
    ..This indicates that, in contrast to SFV, ALV-B is unable to fuse at the cellular surface, even at a low pH. Taken together, our findings suggest that endocytosis and a subsequent low-pH step are critical for successful ALV-B infection...
  24. Torres V, Cowley B, Branden M, Yoshida I, Gattone V. Long-term ammonium chloride or sodium bicarbonate treatment in two models of polycystic kidney disease. Exp Nephrol. 2001;9:171-80 pubmed
    Administration of ammonium chloride aggravates, while short-term administration of sodium or potassium bicarbonate lessens the development of polycystic kidney disease in Han:SPRD rats...
  25. Korompai F, Ustinova E, Taulman A, Yuan S. Ammonium chloride potentiation of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in juvenile pigs. Horm Metab Res. 2000;32:256-8 pubmed
    ..In the second group of 9, the technique was modified. The change was based on human studies with ammonium chloride and animal experiments with alloxan, and consisted of the addition of a period of pretreatment with ammonium ..
  26. Doms R, Gething M, Henneberry J, White J, Helenius A. Variant influenza virus hemagglutinin that induces fusion at elevated pH. J Virol. 1986;57:603-13 pubmed
    ..2 units higher than the parent strain does and that is less sensitive to the effects of ammonium chloride, a compound known to elevate endosomal pH...
  27. Ricke S, Schaefer D. Growth and fermentation responses of Selenomonas ruminantium to limiting and non-limiting concentrations of ammonium chloride. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1996;46:169-75 pubmed
    ..Given the growth response of this ruminal bacterium, it is possible that maximization of ruminal bacterial yield may necessitate sacrificing the substrate degradation rate and vice versa...
  28. Jara A, Chacón C, Ibaceta M, Valdivieso A, Felsenfeld A. Effect of ammonium chloride and dietary phosphorus in the azotaemic rat. Part II--Kidney hypertrophy and calcium deposition. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2004;19:1993-8 pubmed
  29. Gianni T, Campadelli Fiume G, Menotti L. Entry of herpes simplex virus mediated by chimeric forms of nectin1 retargeted to endosomes or to lipid rafts occurs through acidic endosomes. J Virol. 2004;78:12268-76 pubmed
    ..iii) Structural features of the receptors are additional determinants that control whether HSV entry occurs at the plasma membrane or at endosomes. These findings are relevant to studies of HSV retargeting to specific receptors...
  30. Petrovic S, Wang Z, Ma L, Soleimani M. Regulation of the apical Cl-/HCO-3 exchanger pendrin in rat cortical collecting duct in metabolic acidosis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003;284:F103-12 pubmed
    ..Adaptive downregulation of pendrin in metabolic acidosis indicates the important role of this exchanger in acid-base regulation in the CCD...
  31. Wool Lewis R, Bates P. Characterization of Ebola virus entry by using pseudotyped viruses: identification of receptor-deficient cell lines. J Virol. 1998;72:3155-60 pubmed
  32. Yang F, Wang P, Wang R, Zhou Y, Su X, He Y, et al. Label free electrochemical aptasensor for ultrasensitive detection of ractopamine. Biosens Bioelectron. 2016;77:347-52 pubmed publisher
    ..A special immobilization media consisting of gold nanoparticles/poly dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride-graphene composite (AuNPs/PDDA-GN) was utilized to improve conductivity and performance of the biosensor...
  33. Chen X, Si C, Fatehi P. Cationic xylan- (2-methacryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) polymer as a flocculant for pulping wastewater. Carbohydr Polym. 2018;186:358-366 pubmed publisher
    ..a novel polymer flocculant, which was synthesized through polymerizing (2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (DMC) and xylan. Xylan-DMC polymer removed 94.5% of turbidity, 61.7% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 45...
  34. Goldberg A, Nkengfac B, Sanchez A, Moroz N, Qureshi S, Koromilas A, et al. Regulation of ULK1 Expression and Autophagy by STAT1. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:1899-1909 pubmed publisher
    ..blocked in STAT1-deficient cells but restored in cells simultaneously exposed to the autophagy inhibitor ammonium chloride. In vivo, skeletal muscle ULK1 mRNA and protein levels as well as autophagic flux were significantly ..
  35. Robergs R, Hutchinson K, Hendee S, Madden S, Siegler J. Influence of pre-exercise acidosis and alkalosis on the kinetics of acid-base recovery following intense exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005;15:59-74 pubmed
    ..Although blood pH and lactate are highly correlated during recovery from acidosis, they recover at significantly different rates. ..
  36. Bharmoria P, Gupta H, Mohandas V, Ghosh P, Kumar A. Temperature invariance of NaCl solubility in water: inferences from salt-water cluster behavior of NaCl, KCl, and NH4Cl. J Phys Chem B. 2012;116:11712-9 pubmed
    ..The high stability and temperature independence of the cluster sizes in aqueous NaCl shed light on the temperature invariance of its solubility. ..
  37. Hwang I, Minoya H, Matsuto T, Matsuo T, Matsumoto A, Sameshima R. Removal of ammonium chloride generated by ammonia slip from the SNCR process in municipal solid waste incinerators. Chemosphere. 2009;74:1379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..a critical problem of the SNCR process is the generation of ammonia slip; in reactions with HCl in flue gas, ammonium chloride is generated and forms detached white plumes near the stack...
  38. Franiatte M, Richard L, Elie M, Nguyen Trung C, Perfetti E, LaRowe D. Hydrothermal stability of adenine under controlled fugacities of N2, CO2 and H2. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 2008;38:139-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The composition of the gas phase was obtained from the degradation of oxalic acid, sodium nitrite and ammonium chloride, and the oxidation of metallic iron...
  39. Choudhary A, Dey C. Nuclear co-repressor (NCoR) is required to maintain insulin sensitivity in C2 C12 myotubes. Cell Biol Int. 2017;41:204-212 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, inhibition of lysosomal protein degradation pathway using ammonium chloride restored protein level of NCoR but failed to increase glucose uptake in serum-starved C2 C12<..
  40. Shehata M, Fawaz E, El Rahman M, Abdel Moety E. Double-Track Electrochemical Green Approach for Simultaneous Dissolution Profiling of Naproxen Sodium and Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2017;146:179-187 pubmed publisher
    ..f change over the time scale. For the determination of NAPR, sensor I was developed using tridodecyl methyl ammonium chloride as an anion exchanger, while sensor II was developed for the determination of DIPH using potassium tetrakis (..
  41. Crescenti A, Puiggròs F, Colomé A, Poch J, Caimari A, Bas J, et al. [Antiurolithiasic effect of a plant mixture of Herniaria glabra, Agropyron repens, Equisetum arvense and Sambucus nigra (Herbensurina®) in the prevention of experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in rats]. Arch Esp Urol. 2015;68:739-49 pubmed
    ..75% ethylene glycol (EG) and 1% ammonium chloride for three days and then EG only for 15 days...
  42. Wognum B, Yuan N, Lai B, Miller C. Colony forming cell assays for human hematopoietic progenitor cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;946:267-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition protocols are described for a modified version of the CFC-assay that allows accurate enumeration of total CFC numbers in CB or MPB after a culture period of only 7 days, but without distinction of colony types. ..
  43. Smith M, Dombkowski R, Wincko J, Olson K. Effect of pH on trout blood vessels and gill vascular resistance. J Exp Biol. 2006;209:2586-94 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, as fish are exposed to substantial fluctuations in environmental (and therefore plasma) pH, the obligatory response of fish VSM to these changes may have substantial impact on cardiovascular homeostasis. ..
  44. Hackemann E, Hasse H. Influence of mixed electrolytes and pH on adsorption of bovine serum albumin in hydrophobic interaction chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2017;1521:73-79 pubmed publisher
    ..0 using 25mM sodium phosphate or sodium citrate buffer. Binary and ternary salt mixtures of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium sulfate and ammonium sulfate as well as the pure salts are used at overall ionic strengths between ..
  45. Cervia L, Chang C, Wang L, Yuan F. Distinct effects of endosomal escape and inhibition of endosomal trafficking on gene delivery via electrotransfection. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0171699 pubmed publisher
    ..However, treatment of cells with lysosomotropic agents (chloroquine and ammonium chloride) had little effects on eTE...
  46. Nanita S, Padivitage N. Ammonium chloride salting out extraction/cleanup for trace-level quantitative analysis in food and biological matrices by flow injection tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 2013;768:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..001-0.01mgkg(-1) (ppm). A comparison to a well-established HPLC/MS/MS method was also conducted, yielding comparable results, thus confirming the suitability of NH4Cl salting out FI/MS/MS for pesticide residue analysis. ..
  47. Chechushkov A, Zaitseva N, Vorontsova E, Kozhin P, Menshchikova E, Shkurupiy V. Dextran loading protects macrophages from lipid peroxidation and induces a Keap1/Nrf2/ARE-dependent antioxidant response. Life Sci. 2016;166:100-107 pubmed publisher
    ..the cells from oxidative stress induced by cumene hydroperoxide and from lysosomal stress induced by ammonium chloride. The effect was associated with induction of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway...
  48. Nimura Y, Mori Y, Inui T, Sohma Y, Takenaka H, Kubota T. Effects of CO2/HCO3- in perilymph on the endocochlear potential in guinea pigs. J Physiol Sci. 2007;57:15-22 pubmed
  49. Cowley N, Forbes S, Amézquita A, McClure P, Humphreys G, McBain A. Effects of Formulation on Microbicide Potency and Mitigation of the Development of Bacterial Insusceptibility. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015;81:7330-8 pubmed publisher
    ..to the microbicides benzalkonium chloride, benzisothiozolinone, chlorhexidine, didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride, DMDM-hydantoin, polyhexamethylene biguanide, thymol, and triclosan in aqueous solution (nonformulated) and ..
  50. Briffa J, Grinfeld E, Poronnik P, McAinch A, Hryciw D. Uptake of leptin and albumin via separate pathways in proximal tubule cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2016;79:194-198 pubmed publisher
    ..Leptin uptake in OK cells was enhanced by bafilomycin and ammonium chloride treatment, demonstrating that uptake was not dependent on lysosomal pH...
  51. Lu B, Breza J, Nikonov A, Paedae A, Contreras R. Leptin increases temperature-dependent chorda tympani nerve responses to sucrose in mice. Physiol Behav. 2012;107:533-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings are consistent with the notion that leptin binds with its receptors in fungiform taste buds and alters the message conveyed by sugar-responsive neurons to the brain. ..
  52. Bjerring P, Bjerrum E, Larsen F. Impaired cerebral microcirculation induced by ammonium chloride in rats is due to cortical adenosine release. J Hepatol. 2018;68:1137-1143 pubmed publisher
    ..were measured by speckle contrast imaging and compared before and after 30?min of exposure to 10?mM ammonium chloride applied on the brain surface...
  53. Dai C, Kang H, Yang W, Sun J, Liu C, Cheng G, et al. O-2'-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan nanoparticles for the delivery of live Newcastle disease vaccine. Carbohydr Polym. 2015;130:280-9 pubmed publisher
    A novel complex chitosan derivative, O-2'-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (O-2'-HACC), was synthesized and used to make nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle for live attenuated Newcastle disease vaccine...
  54. Braun M, Perry S. Ammonia and urea excretion in the Pacific hagfish Eptatretus stoutii: Evidence for the involvement of Rh and UT proteins. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2010;157:405-15 pubmed publisher
  55. Kienzle E, Stürmer K, Ranz D, Clauss M. A high roughage/concentrate ratio decreases the effect of ammonium chloride on acid-base balance in horses. J Nutr. 2006;136:2048S-2049S pubmed publisher
  56. Bustamante J, Lores Arnaiz S, Tallis S, Roselló D, Lago N, Lemberg A, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction as a mediator of hippocampal apoptosis in a model of hepatic encephalopathy. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;354:231-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, in vitro studies performed in mitochondria from sham animals showed that mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) could be a mitochondrial mediator of the apoptotic signaling in the presence of NH(4) (+) and calcium...
  57. Sarker S, Arai S, Murate M, Takahashi H, Takata M, Kobayashi T, et al. Evaluation of the influence of ionization states and spacers in the thermotropic phase behaviour of amino acid-based cationic lipids and the transfection efficiency of their assemblies. Int J Pharm. 2012;422:364-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene delivery efficiency in relation to the ionization states of the hydrophilic head group was as follows: -NH(3)(+)TFA(-)>-NH(3)(+)Cl(-)>-NH(2)...
  58. Kongshoj B, Mikkelsen N, Kobayasi T, Lerche C, Wulf H. Ammonium chloride and L-tyrosine enhance melanogenesis in vitro but not in vivo even in combination with ultraviolet radiation. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2007;23:197-202 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate whether such an effect could actually be seen in a short term in vivo mouse study...
  59. Simon J, Dong F, Buegger F, Rennenberg H. Rhizospheric NO affects N uptake and metabolism in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings depending on soil N availability and N source. Plant Cell Environ. 2013;36:1019-26 pubmed publisher
    ..e. asparagine and glutamine with low N availability, serine and proline with high N availability). In conclusion, this study provides first evidence that NO affects N uptake and metabolism in a conifer...
  60. Shokati T, Zwingmann C, Leibfritz D. Contribution of extracellular glutamine as an anaplerotic substrate to neuronal metabolism: a re-evaluation by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy in primary cultured neurons. Neurochem Res. 2005;30:1269-81 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, mitochondrial glucose metabolism strongly depends on the supply of carbons from glutamine, indicating that exogenous glutamine is a well-suited substrate to replenish neuronal Krebs cycle intermediates...
  61. Tsagou V, Aggelis G. Growth dynamics of Azospirillum lipoferum at steady and transitory states in the presence of NH. J Appl Microbiol. 2006;100:286-95 pubmed
    ..The objective of this paper was to study the adaptation dynamics and biochemical response of Azospirillum lipoferum grown in a continuous culture at various environmental shifts...
  62. Holla Ø, Cameron J, Berge K, Ranheim T, Leren T. Degradation of the LDL receptors by PCSK9 is not mediated by a secreted protein acted upon by PCSK9 extracellularly. BMC Cell Biol. 2007;8:9 pubmed
    ..However, it is unknown whether PCSK9 acts directly on the LDLR or if PCSK9 activates another protein that in turn causes degradation of the LDLR...
  63. Nakajima J, Sakka M, Kimura T, Furukawa K, Sakka K. Enrichment of anammox bacteria from marine environment for the construction of a bioremediation reactor. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;77:1159-66 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report on the establishment of an enrichment culture of anammox bacteria from the marine environment using a continuous culture system...
  64. Yang B, Zhao D, Solenov E, Verkman A. Evidence from knockout mice against physiologically significant aquaporin 8-facilitated ammonia transport. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;291:C417-23 pubmed
    ..AQP8-null mice. Our results support the conclusion that AQP8 can facilitate NH(3) transport but provide evidence against physiologically significant AQP8-facilitated NH(3) transport in mice...
  65. Konopacka A, Fresko I, Piaskowski S, Albrecht J, Zielinska M. Ammonia affects the activity and expression of soluble and particulate GC in cultured rat astrocytes. Neurochem Int. 2006;48:553-8 pubmed
    ..Neocortical rat astrocytes were treated for 1 or 24 h with 5 mM ammonium chloride ("ammonia") and then subjected to: (i) cGMP measurement, and (ii) mRNA and/or protein expression ..
  66. Jiang D, Chen Y. Reduction of Delta2-isoxazolines to beta-hydroxy ketones with iron and ammonium chloride as reducing agent. J Org Chem. 2008;73:9181-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of iron and ammonium chloride as the reducing agent in the presence of water results in a facile and chemoselective protocol for the ..
  67. Ma F, Li Z, Xu H, Li Z, Wu D, Li Z, et al. Proton transfer in the complex H3N...HCl catalyzed by encapsulation into a C60 cage. Chemphyschem. 2009;10:1112-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In the infrared spectrum, it is found that the confinement effect of the cage can cause large blue shifts of the N-H stretching vibrations in NH(4)(+)Cl(-)@C(60) compared with those in the NH(4)(+)Cl(-)...H(2)O complex...
  68. Andersson A, Rönnbäck L, Hansson E. Lactate induces tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta release in microglial- and astroglial-enriched primary cultures. J Neurochem. 2005;93:1327-33 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that most TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1beta release comes from microglia. Thus, microglia could play an important role in the pathological process of hyperammonaemia...
  69. Kariya S, Sawada K, Kobayashi T, Karashima T, Shuin T, Nishioka A, et al. Combination treatment of hydrogen peroxide and X-rays induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;75:449-54 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on radiation-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells...
  70. Stefani H, Oliveira C, Almeida R, Pereira C, Braga R, Cella R, et al. Dihydropyrimidin-(2H)-ones obtained by ultrasound irradiation: a new class of potential antioxidant agents. Eur J Med Chem. 2006;41:513-8 pubmed
    ..Analogues compounds 3b and 4b exhibited a strong activity against lipid peroxidation induced by Fe + EDTA, while compounds 3b and 3d were the most potent in reducing ROS levels...
  71. Ip Y, Tam W, Wong W, Chew S. Marine (Taeniura lymma) and freshwater (Himantura signifer) elasmobranchs synthesize urea for osmotic water retention. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2005;78:610-9 pubmed
    ..signifer. Taken together, these results suggest that the primary function of the ornithine-urea cycle in ureogenic marine and freshwater elasmobranchs is to synthesize urea for osmotic water retention and not for ammonia detoxification...
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