Summary: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)

Top Publications

  1. Anfray C. Patient-reported outcomes instruments: bridging the gap between international copyright laws and common practice for developers and users--a case example. Qual Life Res. 2009;18:1281-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Copyright laws are intended to protect the rights of authors in their literary, scientific, and artistic works...
  2. Hrynaszkiewicz I, Norton M, Vickers A, Altman D. Preparing raw clinical data for publication: guidance for journal editors, authors, and peer reviewers. Trials. 2010;11:9 pubmed publisher
    ..Basic advice on file preparation is provided along with procedural guidance on prospective and retrospective publication of raw data, with an emphasis on randomised controlled trials. ..
  3. Brown G. Out of the way: how the next copyright revolution can help the next scientific revolution. PLoS Biol. 2003;1:E9 pubmed
  4. Hrynaszkiewicz I, Cockerill M. Open by default: a proposed copyright license and waiver agreement for open access research and data in peer-reviewed journals. BMC Res Notes. 2012;5:494 pubmed publisher
    b>Copyright and licensing of scientific data, internationally, are complex and present legal barriers to data sharing, integration and reuse, and therefore restrict the most efficient transfer and discovery of scientific knowledge...
  5. Liu G, Liu H, Kadir A. Wavelet-based color pathological image watermark through dynamically adjusting the embedding intensity. Comput Math Methods Med. 2012;2012:406349 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental results show that the scheme can resist against common distortions, especially getting advantage over JPEG compression, additive noise, brightening, rotation, and cropping. ..
  6. Carter S. Do you own your intellectual property?. Med Device Technol. 2003;14:8 pubmed
    ..A lack of caution at the beginning of a project can be costly, but the solution is simple. ..
  7. Carter S. Community registered design. Med Device Technol. 2003;14:8 pubmed
  8. Mader U. [The copyright. What happens in Germany with the intellectual property of authors?]. Internist (Berl). 2004;45:734-5 pubmed
  9. Juniper E. Modification, translation and adaptation of questionnaires: should copyright laws be observed?. Qual Life Res. 2009;18:531-3; discussion 535-9 pubmed publisher
    This commentary is intended to start a discussion about whether people should be allowed to modify, translate, adapt or sell copyrighted questionnaires without the permission of the developer (copyright-holder).

More Information


  1. Busey J. Copyrights, trademarks, and patents, oh my!. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105:1514-6 pubmed
  2. Johnson R, Garrity S. Message from the editors. Ann Neurol. 2002;52:1 pubmed
  3. Chen F, Wrynn P, Rieke J. Electronic journal access: how does it affect the print subscription price?. Bull Med Libr Assoc. 2001;89:363-71 pubmed
    ..More study is recommended to see if the trends observed in this study are sustained over a longer time period. ..
  4. Drazen J, Curfman G. Public access to biomedical research. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:1343 pubmed
  5. Hill E, Rossner M. You wrote it; you own it!. J Gen Physiol. 2008;131:521-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Journal of Cell Biology, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, or The Journal of General Physiology) now retain copyright to their published work...
  6. Johnson S. Who's idea is it?. Nurse Author Ed. 2004;14:1-4 pubmed
    ..By writing the details in a letter, outline, or proposal; including the copyright notice; and setting deadlines so the project moves to a finished manuscript, the idea will result in a ..
  7. Souza Neto E, Batier C, Yahiaoui C, Bernard A, Bonavitacola G, Lehot J, et al. [From the creation to the appreciation of a pedagogic Internet site in anaesthesia and intensive care]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2006;25:375-81 pubmed
    ..Our pedagogic Web site obtained 76 out of 100 and can be considered satisfactory. This study demonstrated that adapted multimedia tools can improve procedural skill teaching in anaesthesia and intensive care. ..
  8. DeSilets L. What are good business practices, anyway?. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2006;37:196-7 pubmed
  9. Carter S. Patents versus settling for the soft option. Med Device Technol. 2004;15:19 pubmed
  10. Buytaert W. The advantages of the use of open source software in geosciences. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2003;68:35-8 pubmed
  11. Goudreau K. The copyright quagmire on the Internet. Comput Nurs. 1999;17:82-5; quiz 86-8 pubmed
    ..of materials were never envisioned by the authors of the Berne Convention, which outlined original international copyright laws...
  12. Uchida S. [Use of digital data in academic activities--on copy rights and good manners]. Masui. 2006;55 Suppl:S34-40 pubmed
  13. Mair J. Who owns the information in the medical record? Copyright issues. Health Inf Manag. 2011;40:31-7 pubmed
    ..The question that may arise is whether copyright can subsist in patient medical records, and if so, what benefit may arise from ownership of such copyright.
  14. Chen Z, Deng X, Zeng F, Liu H, Chen L. A novel lossless robust watermarking method for copyright protection of biomedical image. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2013;13:2108-16 pubmed
    ..imaging devices, more and more valuable biomedical images are transmitted through the open network, and their copyright suffers a major challenge...
  15. Herrman J. Using film clips to enhance nursing education. Nurse Educ. 2006;31:264-9 pubmed
    ..for the use of popular clips, logistical aspects of showing clips in class, and legal issues associated with copyright are addressed...
  16. Brown W. Intellectual property law: a primer for scientists. Mol Biotechnol. 2003;23:213-24 pubmed
    ..b>Copyright provides legal protection from copying for any creative work, as well as business and scientific publications, ..
  17. Zerhouni E. Information access. NIH public access policy. Science. 2004;306:1895 pubmed
  18. Curran M, Curran K. The legalities and practicalities of developing a course-specific electronic reserve room. Nurs Educ Perspect. 2002;23:300-6 pubmed
    ..The article reviews legal issues related to the development of an electronic reserve room for internet access. In addition, hardware and software issues related to the transference of paper materials to a digital format are considered. ..
  19. Watts J, Chandler F. The pathology of pulmonary disorders due to Aspergillus spp. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008;132:1713-4; author reply 1714 pubmed publisher
  20. Schloman B. Creative commons: an opportunity to extend the public domain. Online J Issues Nurs. 2004;9:16 pubmed
  21. Farrell A. Getting the picture: medical images on the Web. Med Ref Serv Q. 2006;25:47-54 pubmed
    ..This article intends to inform users about medical images on the Internet, as well as providing a select list of Web-based medical image sources. ..
  22. Klemm H. [Data protection, radiation protection and copyright: Problems of transferring results in assessment practice]. Unfallchirurg. 2015;118:564-6 pubmed publisher
  23. Raikhel N, Ort D, Jorgensen R. ASPB's response to the NIH's Public Access Policy. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:540-1 pubmed
  24. Sondheimer J. Political intrusion on our own back porch. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005;40:115-6 pubmed
  25. Gass A. Public access to biomedical research. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:2879-80; author reply 2879-80 pubmed
  26. Walsh P. Re: Anatomical radical retropubic prostatectomy: detailed description of the surgical technique. J Urol. 2005;173:324 pubmed
  27. Bouchie A. Napster case spills into biotech sector. Nat Biotechnol. 2004;22:1185-6 pubmed
  28. Langlois M, Heller R, Edwards R, Lyratzopoulos G, Sandars J. Restrictions impeding web-based courses: a survey of publishers' variation in authorising access to high quality on-line literature. BMC Med Educ. 2004;4:7 pubmed
    ..This may be influenced by vague terminology within the 'fair dealing' provision in the copyright legislation, which seems to leave it open to individual interpretation...
  29. Duardo Sanchez A, Patlewicz G, López Díaz A. Current topics on software use in medicinal chemistry: intellectual property, taxes, and regulatory issues. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8:1666-75 pubmed
    ..accompanied, by a lack of understanding of the legal aspects related to software and model use, that is, the copyright protection of new medicinal chemistry software and software-mediated discovered products...
  30. Castilla Juárez K. [Red Cross: more than an indicative signal, an emblem and a denomination regulated for its use]. Gac Med Mex. 2014;150:200-6 pubmed
  31. Haigh C. Legality, the Web and nurse educators. Nurse Educ Today. 2010;30:553-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The paper makes some recommendation which may help to ensure that not only can nurse educators fully exploit the opportunities offered by the World Wide Web but they can do so in a legally responsible manner. ..
  32. D Agostino G, Hinds C, Jirotka M, Meyer C, Piper T, Rahman M, et al. On the importance of intellectual property rights for e-science and the integrated health record. Health Informatics J. 2008;14:95-111 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on an understanding of current practices, this article presents recommendations for the governance of IP in an integrated health record. ..
  33. Lavelle M, LaVelle B, Port K, Sherlock J. Copyright Law Basics for the Nursing Professional: Part 2: Protecting Your Work. J Nurses Prof Dev. 2016;32:2-7 pubmed publisher
    This article is a continuation of the discussion of Copyright Law (found in JNPD 31:5) as it applies to nursing professionals...
  34. Gardenier J. Shackling the shoulders of giants. A report on excerpts from the National Academies' Symposium on the Role of Scientific and Technical Data and Information in the Public Domain, Washington, DC, September 5-6, 2002. Sci Eng Ethics. 2003;9:425-34 pubmed
    ..The definitive record of the symposium is planned to be available from the National Academies Press as a Proceedings publication in the summer of 2003. ..
  35. Giles J. Commercial copying charges hit European academics. Nature. 2003;426:217 pubmed
  36. Pesut D. Intellectual property: complexity and commitment. J Prof Nurs. 2002;18:251-2 pubmed
  37. Hunt J. Faces scale copyright. Paediatr Nurs. 2002;14:10 pubmed
  38. Hrynaszkiewicz I, Busch S, Cockerill M. Licensing the future: report on BioMed Central's public consultation on open data in peer-reviewed journals. BMC Res Notes. 2013;6:318 pubmed publisher
    ..were six to one in favor (29 in support; 5 against; 8 abstentions) of changing our authors' default open access copyright license agreement, to introduce the Creative Commons CC0 public domain waiver for data published in BioMed ..
  39. Summers J, Kaminski J. Comment: publishing ethics--duplication indiscretion. Ann Pharmacother. 2003;37:749 pubmed
  40. Macrina F. Teaching authorship and publication practices in the biomedical and life sciences. Sci Eng Ethics. 2011;17:341-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These common elements provide a foundation for teaching about scientific authorship and publication practices across biomedical and life sciences disciplines. ..
  41. Malakoff D. Scientific publishing. House bill triggers internecine battle. Science. 2003;302:554 pubmed
  42. Ackerman M. Gatekeepers of scholarship. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2005;8:18-20 pubmed
  43. Larrick K. Standards and copyright: finding a balance. Biomed Instrum Technol. 2007;41:316-7 pubmed
  44. Powsner S, Powsner D. Cognition, copyright, and the classroom. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:627-8 pubmed
  45. Brown H. Pay-per-view in interlibrary loan: a case study. J Med Libr Assoc. 2012;100:98-103 pubmed publisher
    ..articles from publishers be a cost-effective method of interlibrary loan (ILL) for libraries owing significant copyright royalties? The University of Nebraska Medical Center's McGoogan Library of Medicine provides the case study...
  46. McLellan F. US bill says government funded work must be open access. The bill also wants to break up and redraw the rules on scientific publishing. Lancet. 2003;362:52 pubmed
  47. Lowe N. Publication ethics: copyright and self-plagiarism. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2003;32:145-6 pubmed
  48. Supak Smocić V, Bilic Zulle L. How do we handle self-plagiarism in submitted manuscripts?. Biochem Med (Zagreb). 2013;23:150-3 pubmed
    ..The importance of dealing with self-plagiarism is emphasized by the recently published proposal of Text Recycling Guidelines by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). ..
  49. Devitt P, Hardicre J, Coad J. Ten steps to getting your paper published in a professional journal. Br J Nurs. 2007;16:290-1 pubmed
    ..At the same time there remains a mystique about the best way to go about this. This article provides a simple commentary suggesting ten steps to help you publish in a professional journal. ..
  50. Lorenz S. Germany. Publishers and universities wrestle over rights. Science. 2003;299:1959 pubmed
  51. Rohrich R. Plastic surgery journals: a meeting of minds in Berlin. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120:2101-5 pubmed
  52. Watt F, Sever R. Non-profit publishing: open access and the end of copyright transfer. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:1 pubmed
  53. Marshall E. Scientific publishing. Britain's research agencies endorse public access. Science. 2005;309:226 pubmed