tata box


Summary: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.

Top Publications

  1. Yamamoto Y, Ichida H, Matsui M, Obokata J, Sakurai T, Satou M, et al. Identification of plant promoter constituents by analysis of local distribution of short sequences. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:67 pubmed
    ..Several promoter elements including TATA box, and several types of transcriptional regulatory elements have been found to show local distribution within ..
  2. Montanuy I, Torremocha R, Hernández Munain C, Suñé C. Promoter influences transcription elongation: TATA-box element mediates the assembly of processive transcription complexes responsive to cyclin-dependent kinase 9. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7368-78 pubmed publisher
  3. Shivaswamy S, Bhinge A, Zhao Y, Jones S, Hirst M, Iyer V. Dynamic remodeling of individual nucleosomes across a eukaryotic genome in response to transcriptional perturbation. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides a detailed, high-resolution, dynamic map of single-nucleosome remodeling across the yeast genome and its relation to global transcriptional changes. ..
  4. Lodha M, Schulz Raffelt M, Schroda M. A new assay for promoter analysis in Chlamydomonas reveals roles for heat shock elements and the TATA box in HSP70A promoter-mediated activation of transgene expression. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:172-6 pubmed
    ..For this, we deleted/mutated the HSP70A promoter and, using a new assay, quantified its stimulatory effect. Our results indicate that the effect is mediated largely by heat shock elements and the TATA box.
  5. Schug J, Schuller W, Kappen C, Salbaum J, Bucan M, Stoeckert C. Promoter features related to tissue specificity as measured by Shannon entropy. Genome Biol. 2005;6:R33 pubmed
    ..We find that the most tissue-specific genes typically have a TATA box, no CpG island, and often code for extracellular proteins...
  6. Yarden G, Elfakess R, Gazit K, Dikstein R. Characterization of sINR, a strict version of the Initiator core promoter element. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:4234-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In a heterologous context, sINR substituted for the TATA box when positioned downstream to several Sp1 sites...
  7. Stewart J, Fischbeck J, Chen X, Stargell L. Non-optimal TATA elements exhibit diverse mechanistic consequences. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:22665-73 pubmed
    ..These differences offer distinct opportunities for an organism to exploit diverse steps in the regulation of gene expression depending on the precise TATA element sequence at a given gene. ..
  8. Martinez Campa C, Politis P, Moreau J, Kent N, Goodall J, Mellor J, et al. Precise nucleosome positioning and the TATA box dictate requirements for the histone H4 tail and the bromodomain factor Bdf1. Mol Cell. 2004;15:69-81 pubmed
    ..We show here that a 2-3 bp mispositioning of the nucleosome covering the TATA box at PHO5 induces a dependency on the acetylatable lysine residues of the histone H4 N-terminal region and on the ..
  9. Li Q, Fang X, Han H, Stamatoyannopoulos G. The minimal promoter plays a major role in silencing of the galago gamma-globin gene in adult erythropoiesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8096-101 pubmed

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Zou Y, Huang W, Gu Z, Gu X. Predominant gain of promoter TATA box after gene duplication associated with stress responses. Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:2893-904 pubmed publisher
    b>TATA box, the core promoter element, exists in a broad range of eukaryotes, and the expression of TATA-containing genes usually responds to various environmental stresses...
  2. Bird A, Blankman E, Stillman D, Eide D, Winge D. The Zap1 transcriptional activator also acts as a repressor by binding downstream of the TATA box in ZRT2. EMBO J. 2004;23:1123-32 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the unusual pattern of ZRT2 regulation among Zap1 target genes involves the antagonistic effect of Zap1 binding to a low-affinity ZRE repressor site and high-affinity ZREs required for activation. ..
  3. Johannessen M, Olsen P, Sørensen R, Johansen B, Seternes O, Moens U. A role of the TATA box and the general co-activator hTAF(II)130/135 in promoter-specific trans-activation by simian virus 40 small t antigen. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1887-97 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that promoters possessing a consensus TATA box (i.e. TATAAAAG) in the context of either NFkappaB- or Sp1-binding sites are trans-activated by st-ag...
  4. Mennella T, Klinkenberg L, Zitomer R. Recruitment of Tup1-Ssn6 by yeast hypoxic genes and chromatin-independent exclusion of TATA binding protein. Eukaryot Cell. 2003;2:1288-303 pubmed
    ..Tup1 is capable of repression through a chromatin-dependent mechanism, the positioning of a nucleosome over the TATA box, or a chromatin-independent mechanism...
  5. Rhee H, Pugh B. Genome-wide structure and organization of eukaryotic pre-initiation complexes. Nature. 2012;483:295-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Their unambiguous detection may help distinguish bona fide genes from transcriptional noise. ..
  6. Hornung G, Bar Ziv R, Rosin D, Tokuriki N, Tawfik D, Oren M, et al. Noise-mean relationship in mutated promoters. Genome Res. 2012;22:2409-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The estimated burst size (b) differed between promoters, being higher in promoter containing a TATA box and lacking a nucleosome-free region...
  7. Fenouil R, Cauchy P, Koch F, Descostes N, Cabeza J, Innocenti C, et al. CpG islands and GC content dictate nucleosome depletion in a transcription-independent manner at mammalian promoters. Genome Res. 2012;22:2399-408 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether our data support the idea that CGIs have become an essential feature of promoter structure defining novel regulatory properties in mammals. ..
  8. Lauberth S, Nakayama T, Wu X, Ferris A, Tang Z, Hughes S, et al. H3K4me3 interactions with TAF3 regulate preinitiation complex assembly and selective gene activation. Cell. 2013;152:1021-36 pubmed publisher
    ..PIC) formation; (2) H3K4me3, through TAF3 interactions, can act either independently or cooperatively with the TATA box to direct PIC formation and transcription; and (3) H3K4me3-TAF3/TFIID interactions regulate gene-selective ..
  9. Deng W, Roberts S. Core promoter elements recognized by transcription factor IIB. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006;34:1051-3 pubmed
    ..TFIIB can make sequence-specific DNA contacts both upstream and downstream of the TATA box. This has led to the definition of two core promoter BREs (TFIIB-recognition elements), one upstream [BRE(u) (..
  10. Sandelin A, Carninci P, Lenhard B, Ponjavic J, Hayashizaki Y, Hume D. Mammalian RNA polymerase II core promoters: insights from genome-wide studies. Nat Rev Genet. 2007;8:424-36 pubmed
    ..of core promoters, revealing that most mammalian genes do not conform to the simple model in which a TATA box directs transcription from a single defined nucleotide position...
  11. Amir Zilberstein L, Ainbinder E, Toube L, Yamaguchi Y, Handa H, Dikstein R. Differential regulation of NF-kappaB by elongation factors is determined by core promoter type. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:5246-59 pubmed
    ..The results highlight a regulatory link between the initiation and the elongation phases of the transcription reaction and broaden our comprehension of the NF-kappaB pathway. ..
  12. Blake W, BALAZSI G, Kohanski M, Isaacs F, Murphy K, Kuang Y, et al. Phenotypic consequences of promoter-mediated transcriptional noise. Mol Cell. 2006;24:853-65 pubmed
    ..Here we show that increased variability in gene expression, affected by the sequence of the TATA box, can be beneficial after an acute change in environmental conditions...
  13. Isomura H, Stinski M, Kudoh A, Nakayama S, Murata T, Sato Y, et al. A cis element between the TATA Box and the transcription start site of the major immediate-early promoter of human cytomegalovirus determines efficiency of viral replication. J Virol. 2008;82:849-58 pubmed
    ..HCMV), also referred to as the CMV promoter, possesses a cis-acting element positioned downstream of the TATA box between positions -14 and -1 relative to the transcription start site (+1)...
  14. Bjornsdottir G, Myers L. Minimal components of the RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus determine the consensus TATA box. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:2906-16 pubmed publisher
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, multiple approaches have arrived at a consensus TATA box sequence of TATA(T/A)A(A/T)(A/G). TATA-binding protein (TBP) affinity alone does not determine TATA box function...
  15. Juven Gershon T, Hsu J, Kadonaga J. Caudal, a key developmental regulator, is a DPE-specific transcriptional factor. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2823-30 pubmed publisher
    ..II core promoter, which is a diverse module that can be controlled by many different elements such as the TATA box and downstream core promoter element (DPE)...
  16. Yamamoto Y, Yoshitsugu T, Sakurai T, Seki M, Shinozaki K, Obokata J. Heterogeneity of Arabidopsis core promoters revealed by high-density TSS analysis. Plant J. 2009;60:350-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike mammalian promoters, plant promoters are not associated with CpG islands. However, plant-specific GA-type promoters share some characteristics with mammalian CpG-type promoters. ..
  17. Kim Y, Lee J, Babbitt G. The enrichment of TATA box and the scarcity of depleted proximal nucleosome in the promoters of duplicated yeast genes. J Mol Evol. 2010;70:69-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of genes that contain TATA box or occupied proximal nucleosome (OPN) tends to be variable and respond to external signals...
  18. MORACHIS J, Murawsky C, Emerson B. Regulation of the p53 transcriptional response by structurally diverse core promoters. Genes Dev. 2010;24:135-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that the p21 core promoter directs rapid, TATA box-dependent assembly of RNAP II preinitiation complexes (PICs), but permits few rounds of RNAP II reinitiation...
  19. Zhong P, Melcher K. Identification and characterization of the activation domain of Ifh1, an activator of model TATA-less genes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;392:77-82 pubmed publisher
    In yeast, TATA box-binding protein TBP can be delivered to protein-coding genes by direct interactions with two different coactivators: TFIID, which delivers TBP preferentially to TATA-less promoters, and SAGA, which strongly favors TATA ..
  20. Wang Y, Kheir M, Chai Y, Hu J, Xing D, Lei F, et al. Comprehensive study in the inhibitory effect of berberine on gene transcription, including TATA box. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23495 pubmed publisher
    ..EMSA) demonstrated further that BBR can inhibit the association between the TATA binding protein (TBP) and the TATA box in the promoter, and this finding was also attained in living cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)...
  21. Marshall L, Moore L, Mirsky M, Major E. JC virus promoter/enhancers contain TATA box-associated Spi-B-binding sites that support early viral gene expression in primary astrocytes. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:651-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of mutating Spi-B-binding sites within the JCV promoter/enhancer on early viral gene expression strongly suggests a role for Spi-B binding to the viral promoter/enhancer in the activation of early viral gene expression...
  22. Wright K, Marr M, Tjian R. TAF4 nucleates a core subcomplex of TFIID and mediates activated transcription from a TATA-less promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12347-52 pubmed
    ..How TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and the TBP-associated factors (TAFs) are assembled into a functional TFIID complex with ..
  23. Mulholland N, Soeth E, Smith C. Inhibition of MMTV transcription by HDAC inhibitors occurs independent of changes in chromatin remodeling and increased histone acetylation. Oncogene. 2003;22:4807-18 pubmed
    ..Mutational analysis of the MMTV promoter indicates that repression by TSA is mediated through the TATA box region...
  24. Nakadai T, Shimada M, Shima D, Handa H, Tamura T. Specific interaction with transcription factor IIA and localization of the mammalian TATA-binding protein-like protein (TLP/TRF2/TLF). J Biol Chem. 2004;279:7447-55 pubmed
    ..TFIIA may regulate the intracellular molecular state and the function of TLP through its property of binding to TLP. ..
  25. Basehoar A, Zanton S, Pugh B. Identification and distinct regulation of yeast TATA box-containing genes. Cell. 2004;116:699-709 pubmed
    Despite being one of the first eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory elements identified, the sequence of a native TATA box and its significance remain elusive...
  26. Raser J, O Shea E. Control of stochasticity in eukaryotic gene expression. Science. 2004;304:1811-4 pubmed
    ..These mutations suggest that noise is an evolvable trait that can be optimized to balance fidelity and diversity in eukaryotic gene expression. ..
  27. van Opijnen T, Kamoschinski J, Jeeninga R, Berkhout B. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter contains a CATA box instead of a TATA box for optimal transcription and replication. J Virol. 2004;78:6883-90 pubmed
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcriptional promoter contains a single polymorphism in the TATA box. Most subtypes contain the sequence TATAAGC, but subtype E and some recombinant AG strains have the sequence TAAAAGC...
  28. Ren D, Nedialkov Y, Li F, Xu D, Reimers S, Finkelstein A, et al. Spacing requirements for simultaneous recognition of the adenovirus major late promoter TATAAAAG box and initiator element. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005;435:347-62 pubmed
    ..We report an expanded TATAAAAG and initiator promoter consensus for vertebrates and plants. Plant promoters of this class are (A-T)-rich and have an A-rich (non-template strand) core promoter sequence element downstream of +1A. ..
  29. Ruvalcaba Salazar O, del Carmen Ramírez Estudillo M, Montiel Condado D, Recillas Targa F, Vargas M, Hernandez Rivas R. Recombinant and native Plasmodium falciparum TATA-binding-protein binds to a specific TATA box element in promoter regions. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2005;140:183-96 pubmed
    ..like in most eukaryotes, have a bipartite structure. However, the identification of a functional TATA box located within the Plasmodium spp. core promoters has been difficult, mainly because of its high A+T content...
  30. Lee D, Gershenzon N, Gupta M, Ioshikhes I, Reinberg D, Lewis B. Functional characterization of core promoter elements: the downstream core element is recognized by TAF1. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:9674-86 pubmed
    ..Finally, these data argue that TFIID is, in fact, a core promoter recognition complex. ..
  31. Ponjavic J, Lenhard B, Kai C, Kawai J, Carninci P, Hayashizaki Y, et al. Transcriptional and structural impact of TATA-initiation site spacing in mammalian core promoters. Genome Biol. 2006;7:R78 pubmed
    The TATA box, one of the most well studied core promoter elements, is associated with induced, context-specific expression...
  32. Carninci P, Sandelin A, Lenhard B, Katayama S, Shimokawa K, Ponjavic J, et al. Genome-wide analysis of mammalian promoter architecture and evolution. Nat Genet. 2006;38:626-35 pubmed
    Mammalian promoters can be separated into two classes, conserved TATA box-enriched promoters, which initiate at a well-defined site, and more plastic, broad and evolvable CpG-rich promoters...
  33. Tirosh I, Weinberger A, Carmi M, Barkai N. A genetic signature of interspecies variations in gene expression. Nat Genet. 2006;38:830-4 pubmed
    ..Genes containing a TATA box in their promoters show an increased interspecies variability in expression, independent of their functional ..
  34. Niemann S, Broom W, Brown R. Analysis of a genetic defect in the TATA box of the SOD1 gene in a patient with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Muscle Nerve. 2007;36:704-7 pubmed
    ..lateral sclerosis (ALS) and a sequence variation in the SOD1 promoter region, located in the conserved TATA box motif (TATAAA-->TGTAAA)...
  35. Fiorentino G, Cannio R, Rossi M, Bartolucci S. Transcriptional regulation of the gene encoding an alcohol dehydrogenase in the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus involves multiple factors and control elements. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:3926-34 pubmed
    ..Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with crude extracts revealed protein complexes that most likely contain TATA box-associated factors...
  36. Gautier Stein A, Domon Dell C, Calon A, Bady I, Freund J, Mithieux G, et al. Differential regulation of the glucose-6-phosphatase TATA box by intestine-specific homeodomain proteins CDX1 and CDX2. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:5238-46 pubmed
    ..They also suggest that CDX transactivation might be essential for intestine gene expression, irrespective of the presence of a functional TATA box.
  37. Kobayashi A, Kokubo T, Ota Y, Yokoyama S. Promoter-specific function of the TATA element in undifferentiated P19 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;310:458-63 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the core promoter structure may govern, at least in part, the stage-specific expression of endogenous genes involved in the neuronal differentiation of P19 cells. ..
  38. Sermwittayawong D, Tan S. SAGA binds TBP via its Spt8 subunit in competition with DNA: implications for TBP recruitment. EMBO J. 2006;25:3791-800 pubmed
    ..Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase) complex acts as a coactivator to recruit the TATA-binding protein (TBP) to the TATA box, a critical step in eukaryotic gene regulation...
  39. Bushnell D, Westover K, Davis R, Kornberg R. Structural basis of transcription: an RNA polymerase II-TFIIB cocrystal at 4.5 Angstroms. Science. 2004;303:983-8 pubmed
    ..into the polymerase active center; and a C-terminal domain, whose interaction with both the polymerase and with a TATA box-binding protein (TBP)-promoter DNA complex orients the DNA for unwinding and transcription...
  40. Gershenzon N, Trifonov E, Ioshikhes I. The features of Drosophila core promoters revealed by statistical analysis. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:161 pubmed
    ..Using Drosophila-specific position-weight matrices, we identified promoters containing TATA box, Initiator, Downstream Promoter Element (DPE), and Motif Ten Element (MTE), as well as core elements discovered ..
  41. Mogno I, Vallania F, Mitra R, Cohen B. TATA is a modular component of synthetic promoters. Genome Res. 2010;20:1391-7 pubmed publisher
    ..One critical element of promoters is the TATA box, the docking site for the RNA polymerase holoenzyme...
  42. Tora L, Timmers H. The TATA box regulates TATA-binding protein (TBP) dynamics in vivo. Trends Biochem Sci. 2010;35:309-14 pubmed publisher
    Early work established the TATA box as the predominant DNA element of core promoters which directed accurate transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II...
  43. Landry C, Lemos B, Rifkin S, Dickinson W, Hartl D. Genetic properties influencing the evolvability of gene expression. Science. 2007;317:118-21 pubmed
    ..of gene expression to mutations increases with both increasing trans-mutational target size and the presence of a TATA box. Genes with greater sensitivity to mutations are also more sensitive to systematic environmental perturbations ..
  44. Zabierowski S, DeLuca N. Stabilized binding of TBP to the TATA box of herpes simplex virus type 1 early (tk) and late (gC) promoters by TFIIA and ICP4. J Virol. 2008;82:3546-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Because TFIIA is known to stabilize the binding of both TATA binding protein (TBP) and TFIID to the TATA box of core promoters and ICP4 has been shown to interact with TFIID, we tested the ability of ICP4 to stabilize the ..
  45. Juven Gershon T, Kadonaga J. Regulation of gene expression via the core promoter and the basal transcriptional machinery. Dev Biol. 2010;339:225-9 pubmed publisher
    ..properties of focused core promoters are dependent upon the presence or absence of sequence motifs such as the TATA box and DPE...
  46. Lankisch T, Vogel A, Eilermann S, Fiebeler A, Krone B, Barut A, et al. Identification and characterization of a functional TATA box polymorphism of the UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1A7 gene. Mol Pharmacol. 2005;67:1732-9 pubmed
    ..A novel -57 T--> G SNP with a gene frequency of 0.39 in healthy blood donors was identified in the putative TATA box of the UGT1A7 gene, reducing promoter activity to 30%...
  47. Li Y, Buckley D, Wang S, Klaassen C, Zhong X. Genetic polymorphisms in the TATA box and upstream phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module of the UGT1A1 promoter have combined effects on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 transcription mediated by constitutive androstane receptor, pregnane X recepto. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009;37:1978-86 pubmed publisher
    ..A polymorphism of A(TA)(5-8)TAA in the UGT1A1 TATA box and a single nucleotide polymorphism of -3279T>G in PBREM were genotyped in 98 human liver samples...
  48. Bajic V, Tan S, Christoffels A, Schonbach C, Lipovich L, Yang L, et al. Mice and men: their promoter properties. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e54 pubmed
  49. Anish R, Hossain M, Jacobson R, Takada S. Characterization of transcription from TATA-less promoters: identification of a new core promoter element XCPE2 and analysis of factor requirements. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5103 pubmed publisher
    ..factors further suggest that XCPE2 promoter recognition requires a set of factors different from those for TATA box, Inr, or DPE promoter recognition...
  50. Civán P, Svec M. Genome-wide analysis of rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) TATA box and Y Patch promoter elements. Genome. 2009;52:294-7 pubmed publisher
    The TATA box is one of the best characterized transcription factor binding sites. However, it is not a ubiquitous element of core promoters, and other sequence motifs such as Y Patches seem to play a major role in plants...
  51. Pal M, Ponticelli A, Luse D. The role of the transcription bubble and TFIIB in promoter clearance by RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell. 2005;19:101-10 pubmed
    We have studied promoter clearance at a series of RNA polymerase II promoters with varying spacing of the TATA box and start site...
  52. Deng W, Roberts S. A core promoter element downstream of the TATA box that is recognized by TFIIB. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2418-23 pubmed
    We have defined a core promoter element downstream of the TATA box that is recognized by TFIIB...
  53. Faiger H, Ivanchenko M, Cohen I, Haran T. TBP flanking sequences: asymmetry of binding, long-range effects and consensus sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:104-19 pubmed
    ..that the effect of the flanking sequences on TBP/TATA-box interactions is much more significant when the TATA box has a context-dependent DNA structure...