leucine zippers

Summary

Summary: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Class III homeodomain-leucine zipper gene family members have overlapping, antagonistic, and distinct roles in Arabidopsis development
    Michael J Prigge
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, An Arbor, Michigan 48109 1048, USA
    Plant Cell 17:61-76. 2005
  2. ncbi Modulation of T-cell activation by the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper factor via inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB
    E Ayroldi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Pharmacology, University of Perugia, Via del Giochetto, 06100 Perugia, Italy
    Blood 98:743-53. 2001
  3. pmc A comprehensive classification and evolutionary analysis of plant homeobox genes
    Krishanu Mukherjee
    Genetics Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 26:2775-94. 2009
  4. ncbi A new dexamethasone-induced gene of the leucine zipper family protects T lymphocytes from TCR/CD3-activated cell death
    F D'Adamio
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Pharmacology, University of Perugia, Italy
    Immunity 7:803-12. 1997
  5. pmc Structure and function of the b/HLH/Z domain of USF
    A R Ferré-D'amaré
    Laboratories of Molecular Biophysics, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021
    EMBO J 13:180-9. 1994
  6. ncbi Bipartite determinants of DNA-binding specificity of plant basic leucine zipper proteins
    X Niu
    Pioneer Hi Bred International, Inc, Johnston, IA 50131, USA
    Plant Mol Biol 41:1-13. 1999
  7. pmc C/ATF, a member of the activating transcription factor family of DNA-binding proteins, dimerizes with CAAT/enhancer-binding proteins and directs their binding to cAMP response elements
    M Vallejo
    Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:4679-83. 1993
  8. ncbi CHOP, a novel developmentally regulated nuclear protein that dimerizes with transcription factors C/EBP and LAP and functions as a dominant-negative inhibitor of gene transcription
    D Ron
    Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston
    Genes Dev 6:439-53. 1992
  9. doi Modulation of plant growth by HD-Zip class I and II transcription factors in response to environmental stimuli
    John C Harris
    Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
    New Phytol 190:823-37. 2011
  10. doi Alteration of the shoot radial pattern in Arabidopsis thaliana by a gain-of-function allele of the class III HD-Zip gene INCURVATA4
    Isabel Ochando
    Area de Genetica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Campus de Sant Joan d Alacant, E 03550 Alicante, Spain
    Int J Dev Biol 52:953-61. 2008

Detail Information

Publications225 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Class III homeodomain-leucine zipper gene family members have overlapping, antagonistic, and distinct roles in Arabidopsis development
    Michael J Prigge
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, An Arbor, Michigan 48109 1048, USA
    Plant Cell 17:61-76. 2005
    ..Differences in expression patterns explain some of these genetic interactions, whereas other interactions are likely attributable to differences in protein function as indicated by cross-complementation studies...
  2. ncbi Modulation of T-cell activation by the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper factor via inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB
    E Ayroldi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Pharmacology, University of Perugia, Via del Giochetto, 06100 Perugia, Italy
    Blood 98:743-53. 2001
    ..These results identify a new molecular mechanism involved in the dexamethasone-induced regulation of NF-kappaB activity and T-cell activation. (Blood. 2001;98:743-753)..
  3. pmc A comprehensive classification and evolutionary analysis of plant homeobox genes
    Krishanu Mukherjee
    Genetics Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 26:2775-94. 2009
    ..All 14 homeobox gene classes were represented in flowering plants, Selaginella, and moss, suggesting that they had already differentiated in the last common ancestor of moss and vascular plants...
  4. ncbi A new dexamethasone-induced gene of the leucine zipper family protects T lymphocytes from TCR/CD3-activated cell death
    F D'Adamio
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Pharmacology, University of Perugia, Italy
    Immunity 7:803-12. 1997
    ..This antiapoptotic effect correlates with inhibition of Fas and Fas ligand expression. Thus, GILZ is a candidate transcription factor involved in the regulation of apoptosis of T cells...
  5. pmc Structure and function of the b/HLH/Z domain of USF
    A R Ferré-D'amaré
    Laboratories of Molecular Biophysics, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021
    EMBO J 13:180-9. 1994
    ..The ability to bind simultaneously to two independent sites suggests a role in DNA looping for the b/HLH/Z and Myc-related families of eukaryotic transcription factors...
  6. ncbi Bipartite determinants of DNA-binding specificity of plant basic leucine zipper proteins
    X Niu
    Pioneer Hi Bred International, Inc, Johnston, IA 50131, USA
    Plant Mol Biol 41:1-13. 1999
    ..These results suggest that factorial contributions of the amino acid residues in the basic domain combine to determine DNA-binding specificity of bZIP proteins...
  7. pmc C/ATF, a member of the activating transcription factor family of DNA-binding proteins, dimerizes with CAAT/enhancer-binding proteins and directs their binding to cAMP response elements
    M Vallejo
    Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:4679-83. 1993
    ....
  8. ncbi CHOP, a novel developmentally regulated nuclear protein that dimerizes with transcription factors C/EBP and LAP and functions as a dominant-negative inhibitor of gene transcription
    D Ron
    Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston
    Genes Dev 6:439-53. 1992
    ....
  9. doi Modulation of plant growth by HD-Zip class I and II transcription factors in response to environmental stimuli
    John C Harris
    Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
    New Phytol 190:823-37. 2011
    ..The in planta implications of these protein-protein associations and the similarities in cis element binding are not clear...
  10. doi Alteration of the shoot radial pattern in Arabidopsis thaliana by a gain-of-function allele of the class III HD-Zip gene INCURVATA4
    Isabel Ochando
    Area de Genetica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Campus de Sant Joan d Alacant, E 03550 Alicante, Spain
    Int J Dev Biol 52:953-61. 2008
    ..In addition, we present results that suggest an interaction between ICU4 function and auxin signaling...
  11. ncbi HD-zip III homeobox genes that include a novel member, ZeHB-13 (Zinnia)/ATHB-15 (Arabidopsis), are involved in procambium and xylem cell differentiation
    Kyoko Ohashi-Ito
    Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, Japan
    Plant Cell Physiol 44:1350-8. 2003
    ..Based on these results, we will discuss the regulation of xylem development in light of the functions of HD-Zip III members and brassinosteroids...
  12. pmc Control of Arabidopsis apical-basal embryo polarity by antagonistic transcription factors
    Zachery R Smith
    Plant Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 464:423-6. 2010
    ..Furthermore, genetic and misexpression studies show an antagonistic relationship between the PLT and HD-ZIP III genes in specifying the root and shoot poles...
  13. pmc CORONA, a member of the class III homeodomain leucine zipper gene family in Arabidopsis, regulates stem cell specification and organogenesis
    Kirsten A Green
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1048, USA
    Plant Cell 17:691-704. 2005
    ..We propose that CNA functions in parallel to the CLV loci to promote organ formation...
  14. ncbi Structure and expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana homeobox gene Athb-12
    Y H Lee
    Kumho Life and Environmental Science Laboratory, 572 Sangam-Dong, Kwangju, Kwangsan-Gu, 500-712, Korea
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 284:133-41. 2001
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that Athb-12 is a transcriptional activator important in regulating certain developmental processes as well as in the plant's response to water stress involving ABA-mediated gene expression...
  15. ncbi Hahb-4, a sunflower homeobox-leucine zipper gene, is a developmental regulator and confers drought tolerance to Arabidopsis thaliana plants
    Carlos Alberto Dezar
    Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina
    Transgenic Res 14:429-40. 2005
    ..Since Hahb-4 is a transcription factor, we propose that it may participate in the regulation of the expression of genes involved in developmental responses of plants to desiccation...
  16. pmc Truncation, randomization, and selection: generation of a reduced length c-Jun antagonist that retains high interaction stability
    Richard O Crooks
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 286:29470-9. 2011
    ..However, antagonists of reduced length are worthy of perusal from the point of view of synthetic cost as well as identifying the smallest functional unit that is required for binding...
  17. doi The HD-ZIP IV transcription factor OCL4 is necessary for trichome patterning and anther development in maize
    Vanessa Vernoud
    Universite de Lyon, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Université Lyon1, IFR128 Biosciences Lyon Gerland, Unité Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, F 69364 Lyon, France
    Plant J 59:883-94. 2009
    ..Taken together these results suggest that OCL4 inhibits trichome development and influences division and/or differentiation of the anther cell wall...
  18. ncbi ATHB23, an Arabidopsis class I homeodomain-leucine zipper gene, is expressed in the adaxial region of young leaves
    Yun Kyoung Kim
    Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women s University, Seoul 140 742, South Korea
    Plant Cell Rep 26:1179-85. 2007
    ..These results indicate that ATHB23 is under the control of GA and other activators such as PHB, and is involved in establishing polarity during leaf development...
  19. ncbi The true story of the HD-Zip family
    Federico D Ariel
    Cátedra de Biología Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, CONICET, CC 242 Ciudad Universitaria, 3000, Santa Fe, Argentina
    Trends Plant Sci 12:419-26. 2007
    ..Here, we review recent data for this family of transcription factors from a wide variety of plant species to unravel their crucial role in plant development...
  20. pmc ATM mutations and phenotypes in ataxia-telangiectasia families in the British Isles: expression of mutant ATM and the risk of leukemia, lymphoma, and breast cancer
    T Stankovic
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Am J Hum Genet 62:334-45. 1998
    ..We also show that 25% of all A-T patients carried in-frame deletions or missense mutations, many of which were also associated with expression of mutant ATM protein...
  21. ncbi Characterization of three putative sub-domains in the signal-input domain of the ArcB hybrid sensor in Escherichia coli(1)
    A Matsushika
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, School of Agriculture, Nagoya University, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    J Biochem 127:855-60. 2000
    ..The results are discussed with special reference to the nature of the ArcB anaerobic sensor...
  22. pmc Gene family structure, expression and functional analysis of HD-Zip III genes in angiosperm and gymnosperm forest trees
    Caroline L Côté
    Département des Sciences du Bois et de la Forêt, Universite Laval, 2405 Rue de la Terrasse, Quebec, QC G1V0A6, Canada
    BMC Plant Biol 10:273. 2010
    ..We characterised and compared HD-Zip III gene family in an angiosperm tree, Populus spp. (poplar), and the gymnosperm Picea glauca (white spruce), representing two highly evolutionarily divergent groups...
  23. ncbi Transcriptional regulation by the phosphorylation-dependent factor CREB
    B Mayr
    Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2:599-609. 2001
    ..CREB is phosphorylated in response to various signals, but how is specificity achieved in these signalling pathways?..
  24. pmc Homeodomain leucine zipper class I genes in Arabidopsis. Expression patterns and phylogenetic relationships
    Eva Henriksson
    Department of Physiological Botany, Evolutionary Biology Centre, University of Uppsala, Sweden
    Plant Physiol 139:509-18. 2005
    ..In conclusion, several HDZip I genes appear to regulate similar cellular processes, although in different organs or tissues and in response to different environmental signals...
  25. ncbi Athb-12, a homeobox-leucine zipper domain protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, increases salt tolerance in yeast by regulating sodium exclusion
    Dongjin Shin
    Division of Applied Life Science BK21 program and Environmental Biotechnology National Core Research Center, Graduate School of Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660 701, Republic of Korea
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 323:534-40. 2004
    ..These results suggest that Athb-12 is a putative transcription factor that may be involved in NaCl stress responses in plants...
  26. doi ATHB12, an ABA-inducible homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) protein of Arabidopsis, negatively regulates the growth of the inflorescence stem by decreasing the expression of a gibberellin 20-oxidase gene
    Ora Son
    Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women s University, Seoul 140 742, Korea
    Plant Cell Physiol 51:1537-47. 2010
    ..ABA-treated protoplasts also showed increased ATHB12 expression and reduced GA20ox1 expression. These findings all suggest that ATHB12 negatively regulates the expression of a GA 20-oxidase gene in inflorescence stems...
  27. ncbi The molecular biology and nomenclature of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors: activating transcription factor proteins and homeostasis
    T Hai
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Neurobiotechnology Center, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Gene 273:1-11. 2001
    ..Despite the diversity in the potential functions of these proteins, one common theme is their involvement in cellular responses to extracellular signals, indicating a role for these ATF proteins in homeostasis...
  28. doi Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper is protective in Th1-mediated models of colitis
    Lorenza Cannarile
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Pharmacology and Polo Scientifico e Didattico di Terni, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
    Gastroenterology 136:530-41. 2009
    ..Previous studies indicate that increased expression in transgenic mice of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), a gene rapidly induced by glucocorticoids, inhibits NF-kappaB and Th1 activity...
  29. ncbi Visualization of interactions among bZIP and Rel family proteins in living cells using bimolecular fluorescence complementation
    Chang Deng Hu
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Mol Cell 9:789-98. 2002
    ..These results attest to the general applicability of the BiFC assay for studies of protein interactions...
  30. ncbi DNA-binding and dimerization preferences of Arabidopsis homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factors in vitro
    H Johannesson
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Physiological Botany, Uppsala, Sweden
    Plant Mol Biol 45:63-73. 2001
    ..Heterodimer formation between class I HDZip proteins is of potential functional significance for the integration of information from different signalling pathways in the control of plant development...
  31. pmc Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper inhibits the Raf-extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway by binding to Raf-1
    Emira Ayroldi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Pharmacology Department of Drug Chemistry and Technology, University of Perugia, 06100 Perugia, Italy
    Mol Cell Biol 22:7929-41. 2002
    ....
  32. pmc A glucose-responsive transcription factor that regulates carbohydrate metabolism in the liver
    H Yamashita
    Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 4500 South Lancaster Road, Dallas, TX 75216, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:9116-21. 2001
    ..ChREBP is likely critical for the optimal long-term storage of excess carbohydrates as fats, and may contribute to the imbalance between nutrient utilization and storage characteristic of obesity...
  33. ncbi HTLV-1 HBZ suppresses AP-1 activity by impairing both the DNA-binding ability and the stability of c-Jun protein
    Jun Matsumoto
    Laboratory of Human Tumor Viruses, Department of Viral Oncology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Oncogene 24:1001-10. 2005
    ..These results suggest dual effects of HBZ on the suppression of AP-1 activity by inhibiting c-Jun function, which may contribute to the dysregulation of cell proliferation...
  34. ncbi Transcriptional repression by Oshox1, a novel homeodomain leucine zipper protein from rice
    A H Meijer
    Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences, Leiden University, Clusius Laboratory, The Netherlands
    Plant J 11:263-76. 1997
    ..Repression was strictly dependent on the presence of upstream Oshox1 binding sites in the reporter gene constructs and a function of the N-terminal region of Oshox1, preceding the homeodomain...
  35. pmc Ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis transcriptional activator Athb-1 alters leaf cell fate in tobacco
    T Aoyama
    Laboratory of Plant Molecular Biology, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021 6339, USA
    Plant Cell 7:1773-85. 1995
    ..Plants with severe inducible phenotypes showed additional abnormality in cotyledon expansion. Our results suggest that Athb-1 is a transcription activator involved in leaf development...
  36. ncbi Mutations at the mouse microphthalmia locus are associated with defects in a gene encoding a novel basic-helix-loop-helix-zipper protein
    C A Hodgkinson
    Laboratory of Viral and Molecular Pathogenesis, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    Cell 74:395-404. 1993
    ..The multiple spontaneous and induced mutations available at mi provide a unique biological resource for studying the role of a bHLH-ZIP protein in mammalian development...
  37. pmc Cloning and characterization of SARI (suppressor of AP-1, regulated by IFN)
    Zao Zhong Su
    Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:20906-11. 2008
    ..These findings uncover a novel mode of IFN-induced anti-tumor growth suppression and suggest potential gene therapy applications for SARI...
  38. ncbi Entopically additive expression of GLABRA2 alters the frequency and spacing of trichome initiation
    Yohei Ohashi
    Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611 0011, Japan
    Plant J 29:359-69. 2002
    ..These results indicate that GL2 quantitatively regulates the frequency of trichome initiation and is involved in determining trichome spacing...
  39. pmc MondoA, a novel basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcriptional activator that constitutes a positive branch of a max-like network
    A N Billin
    Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 5550, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 20:8845-54. 2000
    ..We propose that Mlx, like Max, functions as the center of a transcription factor network...
  40. doi Functional characterization of the HD-ZIP IV transcription factor OCL1 from maize
    Nathalie Depège-Fargeix
    Universite de Lyon, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, IFR128 Biosciences Lyon Gerland, Unité Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, F 69364 Lyon, France
    J Exp Bot 62:293-305. 2011
    ..As suggested by the interaction in planta between OCL1 and SWI3C1, a bona fide subunit of the SWI/SNF complex, OCL1 may modulate transcriptional activity of its target genes by interaction with a chromatin remodelling complex...
  41. pmc A thermodynamic scale for leucine zipper stability and dimerization specificity: e and g interhelical interactions
    D Krylov
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    EMBO J 13:2849-61. 1994
    ..24 kcal/mol. R interacts with more specificity than K. Q forms more stable pairs with the basic amino acids K and R rather than with E. Changing amino acids in the e position to A creates bZIP proteins that form tetramers...
  42. pmc Duplication of a well-conserved homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor gene in barley generates a copy with more specific functions
    Shun Sakuma
    National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Funct Integr Genomics 10:123-33. 2010
    ..HvHox2 was expressed in all organs examined but Vrs1 was predominantly expressed in immature inflorescence...
  43. doi Identification and characterization of PgHZ1, a novel homeodomain leucine-zipper gene isolated from white spruce (Picea glauca) tissue
    Muhammad Tahir
    Department of Plant Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada
    Plant Physiol Biochem 46:1031-9. 2008
    ..Overall these data support the notion that PgHZ1 confers hypersensitivity to ABA and that proper expression of this gene may be required for proper embryonic growth...
  44. ncbi Nrl is required for rod photoreceptor development
    A J Mears
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA
    Nat Genet 29:447-52. 2001
    ..On the basis of these findings, we postulate that Nrl acts as a 'molecular switch' during rod-cell development by directly modulating rod-specific genes while simultaneously inhibiting the S-cone pathway through the activation of Nr2e3...
  45. ncbi Inhibition of AP-1 by the glucocorticoid-inducible protein GILZ
    P R Mittelstadt
    Laboratory of Immune Cell Biology, NCI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:29603-10. 2001
    ....
  46. ncbi A heterodimerizing leucine zipper coiled coil system for examining the specificity of a position interactions: amino acids I, V, L, N, A, and K
    Asha Acharya
    Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Biochemistry 41:14122-31. 2002
    ....
  47. ncbi Waardenburg syndrome type 2 caused by mutations in the human microphthalmia (MITF) gene
    M Tassabehji
    Department of Medical Genetics, St Mary s Hospital, Manchester, UK
    Nat Genet 8:251-5. 1994
    ..Here we show that affected individuals in two WS2 families have mutations affecting splice sites in the MITF gene...
  48. ncbi The membrane-located osmosensory kinase, EnvZ, that contains a leucine zipper-like motif functions as a dimer in Escherichia coli
    H Yaku
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, School of Agriculture, Nagoya University, Japan
    FEBS Lett 417:409-13. 1997
    ..It was thus demonstrated that the EnvZ osmosensor exists and exerts its signaling ability as a dimer...
  49. ncbi Negative autoregulation of c-Myb activity by homodimer formation through the leucine zipper
    T Nomura
    Tsukuba Life Science Center, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research RIKEN, Ibaraki, Japan
    J Biol Chem 268:21914-23. 1993
    ..These findings point to a novel mechanism of regulation of a transcription factor...
  50. pmc An undecided coiled coil: the leucine zipper of Nek2 kinase exhibits atypical conformational exchange dynamics
    Rebecca Croasdale
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 286:27537-47. 2011
    b>Leucine zippers are oligomerization domains used in a wide range of proteins. Their structure is based on a highly conserved heptad repeat sequence in which two key positions are occupied by leucines...
  51. pmc Uncharacterized conserved motifs outside the HD-Zip domain in HD-Zip subfamily I transcription factors; a potential source of functional diversity
    Agustin L Arce
    Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, CONICET, CC 242 Ciudad Universitaria, 3000, Santa Fe, Argentina
    BMC Plant Biol 11:42. 2011
    ..In addition, some of the results were also experimentally supported...
  52. ncbi Novel mutations in the NRL gene and associated clinical findings in patients with dominant retinitis pigmentosa
    Margaret M DeAngelis
    Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 243 Charles St, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Arch Ophthalmol 120:369-75. 2002
    ....
  53. pmc The mutant leucine-zipper domain impairs both dimerization and suppressive function of Foxp3 in T cells
    Wook Jin Chae
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:9631-6. 2006
    ..Taken together, our results provide insight into the mechanism that controls autoimmune diseases via the deletion of this single glutamic acid residue in the leucine-zipper domain of Foxp3...
  54. ncbi Interactions between the leucine-zipper motif of cGMP-dependent protein kinase and the C-terminal region of the targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase
    Eunhee Lee
    Cardiovascular Program, Boston Biomedical Research Institute, Watertown, MA 02472, USA
    J Mol Biol 373:1198-212. 2007
    ..These results provide rationalization of some of the findings by others using alternative binding analyses...
  55. ncbi Dimerization of cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1alpha and the myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase: role of leucine zipper domains
    Howard K Surks
    Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, New England Medical Center Hospitals, Inc, Tufts University School of Medicine, 750 Washington Street, Box 80, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Cell Signal 15:937-44. 2003
    ..The contribution of these domains to both homodimerization and their specific interaction with each other suggest that additional regulatory mechanisms involving these domains may exist...
  56. ncbi Stability of 100 homo and heterotypic coiled-coil a-a' pairs for ten amino acids (A, L, I, V, N, K, S, T, E, and R)
    Asha Acharya
    Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Biochemistry 45:11324-32. 2006
    ..In contrast, the a-a' pairs containing charged amino acids (K, R, and E) show the least range in coupling energies and promiscuously encourage heterodimerization...
  57. pmc Probing the interaction between the coiled coil leucine zipper of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha and the C terminus of the myosin binding subunit of the myosin light chain phosphatase
    Alok K Sharma
    Divison of Molecular and Vascular Medicine, Center for Vascular Biology Research, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:32860-9. 2008
    ..Taken together these data support a role for the LZ domain of PKG-Ialpha and the CC domain of MBS in this requisite contractile complex...
  58. ncbi Structure of homeodomain-leucine zipper/DNA complexes studied using hydroxyl radical cleavage of DNA and methylation interference
    Adriana E Tron
    Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, CC 242 Paraje El Pozo, 3000 Santa Fe, Argentina
    Biochemistry 44:16796-803. 2005
    ..The results show that the structure of the complex formed by HD-Zip proteins with DNA is dependent upon both protein intrinsic characteristics and the nucleotides present at the central position of the recognition sequence...
  59. pmc Semirational design of Jun-Fos coiled coils with increased affinity: Universal implications for leucine zipper prediction and design
    Jody M Mason
    Institut fur Biologie III, Universitat Freiburg, Schanzlestrasse 1, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:8989-94. 2006
    ..Indeed, in applying the algorithm to these 59(2) bZIP interactions, we were able to correctly identify 92% of all strong interactions and 92% of all noninteracting pairs...
  60. ncbi A novel protein kinase with leucine zipper-like sequences: its catalytic domain is highly homologous to that of protein kinase C
    H Mukai
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 199:897-904. 1994
    ..Recombinant PKN revealed an intrinsic protein kinase activity associated with a 120K protein. This activity was abolished by mutation of the lysine residue in the potential ATP binding site...
  61. ncbi Isolation of homeodomain-leucine zipper genes from the moss Physcomitrella patens and the evolution of homeodomain-leucine zipper genes in land plants
    K Sakakibara
    National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Japan
    Mol Biol Evol 18:491-502. 2001
    ..Comparison of the genetic divergence of representative HD-Zip I and II genes showed that the evolutionary rate of HD-Zip I genes was faster than that of HD-Zip II genes...
  62. pmc Structure of homeobox-leucine zipper genes suggests a model for the evolution of gene families
    M Schena
    Department of Biochemistry, Beckman Center, Stanford University Medical Center, CA 94305 5307
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:8393-7. 1994
    ..This work has general implications for the evolution of regulatory genes...
  63. pmc Cross-family dimerization of transcription factors Fos/Jun and ATF/CREB alters DNA binding specificity
    T Hai
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88:3720-4. 1991
    ..These findings indicate that the Fos/Jun and ATF/CREB families of transcription factors are not as distinct as was previously thought. We suggest that they can be grouped into a superfamily of transcription factors...
  64. pmc IFL1, a gene regulating interfascicular fiber differentiation in Arabidopsis, encodes a homeodomain-leucine zipper protein
    R Zhong
    Department of Botany, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Plant Cell 11:2139-52. 1999
    ..Our results provide direct evidence that an HD-ZIP protein plays a role in the spatial control of fiber differentiation...
  65. doi Using engineered scaffold interactions to reshape MAP kinase pathway signaling dynamics
    Caleb J Bashor
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California at San Francisco, 600 16th Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Science 319:1539-43. 2008
    ..Protein scaffolds provide a flexible platform for reprogramming cellular responses and could be exploited to engineer cells with novel therapeutic and biotechnological functions...
  66. pmc The arabidopsis ATHB-8 HD-zip protein acts as a differentiation-promoting transcription factor of the vascular meristems
    S Baima
    Unità di Nutrizione Sperimentale, Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione, Via Ardeatina 546 00178, Rome, Italy
    Plant Physiol 126:643-55. 2001
    ....
  67. ncbi The HAT2 gene, a member of the HD-Zip gene family, isolated as an auxin inducible gene by DNA microarray screening, affects auxin response in Arabidopsis
    Shinichiro Sawa
    Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1, Hongo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Plant J 32:1011-22. 2002
    ..Together with the results of RNA blotting and biochemical analyses, these findings suggest that HAT2 plays opposite roles in the shoot and root tissues in regulating auxin-mediated morphogenesis...
  68. pmc A maize zinc-finger protein binds the prolamin box in zein gene promoters and interacts with the basic leucine zipper transcriptional activator Opaque2
    J Vicente-Carbajosa
    Department of Biology, University of California at San Diego, Mail Code 0116, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:7685-90. 1997
    ..The isolation of the PBF gene provides an essential tool to further investigate the functional role of the highly conserved P-box in regulating cereal storage protein gene expression...
  69. pmc The Athb-1 and -2 HD-Zip domains homodimerize forming complexes of different DNA binding specificities
    G Sessa
    Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Italy
    EMBO J 12:3507-17. 1993
    ..We have suggested that the HD-Zip motif could, via dimerization of the leucine zippers, recognize dyad-symmetric DNA sequences...
  70. ncbi The Arabidopsis homeobox gene ATHB-7 is induced by water deficit and by abscisic acid
    E Soderman
    Department of Physiological Botany, University of Uppsala, Sweden
    Plant J 10:375-81. 1996
    ..These results indicate that ATHB-7 is transcriptionally regulated in an ABA-dependent manner and may act in a signal transduction pathway which mediates a drought response and also includes ABI1...
  71. pmc MEKHLA, a novel domain with similarity to PAS domains, is fused to plant homeodomain-leucine zipper III proteins
    Krishanu Mukherjee
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition and Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 141 57 Huddinge, Sweden
    Plant Physiol 140:1142-50. 2006
    ..It is involved in light, oxygen, and redox potential sensation. The fact that HD-ZIP III proteins are transcription factors that have this sensory domain attached to their C terminus uncovers a potential new signaling pathway in plants...
  72. pmc Glucose and cAMP regulate the L-type pyruvate kinase gene by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the carbohydrate response element binding protein
    T Kawaguchi
    Department of Biochemistry, Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 4500 South Lancaster Road, Dallas, TX 75223, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:13710-5. 2001
    ..These results thus reveal mechanisms for regulation of ChREBP and the L-PK transcription by excess carbohydrate and cAMP...
  73. ncbi Overexpression of miR165 affects apical meristem formation, organ polarity establishment and vascular development in Arabidopsis
    Gong Ke Zhou
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Plant Cell Physiol 48:391-404. 2007
    ....
  74. ncbi Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding a novel microphthalmia-associated transcription factor isoform with a distinct amino-terminus
    N Fuse
    Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama 362 080, Japan
    J Biochem 126:1043-51. 1999
    ..Therefore, isoform multiplicity provides MITF with differential expression patterns as well as functional diversity...
  75. doi Three cotton homeobox genes are preferentially expressed during early seedling development and in response to phytohormone signaling
    Yong Fang Qin
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, College of Life Sciences, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China
    Plant Cell Rep 29:1147-56. 2010
    ..The results suggested that the three HB genes may function in early seedling development of cotton and in response to gibberellin signaling...
  76. ncbi A new homeodomain-leucine zipper gene from Arabidopsis thaliana induced by water stress and abscisic acid treatment
    Y H Lee
    Kumho Life and Environmental Science Laboratory, Kwangju City, Korea
    Plant Mol Biol 37:377-84. 1998
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that Athb-12 and Athb-7 are members of a related gene family involved in the plant's response to water stress...
  77. ncbi The leucine zipper of TFE3 dictates helix-loop-helix dimerization specificity
    H Beckmann
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104 6148
    Genes Dev 5:1057-66. 1991
    ..Hence, in this "b-HLH-zip" class of proteins, the leucine zipper functions in concert with the HLH both to stabilize protein-protein interactions and to establish dimerization specificity...
  78. ncbi Role of myosin phosphatase isoforms in cGMP-mediated smooth muscle relaxation
    J J Khatri
    Department of Medicine (Cardiology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-4958, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:37250-7. 2001
    ..These results suggest that the regulated splicing of MYPT1 is an important determinant of smooth muscle phenotypic diversity and the variability in the response of smooth muscles to the calcium desensitizing effect of cGMP signaling...
  79. ncbi A homeodomain leucine zipper gene from Craterostigma plantagineum regulates abscisic acid responsive gene expression and physiological responses
    Xin Deng
    Max Planck Institut fur Zuchtungsforschung, Carl von Linne Weg 10, Cologne D 50829, Germany
    Plant Mol Biol 61:469-89. 2006
    ..CpHB-7 gene expression is also linked to early organ development, leading to the suggestion that CpHB-7 is functionally similar to the Arabidopsis transcription factor, ATHB-6...
  80. ncbi B-ATF functions as a negative regulator of AP-1 mediated transcription and blocks cellular transformation by Ras and Fos
    D R Echlin
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 1392, USA
    Oncogene 19:1752-63. 2000
    ..These findings demonstrate that B-ATF is a tissue-specific transcription factor with the potential to function as a dominant-negative to AP-1...
  81. pmc Novel conserved sequence motifs in plant G-box binding proteins and implications for interactive domains
    I Meier
    Department of Plant Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720
    Nucleic Acids Res 22:470-8. 1994
    ..These motifs likely define novel interactive domains in the different classes of GBFs that could provide a new tool to determine how distinct regulatory signals are transmitted through GBFs to activate transcription...
  82. ncbi Glucocorticoid hormone-induced modulation of gene expression and regulation of T-cell death: role of GITR and GILZ, two dexamethasone-induced genes
    C Riccardi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Via del Giochetto, 06100 Perugia, Italy
    Cell Death Differ 6:1182-9. 1999
    ..These observations indicate that this GCH-activated dual effect, induction and/or inhibition of T-cell death, requires transcription regulation...
  83. ncbi MYPT1 mutants demonstrate the importance of aa 888-928 for the interaction with PKGIalpha
    Allison M Given
    Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 292:C432-9. 2007
    ..These results suggest that, during cGMP-mediated signaling, aa 888-928 of MYPT1 mediate the PKGIalpha-MYPT1 interaction...
  84. pmc AKAP79/150 anchoring of calcineurin controls neuronal L-type Ca2+ channel activity and nuclear signaling
    Seth F Oliveria
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Neuron 55:261-75. 2007
    ..Additionally, activation of the transcription factor NFATc4 via local Ca2+ influx through L-type channels requires AKAP79/150, suggesting that this signaling complex promotes neuronal L channel signaling to the nucleus through NFATc4...
  85. ncbi Mutations in a new gene in Ellis-van Creveld syndrome and Weyers acrodental dysostosis
    V L Ruiz-Perez
    Human Genetics Unit, School of Biochemistry and Genetics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Nat Genet 24:283-6. 2000
    ..We suggest that EvC and Weyers acrodental dysostosis are allelic conditions...
  86. ncbi Identification of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as an Nrf2-interacting protein. Implication for heme oxygenase-1 gene regulation
    C H He
    Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:20858-65. 2001
    ..These results indicate that ATF4 regulates basal and CdCl(2)-induced expression of the ho-1 gene in a cell-specific manner and possibly in a complex with Nrf2...
  87. ncbi Zipper-interacting protein kinase induces Ca(2+)-free smooth muscle contraction via myosin light chain phosphorylation
    N Niiro
    Department of Physiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:29567-74. 2001
    ..These results suggest that ZIP kinase is responsible for Ca(2+) independent myosin phosphorylation and contraction in smooth muscle...
  88. ncbi Hahb-10, a sunflower homeobox-leucine zipper gene, is regulated by light quality and quantity, and promotes early flowering when expressed in Arabidopsis
    Eva C Rueda
    Cátedra de Biología Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, CC 242 Paraje El Pozo, 3000 Santa Fe, Argentina
    Plant Cell Physiol 46:1954-63. 2005
    ..We propose that Hahb-10 functions in a signalling cascade(s) that control(s) plant responses to light quality and quantity, and may also be involved in gibberellin transduction pathways...
  89. ncbi Engineering the loop region of a homeodomain-leucine zipper protein promotes efficient binding to a monomeric DNA binding site
    Adriana E Tron
    Cátedra de Biología Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, CC 242 Paraje El Pozo, 3000 Santa Fe, Argentina
    Biochemistry 43:15845-51. 2004
    ..We conclude that the loop located between helix I and helix II of the HD must be regarded as one of the segments that contribute to the present-day diversity in the properties of different HDs...
  90. pmc Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as a regulator for melanocyte-specific transcription of the human tyrosinase gene
    K Yasumoto
    Department of Applied Physiology and Molecular Biology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Miyagi, Japan
    Mol Cell Biol 14:8058-70. 1994
    ..These results indicate that MITF is a cell-type-specific factor that is capable of activating transcription of the tyrosinase gene...
  91. ncbi Molecular basis of mouse microphthalmia (mi) mutations helps explain their developmental and phenotypic consequences
    E Steingrimsson
    Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, ABL Basic Research Program, NCI Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, Maryland 21702
    Nat Genet 8:256-63. 1994
    ..These molecular data, combined with the extensive body of genetic data accumulated for murine mi, shed light on the phenotypic and developmental consequences of mi mutations and offer a mouse model for WS2...
  92. pmc Protein interaction cloning in yeast: identification of mammalian proteins that react with the leucine zipper of Jun
    P M Chevray
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:5789-93. 1992
    ..Our results illustrate the range of protein interaction cloning for discovering proteins that bind to a given target polypeptide...
  93. ncbi The Drosophila bunched gene is a homologue of the growth factor stimulated mammalian TSC-22 sequence and is required during oogenesis
    L L Dobens
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Mech Dev 65:197-208. 1997
    ..Clonal analysis shows that bun is required for the proper elaboration of dorsal cell fates leading to the formation of the dorsal appendages...
  94. pmc DNA-binding specificity of the PAR basic leucine zipper protein VBP partially overlaps those of the C/EBP and CREB/ATF families and is influenced by domains that flank the core basic region
    N B Haas
    Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111
    Mol Cell Biol 15:1923-32. 1995
    ..Thus, whereas direct base contacts may be restricted to basic-region residues (as indicated by GCN4-DNA crystal structures), several other domains also influence the DNA-binding specificity of PAR bZIP proteins...
  95. ncbi CPRF4a, a novel plant bZIP protein of the CPRF family: comparative analyses of light-dependent expression, post-transcriptional regulation, nuclear import and heterodimerisation
    S Kircher
    , , Germany
    Mol Gen Genet 257:595-605. 1998
    ....
  96. pmc DNA end-independent activation of DNA-PK mediated via association with the DNA-binding protein C1D
    U Yavuzer
    Wellcome Trust Cancer Research Campaign Institute of Cancer and Developmental Biology and Department of Zoology, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK
    Genes Dev 12:2188-99. 1998
    ..Finally, we establish that C1D directs the activation of DNA-PK in a manner that does not require DNA termini. Therefore, these studies provide a function for C1D and suggest novel mechanisms for DNA-PK activation in vivo...
  97. ncbi Isolation of a gene encoding a putative leucine zipper structure that is induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 and other growth factors
    M Shibanuma
    Department of Cancer Cell Research, University of Tokyo, Japan
    J Biol Chem 267:10219-24. 1992
    ..These results indicate that the TSC-22 gene is a new member of the family of early response genes, and encodes a small polypeptide that is a putative transcriptional regulator...
  98. ncbi The Drosophila homeotic target gene centrosomin (cnn) encodes a novel centrosomal protein with leucine zippers and maps to a genomic region required for midgut morphogenesis
    J G Heuer
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Indiana University, Bloomington 47405, USA
    Development 121:3861-76. 1995
    ....
  99. ncbi Recognition by Max of its cognate DNA through a dimeric b/HLH/Z domain
    A R Ferré-D'amaré
    Laboratories of Molecular Biophysics, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021
    Nature 363:38-45. 1993
    ..The two alpha-helical segments are composed of the basic region plus helix 1 and helix 2 plus the leucine repeat, respectively. As in GCN4, the leucine repeat forms a parallel coiled coil...
  100. ncbi Combinatorial marking of cells and organelles with reconstituted fluorescent proteins
    Shifang Zhang
    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
    Cell 119:137-44. 2004
    ..Furthermore, when one partial GFP polypeptide is fused with a subcellularly localized protein or peptide, this restricted expression leads to the fluorescent marking of cellular components in a subset of cells...
  101. doi Thermodynamic analysis of the heterodimerization of leucine zippers of Jun and Fos transcription factors
    Kenneth L Seldeen
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and the UM SylVester Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute, Leonard Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, 1011 NW 15th Street, Gautier Building, Room 214, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 375:634-8. 2008
    ..technique of isothermal titration calorimetry, we characterize the thermodynamics of heterodimerization of leucine zippers of Jun and Fos...

Research Grants96

  1. Ion channel regulation by macromolecular complexes
    Steven Marx; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..and are regulated by phosphorylation, understanding the mechanism(s) of specific modulator targeting via leucine zippers may lead to a new paradigm for the study of ion channel regulation...
  2. Regulation of HTLV-1 and cellular gene transcription by the viral protein HBZ
    ISABELLE MICHELE LEMASSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain that promotes protein dimerization through interactions with appropriate leucine zippers in other proteins...
  3. The FIAT-ATF4 interaction and the control of bone mass
    Rene St Arnaud; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Co-I.P. and transient transfection assays with site-specific mutants will identify the functional leucine zippers within FIAT and ATF4 and examine the role of phosphorylation by RSK2 on the FIAT-ATF4 interaction...
  4. The FIAT-ATF4 interaction and the control of bone mass
    Rene St Arnaud; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Co-I.P. and transient transfection assays with site-specific mutants will identify the functional leucine zippers within FIAT and ATF4 and examine the role of phosphorylation by RSK2 on the FIAT-ATF4 interaction...
  5. The FIAT-ATF4 interaction and the control of bone mass
    Rene St Arnaud; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Co-I.P. and transient transfection assays with site-specific mutants will identify the functional leucine zippers within FIAT and ATF4 and examine the role of phosphorylation by RSK2 on the FIAT-ATF4 interaction...
  6. Regulation of Monocyte and Granulocyte Lineage Specification
    Alan D Friedman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..To study the role of specific heterodimers, we developed acid and basic leucine zippers (LZE, LZK) and find that C/EBPa:c-Jun or C/EBPa:c-Fos induce monopoiesis with far greater potency than does C/..
  7. Regulation of Monocyte and Granulocyte Lineage Specification
    Alan D Friedman; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..To study the role of specific heterodimers, we developed acid and basic leucine zippers (LZE, LZK) and find that C/EBPa:c-Jun or C/EBPa:c-Fos induce monopoiesis with far greater potency than does C/..
  8. Centrosomin and Centrosomes in Cell Division
    TIMOTHY MEGRAW; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Cnn is a phosphoprotein with three putative leucine zippers, extensive coiled-coil domains, and two novel motifs that are highly conserved across species...
  9. REGULATION OF NFKB AND IKK BY PROINFLAMMATORY STIMULI
    Michael Karin; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These proteins, IKKa and IKKb, are serine kinases that interact through leucine zippers and contact important regulatory subunits through helix-loop-helix (HLH) motifs...
  10. REGULATION OF CARDIAC MYOCYTE DIFFERENTIATION
    David Bader; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These proteins are very large (350 kD) and have a conserved array of protein domains that include 11 leucine zippers, a spectrin repeat, an atypical Rb-binding domain, a myc-type HLH-binding domain and a nuclear localization ..
  11. ATF3 and iNOS in Islet Distruction and Graft Rejection
    Tsonwin Hai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. ATF3 in Beta cell signaling, expression & destruction
    Tsonwin Hai; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Blood glucose levels and diabetes incidence will be analyzed to determine whether ATF3 knockout mice are less sensitive to STZ than wild type mice. ..
  13. ATF3 and iNOS in Islet Destruction and Graft Rejection
    Tsonwin Hai; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  14. Optimization of Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation Probes for New Imaging F
    Tom Kerppola; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This work will improve our understanding of interactions among cellular components that are important for the health of the cell and the organism. ..
  15. Optimization of Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation Probes for New Imaging F
    Tom Kerppola; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This work will improve our understanding of interactions among cellular components that are important for the health of the cell and the organism. ..
  16. ATF3, a stress-inducible gene, in tumorigenesis and metastasis
    Tsonwin Hai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus, to combat breast cancer, it is essential to better understand its metastasis. This proposal investigates a master switch gene that regulates breast cancer metastasis. ..
  17. Optimization of Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation Probes for New Imaging F
    Tzvi Tzfira; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This work will improve our understanding of interactions among cellular components that are important for the health of the cell and the organism. ..
  18. Visualization of Combinatorial Epigenetic Marks and Complexes in Animals Using Fl
    Tom Kerppola; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In this project, we develop molecules that enable researchers to see the combinations of tags in individual cells in living animals. ..
  19. Basic and Cancer Immunology
    Christopher Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The goal of this training program is the selection and rigorous training of an outstanding group of young scientists, who will contribute disproportionately to the conduct of important research in cancer-related immunology. ..
  20. TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF CARDIOMYOCYTE DEVELOPMENT
    Gordon Huggins; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..They should also be relevant to understanding the molecular pathophysiology of a number of clinically important inherited and acquired cardiovascular diseases. ..
  21. Human Mitochondrial DNA Mutations in Aging
    Giuseppe Attardi; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The achievements of the above aims will have important implications for understanding the role of these novel mtDNA mutations in aging, as well as their possible involvement in aging-related degenerative diseases. ..
  22. TRANSCRIPTIONAL CONTROL OF TH2 CELL DIFFERENTIATION
    Wei Ping Zheng; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..It is proposed that knowledge gained from these studies will advance understanding and improve treatment of immunological diseases such as allergy and infection where Th2 responses are critical. ..
  23. Dimeric Cys2His2 Zinc Finger Proteins for Gene Targeting
    Scot A Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Understanding how to improve the characteristics of these artificial systems will be the focus of this study. ..
  24. REGULATION OF HIK1 IN SECRETORY DIARRHEA
    DANIEL DEVOR; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These studies will be carried out using TEVC and excised patch-clamp techniques. A complete understanding of the mechanism of clotrimazone block will be important for the treatment of sickle cell anemia and, potentially, diarrhea. ..
  25. Assembly and Trafficking of IK1 and SK3 in Endothelia
    Daniel C Devor; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our studies will provide novel insight into how these processes can be manipulated for clinical gain. ..
  26. Function of the chromosomal kinase haspin in mitosis
    JONATHAN M HIGGINS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A greater knowledge of the role of human haspin in this process will help us understand the defects that underlie transformation and may lead to new approaches to block the division of cancer cells. ..
  27. AATF and Renal Protection
    Qing Guo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  28. DEGRADATION OF E12/E47 IN SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS
    Gordon Huggins; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The laboratory encompasses 12,000 square feet and is equipped with instruments designed for research in cellular and molecular biology. (End of Abstract) ..
  29. Profiles of Sucsceptibility to Toxicant Stress
    William Kaufmann; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The UNC-CH toxicogenomics research program has the scientific expertise and organizational infrastructure to provide significant and substantial benefits to the Toxicogenomics Research Consortium. ..
  30. Roles of ATM and ATR Kinases in DNA Damage Responses
    Robert Abraham; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  31. USE OF ADIPOSE-DERIVED PREADIPOCYTES IN BONE DISOREDERS
    Jeffrey Gimble; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This has commercial application to orthopedic and periodontal surgical treatments of joint replacement, fracture repair, and bone resorption secondary to tooth decay...
  32. Motif-based elucidation of protein modification codes
    JONATHAN HIGGINS; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The development of methodology to determine the functional impact of these marks is therefore a critical requirement for future work in all areas of biomedicine. ..
  33. Molecular Analysis of the Human Aqueous Outflow Pathway
    MICHAEL FAUTSCH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  34. Molecular Determinants of K+ Channel Regulation in Heart
    Robert Kass; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..