leucine zippers

Summary

Summary: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The true story of the HD-Zip family
    Federico D Ariel
    Cátedra de Biología Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, CONICET, CC 242 Ciudad Universitaria, 3000, Santa Fe, Argentina
    Trends Plant Sci 12:419-26. 2007
  2. pmc A comprehensive classification and evolutionary analysis of plant homeobox genes
    Krishanu Mukherjee
    Genetics Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 26:2775-94. 2009
  3. ncbi X-ray structures of Myc-Max and Mad-Max recognizing DNA. Molecular bases of regulation by proto-oncogenic transcription factors
    Satish K Nair
    Laboratories of Molecular Biophysics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Cell 112:193-205. 2003
  4. pmc Characterization of the class IV homeodomain-Leucine Zipper gene family in Arabidopsis
    Miyuki Nakamura
    Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060 0810, Japan
    Plant Physiol 141:1363-75. 2006
  5. ncbi Comprehensive identification of human bZIP interactions with coiled-coil arrays
    John R S Newman
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 300:2097-101. 2003
  6. ncbi Role of basic region leucine zipper transcription factors cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), CREB2, activating transcription factor 2 and CAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha in cyclic AMP response element-mediated transcription
    Gerald Thiel
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Saarland Medical Center, Homburg, Germany
    J Neurochem 92:321-36. 2005
  7. ncbi A new homeodomain-leucine zipper gene from Arabidopsis thaliana induced by water stress and abscisic acid treatment
    Y H Lee
    Kumho Life and Environmental Science Laboratory, Kwangju City, Korea
    Plant Mol Biol 37:377-84. 1998
  8. ncbi HD-zip III homeobox genes that include a novel member, ZeHB-13 (Zinnia)/ATHB-15 (Arabidopsis), are involved in procambium and xylem cell differentiation
    Kyoko Ohashi-Ito
    Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, Japan
    Plant Cell Physiol 44:1350-8. 2003
  9. pmc Overexpression of the epidermis-specific homeodomain-leucine zipper IV transcription factor Outer Cell Layer1 in maize identifies target genes involved in lipid metabolism and cuticle biosynthesis
    Marie Javelle
    Universite de Lyon, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Institut Fédératif de Recherche 128 BioSciences Lyon Gerland, Unité Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, F 69364 Lyon, France
    Plant Physiol 154:273-86. 2010
  10. ncbi The HAT2 gene, a member of the HD-Zip gene family, isolated as an auxin inducible gene by DNA microarray screening, affects auxin response in Arabidopsis
    Shinichiro Sawa
    Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1, Hongo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Plant J 32:1011-22. 2002

Detail Information

Publications252 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The true story of the HD-Zip family
    Federico D Ariel
    Cátedra de Biología Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, CONICET, CC 242 Ciudad Universitaria, 3000, Santa Fe, Argentina
    Trends Plant Sci 12:419-26. 2007
    ..Here, we review recent data for this family of transcription factors from a wide variety of plant species to unravel their crucial role in plant development...
  2. pmc A comprehensive classification and evolutionary analysis of plant homeobox genes
    Krishanu Mukherjee
    Genetics Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 26:2775-94. 2009
    ..All 14 homeobox gene classes were represented in flowering plants, Selaginella, and moss, suggesting that they had already differentiated in the last common ancestor of moss and vascular plants...
  3. ncbi X-ray structures of Myc-Max and Mad-Max recognizing DNA. Molecular bases of regulation by proto-oncogenic transcription factors
    Satish K Nair
    Laboratories of Molecular Biophysics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Cell 112:193-205. 2003
    ..The Myc-Max heterodimer, but not its Mad-Max counterpart, dimerizes to form a bivalent heterotetramer, which explains how Myc can upregulate expression of genes with promoters bearing widely separated E boxes...
  4. pmc Characterization of the class IV homeodomain-Leucine Zipper gene family in Arabidopsis
    Miyuki Nakamura
    Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060 0810, Japan
    Plant Physiol 141:1363-75. 2006
    ..The binding sites were found to be similar to those previously identified for ATML1 and PDF2, which correspond to the pseudopalindromic sequence 5'-GCATTAAATGC-3' as the preferential binding site...
  5. ncbi Comprehensive identification of human bZIP interactions with coiled-coil arrays
    John R S Newman
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 300:2097-101. 2003
    ..Biophysical studies in solution support the relative binding strengths observed with the arrays. New associations provide insights into the circadian clock and the unfolded protein response...
  6. ncbi Role of basic region leucine zipper transcription factors cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), CREB2, activating transcription factor 2 and CAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha in cyclic AMP response element-mediated transcription
    Gerald Thiel
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Saarland Medical Center, Homburg, Germany
    J Neurochem 92:321-36. 2005
    ..Rather, CREB and ATF2 compete for binding to the CRE, and are independently able to up-regulate transcription of genes containing CRE motifs in their regulatory regions...
  7. ncbi A new homeodomain-leucine zipper gene from Arabidopsis thaliana induced by water stress and abscisic acid treatment
    Y H Lee
    Kumho Life and Environmental Science Laboratory, Kwangju City, Korea
    Plant Mol Biol 37:377-84. 1998
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that Athb-12 and Athb-7 are members of a related gene family involved in the plant's response to water stress...
  8. ncbi HD-zip III homeobox genes that include a novel member, ZeHB-13 (Zinnia)/ATHB-15 (Arabidopsis), are involved in procambium and xylem cell differentiation
    Kyoko Ohashi-Ito
    Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, Japan
    Plant Cell Physiol 44:1350-8. 2003
    ..Based on these results, we will discuss the regulation of xylem development in light of the functions of HD-Zip III members and brassinosteroids...
  9. pmc Overexpression of the epidermis-specific homeodomain-leucine zipper IV transcription factor Outer Cell Layer1 in maize identifies target genes involved in lipid metabolism and cuticle biosynthesis
    Marie Javelle
    Universite de Lyon, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Institut Fédératif de Recherche 128 BioSciences Lyon Gerland, Unité Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, F 69364 Lyon, France
    Plant Physiol 154:273-86. 2010
    ..Our data demonstrate that, in addition to AP2/EREBP and MYB-type transcription factors, members of the HD-ZIP IV family contribute to the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis...
  10. ncbi The HAT2 gene, a member of the HD-Zip gene family, isolated as an auxin inducible gene by DNA microarray screening, affects auxin response in Arabidopsis
    Shinichiro Sawa
    Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1, Hongo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Plant J 32:1011-22. 2002
    ..Together with the results of RNA blotting and biochemical analyses, these findings suggest that HAT2 plays opposite roles in the shoot and root tissues in regulating auxin-mediated morphogenesis...
  11. pmc Structure and function of the b/HLH/Z domain of USF
    A R Ferré-D'amaré
    Laboratories of Molecular Biophysics, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021
    EMBO J 13:180-9. 1994
    ..The ability to bind simultaneously to two independent sites suggests a role in DNA looping for the b/HLH/Z and Myc-related families of eukaryotic transcription factors...
  12. ncbi Bipartite determinants of DNA-binding specificity of plant basic leucine zipper proteins
    X Niu
    Pioneer Hi Bred International, Inc, Johnston, IA 50131, USA
    Plant Mol Biol 41:1-13. 1999
    ..These results suggest that factorial contributions of the amino acid residues in the basic domain combine to determine DNA-binding specificity of bZIP proteins...
  13. ncbi Modulation of plant growth by HD-Zip class I and II transcription factors in response to environmental stimuli
    John C Harris
    Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
    New Phytol 190:823-37. 2011
    ..The in planta implications of these protein-protein associations and the similarities in cis element binding are not clear...
  14. ncbi Alteration of the shoot radial pattern in Arabidopsis thaliana by a gain-of-function allele of the class III HD-Zip gene INCURVATA4
    Isabel Ochando
    Area de Genetica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Campus de Sant Joan d Alacant, E 03550 Alicante, Spain
    Int J Dev Biol 52:953-61. 2008
    ..In addition, we present results that suggest an interaction between ICU4 function and auxin signaling...
  15. pmc Potential role for luman, the cellular homologue of herpes simplex virus VP16 (alpha gene trans-inducing factor), in herpesvirus latency
    R Lu
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B4, Canada
    J Virol 74:934-43. 2000
    ..Interestingly, Luman could activate the promoters of IE110 and LAT, two genes that are critical for reactivation of HSV-1 from latency. This suggests a role for Luman in the reactivation process as well...
  16. ncbi ATHB4, a regulator of shade avoidance, modulates hormone response in Arabidopsis seedlings
    Céline Sorin
    Center for Research in Agricultural Genomics CRAG CSIC IRTA UAB, c Jordi Girona, 18 26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
    Plant J 59:266-77. 2009
    ..In particular, we propose ATHB4 as a new shade signaling component that participates in integrating shade perception and hormone-mediated growth...
  17. ncbi Athb-12, a homeobox-leucine zipper domain protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, increases salt tolerance in yeast by regulating sodium exclusion
    Dongjin Shin
    Division of Applied Life Science BK21 program and Environmental Biotechnology National Core Research Center, Graduate School of Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660 701, Republic of Korea
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 323:534-40. 2004
    ..These results suggest that Athb-12 is a putative transcription factor that may be involved in NaCl stress responses in plants...
  18. pmc Control of Arabidopsis apical-basal embryo polarity by antagonistic transcription factors
    Zachery R Smith
    Plant Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 464:423-6. 2010
    ..Furthermore, genetic and misexpression studies show an antagonistic relationship between the PLT and HD-ZIP III genes in specifying the root and shoot poles...
  19. pmc CORONA, a member of the class III homeodomain leucine zipper gene family in Arabidopsis, regulates stem cell specification and organogenesis
    Kirsten A Green
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1048, USA
    Plant Cell 17:691-704. 2005
    ..We propose that CNA functions in parallel to the CLV loci to promote organ formation...
  20. pmc Glucose and cAMP regulate the L-type pyruvate kinase gene by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the carbohydrate response element binding protein
    T Kawaguchi
    Department of Biochemistry, Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 4500 South Lancaster Road, Dallas, TX 75223, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:13710-5. 2001
    ..These results thus reveal mechanisms for regulation of ChREBP and the L-PK transcription by excess carbohydrate and cAMP...
  21. ncbi Evolution of the class III HD-Zip gene family in land plants
    Michael J Prigge
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1048, USA
    Evol Dev 8:350-61. 2006
    ..Comparison of the expression domains of flowering and nonflowering plant homologs indicate an ancestral role in vascular development and organ initiation but not in specifying organ polarity, a prominent role for angiosperm homologs...
  22. ncbi Modulation of T-cell activation by the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper factor via inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB
    E Ayroldi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Pharmacology, University of Perugia, Via del Giochetto, 06100 Perugia, Italy
    Blood 98:743-53. 2001
    ..These results identify a new molecular mechanism involved in the dexamethasone-induced regulation of NF-kappaB activity and T-cell activation. (Blood. 2001;98:743-753)..
  23. ncbi CHOP, a novel developmentally regulated nuclear protein that dimerizes with transcription factors C/EBP and LAP and functions as a dominant-negative inhibitor of gene transcription
    D Ron
    Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston
    Genes Dev 6:439-53. 1992
    ....
  24. ncbi Structure and expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana homeobox gene Athb-12
    Y H Lee
    Kumho Life and Environmental Science Laboratory, 572 Sangam-Dong, Kwangju, Kwangsan-Gu, 500-712, Korea
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 284:133-41. 2001
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that Athb-12 is a transcriptional activator important in regulating certain developmental processes as well as in the plant's response to water stress involving ABA-mediated gene expression...
  25. ncbi Hahb-4, a sunflower homeobox-leucine zipper gene, is a developmental regulator and confers drought tolerance to Arabidopsis thaliana plants
    Carlos Alberto Dezar
    Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina
    Transgenic Res 14:429-40. 2005
    ..Since Hahb-4 is a transcription factor, we propose that it may participate in the regulation of the expression of genes involved in developmental responses of plants to desiccation...
  26. pmc Molecular basis of coiled-coil formation
    Michel O Steinmetz
    Biomolecular Research, Structural Biology, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:7062-7. 2007
    ..Our findings provide a general explanation for the molecular mechanism of coiled-coil formation...
  27. pmc Uncharacterized conserved motifs outside the HD-Zip domain in HD-Zip subfamily I transcription factors; a potential source of functional diversity
    Agustin L Arce
    Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, CONICET, CC 242 Ciudad Universitaria, 3000, Santa Fe, Argentina
    BMC Plant Biol 11:42. 2011
    ..In addition, some of the results were also experimentally supported...
  28. ncbi The HD-Zip gene ATHB6 in Arabidopsis is expressed in developing leaves, roots and carpels and up-regulated by water deficit conditions
    E Soderman
    Department of Physiological Botany, University of Uppsala, Sweden
    Plant Mol Biol 40:1073-83. 1999
    ..In mature cotyledons and leaves the marker gene was expressed only in the vascular tissue. These expression data suggest ATHB6 to have a function related to cell division and/or differentiation in developing organs...
  29. pmc MEKHLA, a novel domain with similarity to PAS domains, is fused to plant homeodomain-leucine zipper III proteins
    Krishanu Mukherjee
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition and Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 141 57 Huddinge, Sweden
    Plant Physiol 140:1142-50. 2006
    ..It is involved in light, oxygen, and redox potential sensation. The fact that HD-ZIP III proteins are transcription factors that have this sensory domain attached to their C terminus uncovers a potential new signaling pathway in plants...
  30. ncbi The Arabidopsis homeodomain-leucine zipper II gene family: diversity and redundancy
    Angela Raffaella Ciarbelli
    Institute of Molecular Biology and Pathology, National Research Council, Rome, Italy
    Plant Mol Biol 68:465-78. 2008
    ....
  31. pmc HTLV-I basic leucine zipper factor gene mRNA supports proliferation of adult T cell leukemia cells
    Yorifumi Satou
    Laboratory of Virus Immunology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin Kawahara cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:720-5. 2006
    ..Thus, the single HBZ gene has bimodal functions in two different molecular forms. The growth-promoting activity of HBZ RNA likely plays an important role in oncogenesis by HTLV-I...
  32. ncbi ATHB23, an Arabidopsis class I homeodomain-leucine zipper gene, is expressed in the adaxial region of young leaves
    Yun Kyoung Kim
    Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women s University, Seoul 140 742, South Korea
    Plant Cell Rep 26:1179-85. 2007
    ..These results indicate that ATHB23 is under the control of GA and other activators such as PHB, and is involved in establishing polarity during leaf development...
  33. pmc Truncation, randomization, and selection: generation of a reduced length c-Jun antagonist that retains high interaction stability
    Richard O Crooks
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 286:29470-9. 2011
    ..However, antagonists of reduced length are worthy of perusal from the point of view of synthetic cost as well as identifying the smallest functional unit that is required for binding...
  34. pmc Gene family structure, expression and functional analysis of HD-Zip III genes in angiosperm and gymnosperm forest trees
    Caroline L Côté
    Département des Sciences du Bois et de la Forêt, Universite Laval, 2405 Rue de la Terrasse, Quebec, QC G1V0A6, Canada
    BMC Plant Biol 10:273. 2010
    ..We characterised and compared HD-Zip III gene family in an angiosperm tree, Populus spp. (poplar), and the gymnosperm Picea glauca (white spruce), representing two highly evolutionarily divergent groups...
  35. pmc ATM mutations and phenotypes in ataxia-telangiectasia families in the British Isles: expression of mutant ATM and the risk of leukemia, lymphoma, and breast cancer
    T Stankovic
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Am J Hum Genet 62:334-45. 1998
    ..We also show that 25% of all A-T patients carried in-frame deletions or missense mutations, many of which were also associated with expression of mutant ATM protein...
  36. ncbi Characterization of three putative sub-domains in the signal-input domain of the ArcB hybrid sensor in Escherichia coli(1)
    A Matsushika
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, School of Agriculture, Nagoya University, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    J Biochem 127:855-60. 2000
    ..The results are discussed with special reference to the nature of the ArcB anaerobic sensor...
  37. ncbi ATHB12, an ABA-inducible homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) protein of Arabidopsis, negatively regulates the growth of the inflorescence stem by decreasing the expression of a gibberellin 20-oxidase gene
    Ora Son
    Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women s University, Seoul 140 742, Korea
    Plant Cell Physiol 51:1537-47. 2010
    ..ABA-treated protoplasts also showed increased ATHB12 expression and reduced GA20ox1 expression. These findings all suggest that ATHB12 negatively regulates the expression of a GA 20-oxidase gene in inflorescence stems...
  38. ncbi Transcriptional regulation by the phosphorylation-dependent factor CREB
    B Mayr
    Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2:599-609. 2001
    ..CREB is phosphorylated in response to various signals, but how is specificity achieved in these signalling pathways?..
  39. ncbi Positively charged residues at the N-terminal arm of the homeodomain are required for efficient DNA binding by homeodomain-leucine zipper proteins
    C M Palena
    Cátedra de Biología Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, CC 242 Paraje El Pozo, Santa Fe, 3000, Argentina
    J Mol Biol 308:39-47. 2001
    ..The occurrence of a homeodomain with a DNA-interacting N-terminal arm must then be an ancient acquisition in evolution, earlier than the separation of lines leading to metazoa, fungi and plants...
  40. pmc Molecular cloning of human CREB-2: an ATF/CREB transcription factor that can negatively regulate transcription from the cAMP response element
    B A Karpinski
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor 48109
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:4820-4. 1992
    ..These results demonstrate that CRE-dependent transcription can be both positively and negatively regulated by structurally related members of the ATF/CREB family...
  41. pmc Arabidopsis basic leucine zipper proteins that mediate stress-responsive abscisic acid signaling
    Joung youn Kang
    Kumho Life and Environmental Science Laboratory, Korea Kumho Petrochemical Co, Ltd, Kwangju 500 712, South Korea
    Plant Cell 14:343-57. 2002
    ..Furthermore, the temporal and spatial expression patterns of ABF3 and ABF4 were consistent with their suggested roles. Thus, our results provide strong in vivo evidence that ABF3 and ABF4 mediate stress-responsive ABA signaling...
  42. ncbi The coiled-coil trigger site of the rod domain of cortexillin I unveils a distinct network of interhelical and intrahelical salt bridges
    P Burkhard
    M E Müller Institute for Structural Biology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, CH 4056, Switzerland
    Structure 8:223-30. 2000
    ..The simplicity and regularity of this motif have made it an attractive system to explore some of the fundamental principles of protein folding and stability and to test the principles of de novo design...
  43. pmc Structure and function of homodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins
    Mohamed Elhiti
    Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Manitoba, Manitoba, Canada
    Plant Signal Behav 4:86-8. 2009
    ..HD-Zip IV proteins play significant roles during anthocyanin accumulation, differentiation of epidermal cells, trichome formation and root development...
  44. ncbi The HD-ZIP IV transcription factor OCL4 is necessary for trichome patterning and anther development in maize
    Vanessa Vernoud
    Universite de Lyon, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Université Lyon1, IFR128 Biosciences Lyon Gerland, Unité Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, F 69364 Lyon, France
    Plant J 59:883-94. 2009
    ..Taken together these results suggest that OCL4 inhibits trichome development and influences division and/or differentiation of the anther cell wall...
  45. ncbi Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper is protective in Th1-mediated models of colitis
    Lorenza Cannarile
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Pharmacology and Polo Scientifico e Didattico di Terni, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
    Gastroenterology 136:530-41. 2009
    ..Previous studies indicate that increased expression in transgenic mice of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), a gene rapidly induced by glucocorticoids, inhibits NF-kappaB and Th1 activity...
  46. ncbi The molecular biology and nomenclature of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors: activating transcription factor proteins and homeostasis
    T Hai
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Neurobiotechnology Center, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Gene 273:1-11. 2001
    ..Despite the diversity in the potential functions of these proteins, one common theme is their involvement in cellular responses to extracellular signals, indicating a role for these ATF proteins in homeostasis...
  47. pmc Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper inhibits the Raf-extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway by binding to Raf-1
    Emira Ayroldi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Pharmacology Department of Drug Chemistry and Technology, University of Perugia, 06100 Perugia, Italy
    Mol Cell Biol 22:7929-41. 2002
    ....
  48. ncbi HTLV-1 HBZ suppresses AP-1 activity by impairing both the DNA-binding ability and the stability of c-Jun protein
    Jun Matsumoto
    Laboratory of Human Tumor Viruses, Department of Viral Oncology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Oncogene 24:1001-10. 2005
    ..These results suggest dual effects of HBZ on the suppression of AP-1 activity by inhibiting c-Jun function, which may contribute to the dysregulation of cell proliferation...
  49. ncbi Visualization of interactions among bZIP and Rel family proteins in living cells using bimolecular fluorescence complementation
    Chang Deng Hu
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Mol Cell 9:789-98. 2002
    ..These results attest to the general applicability of the BiFC assay for studies of protein interactions...
  50. ncbi Transcriptional repression by Oshox1, a novel homeodomain leucine zipper protein from rice
    A H Meijer
    Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences, Leiden University, Clusius Laboratory, The Netherlands
    Plant J 11:263-76. 1997
    ..Repression was strictly dependent on the presence of upstream Oshox1 binding sites in the reporter gene constructs and a function of the N-terminal region of Oshox1, preceding the homeodomain...
  51. pmc Ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis transcriptional activator Athb-1 alters leaf cell fate in tobacco
    T Aoyama
    Laboratory of Plant Molecular Biology, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021 6339, USA
    Plant Cell 7:1773-85. 1995
    ..Plants with severe inducible phenotypes showed additional abnormality in cotyledon expansion. Our results suggest that Athb-1 is a transcription activator involved in leaf development...
  52. ncbi Mutations at the mouse microphthalmia locus are associated with defects in a gene encoding a novel basic-helix-loop-helix-zipper protein
    C A Hodgkinson
    Laboratory of Viral and Molecular Pathogenesis, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    Cell 74:395-404. 1993
    ..The multiple spontaneous and induced mutations available at mi provide a unique biological resource for studying the role of a bHLH-ZIP protein in mammalian development...
  53. pmc Class III homeodomain-leucine zipper gene family members have overlapping, antagonistic, and distinct roles in Arabidopsis development
    Michael J Prigge
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, An Arbor, Michigan 48109 1048, USA
    Plant Cell 17:61-76. 2005
    ..Differences in expression patterns explain some of these genetic interactions, whereas other interactions are likely attributable to differences in protein function as indicated by cross-complementation studies...
  54. pmc The Populus class III HD ZIP, popREVOLUTA, influences cambium initiation and patterning of woody stems
    Marcel Robischon
    Institute of Forest Genetics, Pacific Southwest Experiment Station, United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Davis, California 95618, USA
    Plant Physiol 155:1214-25. 2011
    ..Together, these results suggest that PRE plays a fundamental role in the initiation of the cambium and in regulating the patterning of secondary vascular tissues...
  55. ncbi DNA-binding and dimerization preferences of Arabidopsis homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factors in vitro
    H Johannesson
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Physiological Botany, Uppsala, Sweden
    Plant Mol Biol 45:63-73. 2001
    ..Heterodimer formation between class I HDZip proteins is of potential functional significance for the integration of information from different signalling pathways in the control of plant development...
  56. ncbi Involvement of transcription factor encoded by the mi locus in the expression of c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase in cultured mast cells of mice
    T Tsujimura
    Department of Pathology, Medical School, Osaka University, Suita, Japan
    Blood 88:1225-33. 1996
    ..Thus, the involvement of (+)-MITF in the c-kit transactivation appeared to be specific to the mast cell lineage...
  57. pmc C/ATF, a member of the activating transcription factor family of DNA-binding proteins, dimerizes with CAAT/enhancer-binding proteins and directs their binding to cAMP response elements
    M Vallejo
    Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:4679-83. 1993
    ....
  58. ncbi Three cotton homeobox genes are preferentially expressed during early seedling development and in response to phytohormone signaling
    Yong Fang Qin
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, College of Life Sciences, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China
    Plant Cell Rep 29:1147-56. 2010
    ..The results suggested that the three HB genes may function in early seedling development of cotton and in response to gibberellin signaling...
  59. ncbi Entopically additive expression of GLABRA2 alters the frequency and spacing of trichome initiation
    Yohei Ohashi
    Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611 0011, Japan
    Plant J 29:359-69. 2002
    ..These results indicate that GL2 quantitatively regulates the frequency of trichome initiation and is involved in determining trichome spacing...
  60. pmc MondoA, a novel basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcriptional activator that constitutes a positive branch of a max-like network
    A N Billin
    Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 5550, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 20:8845-54. 2000
    ..We propose that Mlx, like Max, functions as the center of a transcription factor network...
  61. pmc Cloning and characterization of SARI (suppressor of AP-1, regulated by IFN)
    Zao Zhong Su
    Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:20906-11. 2008
    ..These findings uncover a novel mode of IFN-induced anti-tumor growth suppression and suggest potential gene therapy applications for SARI...
  62. ncbi Functional characterization of the HD-ZIP IV transcription factor OCL1 from maize
    Nathalie Depège-Fargeix
    Universite de Lyon, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, IFR128 Biosciences Lyon Gerland, Unité Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, F 69364 Lyon, France
    J Exp Bot 62:293-305. 2011
    ..As suggested by the interaction in planta between OCL1 and SWI3C1, a bona fide subunit of the SWI/SNF complex, OCL1 may modulate transcriptional activity of its target genes by interaction with a chromatin remodelling complex...
  63. pmc Duplication of a well-conserved homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor gene in barley generates a copy with more specific functions
    Shun Sakuma
    National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Funct Integr Genomics 10:123-33. 2010
    ..HvHox2 was expressed in all organs examined but Vrs1 was predominantly expressed in immature inflorescence...
  64. pmc A thermodynamic scale for leucine zipper stability and dimerization specificity: e and g interhelical interactions
    D Krylov
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    EMBO J 13:2849-61. 1994
    ..24 kcal/mol. R interacts with more specificity than K. Q forms more stable pairs with the basic amino acids K and R rather than with E. Changing amino acids in the e position to A creates bZIP proteins that form tetramers...
  65. pmc AKAP79/150 anchoring of calcineurin controls neuronal L-type Ca2+ channel activity and nuclear signaling
    Seth F Oliveria
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Neuron 55:261-75. 2007
    ..Additionally, activation of the transcription factor NFATc4 via local Ca2+ influx through L-type channels requires AKAP79/150, suggesting that this signaling complex promotes neuronal L channel signaling to the nucleus through NFATc4...
  66. pmc A glucose-responsive transcription factor that regulates carbohydrate metabolism in the liver
    H Yamashita
    Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 4500 South Lancaster Road, Dallas, TX 75216, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:9116-21. 2001
    ..ChREBP is likely critical for the optimal long-term storage of excess carbohydrates as fats, and may contribute to the imbalance between nutrient utilization and storage characteristic of obesity...
  67. ncbi TFEB has DNA-binding and oligomerization properties of a unique helix-loop-helix/leucine-zipper family
    D E Fisher
    Center for Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139
    Genes Dev 5:2342-52. 1991
    ..Common oligomerization and DNA-binding features suggest the b-HLH-LZ domain structure to define a distinct family of DNA-binding factors...
  68. ncbi Identification of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as an Nrf2-interacting protein. Implication for heme oxygenase-1 gene regulation
    C H He
    Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:20858-65. 2001
    ..These results indicate that ATF4 regulates basal and CdCl(2)-induced expression of the ho-1 gene in a cell-specific manner and possibly in a complex with Nrf2...
  69. ncbi Sequence analysis of a 33.1 kb fragment from the left arm of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome X, including putative proteins with leucine zippers, a fungal Zn(II)2-Cys6 binuclear cluster domain and a putative alpha 2-SCB-alpha 2 binding site
    T Miosga
    Institut fur Mikrobiologie, Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany
    Yeast 11:681-9. 1995
    ..cerevisiae. Two of them have similarity to each other and belong to a family of extracellular proteins that groups mammalian SCP/Tpx-1, insects Ag3/Ag5, plants PR-1 and fungi Sc7/Sc14.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  70. ncbi Electrostatic interactions in leucine zippers: thermodynamic analysis of the contributions of Glu and His residues and the effect of mutating salt bridges
    Daniel N Marti
    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Mol Biol 330:621-37. 2003
    ..Because removing charges by a double mutation cycle mainly discloses the immediate charge-charge effect, mutational analysis tends to overestimate the overall energetic contribution of salt bridges to protein stability...
  71. ncbi The HBZ factor of human T-cell leukemia virus type I dimerizes with transcription factors JunB and c-Jun and modulates their transcriptional activity
    Jihane Basbous
    Laboratoire Infections Retrovirales et Signalisation Cellulaire, CNRS Université Montpellier I, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5121 Institut Fédératif de Recherche 122, Institut de Biologie, 4 Boulevard Henri IV, 34960 Montpellier Cedex 2, France
    J Biol Chem 278:43620-7. 2003
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that HBZ could be a negative modulator of the Tax effect by controlling Tax expression at the transcriptional level and by attenuating activation of AP-1 by Tax...
  72. ncbi A GCN4 variant with a C-terminal basic region binds to DNA with wild-type affinity
    J J Hollenbeck
    Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
    Biochemistry 40:13833-9. 2001
    ..These results suggest that a thermodynamic basis for the observed N-terminal positioning of the basic region relative to the dimerization domain is unlikely...
  73. ncbi The Arabidopsis homeobox gene ATHB-7 is induced by water deficit and by abscisic acid
    E Soderman
    Department of Physiological Botany, University of Uppsala, Sweden
    Plant J 10:375-81. 1996
    ..These results indicate that ATHB-7 is transcriptionally regulated in an ABA-dependent manner and may act in a signal transduction pathway which mediates a drought response and also includes ABI1...
  74. ncbi Nrl is required for rod photoreceptor development
    A J Mears
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA
    Nat Genet 29:447-52. 2001
    ..On the basis of these findings, we postulate that Nrl acts as a 'molecular switch' during rod-cell development by directly modulating rod-specific genes while simultaneously inhibiting the S-cone pathway through the activation of Nr2e3...
  75. ncbi Inhibition of AP-1 by the glucocorticoid-inducible protein GILZ
    P R Mittelstadt
    Laboratory of Immune Cell Biology, NCI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:29603-10. 2001
    ....
  76. ncbi Identification and characterization of PgHZ1, a novel homeodomain leucine-zipper gene isolated from white spruce (Picea glauca) tissue
    Muhammad Tahir
    Department of Plant Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada
    Plant Physiol Biochem 46:1031-9. 2008
    ..Overall these data support the notion that PgHZ1 confers hypersensitivity to ABA and that proper expression of this gene may be required for proper embryonic growth...
  77. ncbi A heterodimerizing leucine zipper coiled coil system for examining the specificity of a position interactions: amino acids I, V, L, N, A, and K
    Asha Acharya
    Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Biochemistry 41:14122-31. 2002
    ....
  78. ncbi The membrane-located osmosensory kinase, EnvZ, that contains a leucine zipper-like motif functions as a dimer in Escherichia coli
    H Yaku
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, School of Agriculture, Nagoya University, Japan
    FEBS Lett 417:409-13. 1997
    ..It was thus demonstrated that the EnvZ osmosensor exists and exerts its signaling ability as a dimer...
  79. ncbi Negative autoregulation of c-Myb activity by homodimer formation through the leucine zipper
    T Nomura
    Tsukuba Life Science Center, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research RIKEN, Ibaraki, Japan
    J Biol Chem 268:21914-23. 1993
    ..These findings point to a novel mechanism of regulation of a transcription factor...
  80. pmc The mutant leucine-zipper domain impairs both dimerization and suppressive function of Foxp3 in T cells
    Wook Jin Chae
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:9631-6. 2006
    ..Taken together, our results provide insight into the mechanism that controls autoimmune diseases via the deletion of this single glutamic acid residue in the leucine-zipper domain of Foxp3...
  81. ncbi Novel mutations in the NRL gene and associated clinical findings in patients with dominant retinitis pigmentosa
    Margaret M DeAngelis
    Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 243 Charles St, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Arch Ophthalmol 120:369-75. 2002
    ....
  82. pmc An undecided coiled coil: the leucine zipper of Nek2 kinase exhibits atypical conformational exchange dynamics
    Rebecca Croasdale
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 286:27537-47. 2011
    b>Leucine zippers are oligomerization domains used in a wide range of proteins. Their structure is based on a highly conserved heptad repeat sequence in which two key positions are occupied by leucines...
  83. ncbi Isolation of homeodomain-leucine zipper genes from the moss Physcomitrella patens and the evolution of homeodomain-leucine zipper genes in land plants
    K Sakakibara
    National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Japan
    Mol Biol Evol 18:491-502. 2001
    ..Comparison of the genetic divergence of representative HD-Zip I and II genes showed that the evolutionary rate of HD-Zip I genes was faster than that of HD-Zip II genes...
  84. ncbi Structure of homeodomain-leucine zipper/DNA complexes studied using hydroxyl radical cleavage of DNA and methylation interference
    Adriana E Tron
    Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, CC 242 Paraje El Pozo, 3000 Santa Fe, Argentina
    Biochemistry 44:16796-803. 2005
    ..The results show that the structure of the complex formed by HD-Zip proteins with DNA is dependent upon both protein intrinsic characteristics and the nucleotides present at the central position of the recognition sequence...
  85. pmc Probing the interaction between the coiled coil leucine zipper of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha and the C terminus of the myosin binding subunit of the myosin light chain phosphatase
    Alok K Sharma
    Divison of Molecular and Vascular Medicine, Center for Vascular Biology Research, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:32860-9. 2008
    ..Taken together these data support a role for the LZ domain of PKG-Ialpha and the CC domain of MBS in this requisite contractile complex...
  86. ncbi Stability of 100 homo and heterotypic coiled-coil a-a' pairs for ten amino acids (A, L, I, V, N, K, S, T, E, and R)
    Asha Acharya
    Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Biochemistry 45:11324-32. 2006
    ..In contrast, the a-a' pairs containing charged amino acids (K, R, and E) show the least range in coupling energies and promiscuously encourage heterodimerization...
  87. ncbi Dimerization of cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1alpha and the myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase: role of leucine zipper domains
    Howard K Surks
    Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, New England Medical Center Hospitals, Inc, Tufts University School of Medicine, 750 Washington Street, Box 80, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Cell Signal 15:937-44. 2003
    ..The contribution of these domains to both homodimerization and their specific interaction with each other suggest that additional regulatory mechanisms involving these domains may exist...
  88. ncbi Interactions between the leucine-zipper motif of cGMP-dependent protein kinase and the C-terminal region of the targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase
    Eunhee Lee
    Cardiovascular Program, Boston Biomedical Research Institute, Watertown, MA 02472, USA
    J Mol Biol 373:1198-212. 2007
    ..These results provide rationalization of some of the findings by others using alternative binding analyses...
  89. pmc Semirational design of Jun-Fos coiled coils with increased affinity: Universal implications for leucine zipper prediction and design
    Jody M Mason
    Institut fur Biologie III, Universitat Freiburg, Schanzlestrasse 1, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:8989-94. 2006
    ..Indeed, in applying the algorithm to these 59(2) bZIP interactions, we were able to correctly identify 92% of all strong interactions and 92% of all noninteracting pairs...
  90. ncbi A novel protein kinase with leucine zipper-like sequences: its catalytic domain is highly homologous to that of protein kinase C
    H Mukai
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 199:897-904. 1994
    ..Recombinant PKN revealed an intrinsic protein kinase activity associated with a 120K protein. This activity was abolished by mutation of the lysine residue in the potential ATP binding site...
  91. pmc Cross-family dimerization of transcription factors Fos/Jun and ATF/CREB alters DNA binding specificity
    T Hai
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88:3720-4. 1991
    ..These findings indicate that the Fos/Jun and ATF/CREB families of transcription factors are not as distinct as was previously thought. We suggest that they can be grouped into a superfamily of transcription factors...
  92. pmc Homeodomain leucine zipper class I genes in Arabidopsis. Expression patterns and phylogenetic relationships
    Eva Henriksson
    Department of Physiological Botany, Evolutionary Biology Centre, University of Uppsala, Sweden
    Plant Physiol 139:509-18. 2005
    ..In conclusion, several HDZip I genes appear to regulate similar cellular processes, although in different organs or tissues and in response to different environmental signals...
  93. pmc JM2, encoding a fork head-related protein, is mutated in X-linked autoimmunity-allergic disregulation syndrome
    T A Chatila
    Department of Pediatrics, and Department of Pathology and Immunology and the Center for Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Clin Invest 106:R75-81. 2000
    ..The other mutation involves an in-frame, 3-bp deletion that is predicted to impair the function of a leucine zipper dimerization domain. Our results point to a critical role for JM2 in self tolerance and Th cell differentiation...
  94. ncbi Shade avoidance responses are mediated by the ATHB-2 HD-zip protein, a negative regulator of gene expression
    C Steindler
    Centro di Studio per gli Acidi Nucleici, c o Dip di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, P le Aldo Moro 5, Italy
    Development 126:4235-45. 1999
    ..A model of ATHB-2 function in the regulation of shade-induced growth responses is proposed...
  95. pmc Design of protein-interaction specificity gives selective bZIP-binding peptides
    Gevorg Grigoryan
    MIT Department of Biology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Nature 458:859-64. 2009
    ....
  96. pmc Classification of human B-ZIP proteins based on dimerization properties
    Charles Vinson
    Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 22:6321-35. 2002
  97. ncbi Regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana Em genes: role of ABI5
    Cristel Carles
    Laboratoire Génome et Développement des Plantes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UMR 5096, Universite de Perpignan, 52, Avenue de Villeneuve, 66860 Perpignan Cedex, France
    Plant J 30:373-83. 2002
    ..Among the ABRE-type sequences selected on both Em promoters, the G-box type AGACACGTGGCATGT element of the AtEm6 promoter shows the strongest binding by EMSA quantification...
  98. ncbi Waardenburg syndrome type 2 caused by mutations in the human microphthalmia (MITF) gene
    M Tassabehji
    Department of Medical Genetics, St Mary s Hospital, Manchester, UK
    Nat Genet 8:251-5. 1994
    ..Here we show that affected individuals in two WS2 families have mutations affecting splice sites in the MITF gene...
  99. ncbi Molecular basis of mouse microphthalmia (mi) mutations helps explain their developmental and phenotypic consequences
    E Steingrimsson
    Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, ABL Basic Research Program, NCI Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, Maryland 21702
    Nat Genet 8:256-63. 1994
    ..These molecular data, combined with the extensive body of genetic data accumulated for murine mi, shed light on the phenotypic and developmental consequences of mi mutations and offer a mouse model for WS2...
  100. pmc A maize zinc-finger protein binds the prolamin box in zein gene promoters and interacts with the basic leucine zipper transcriptional activator Opaque2
    J Vicente-Carbajosa
    Department of Biology, University of California at San Diego, Mail Code 0116, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:7685-90. 1997
    ..The isolation of the PBF gene provides an essential tool to further investigate the functional role of the highly conserved P-box in regulating cereal storage protein gene expression...
  101. pmc IFL1, a gene regulating interfascicular fiber differentiation in Arabidopsis, encodes a homeodomain-leucine zipper protein
    R Zhong
    Department of Botany, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Plant Cell 11:2139-52. 1999
    ..Our results provide direct evidence that an HD-ZIP protein plays a role in the spatial control of fiber differentiation...

Research Grants64

  1. Regulation of Monocyte and Granulocyte Lineage Specification
    Alan D Friedman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To study the role of specific heterodimers, we developed acid and basic leucine zippers (LZE, LZK) and find that C/EBPa:c-Jun or C/EBPa:c-Fos induce monopoiesis with far greater potency than does C/..
  2. Regulation of HTLV-1 and cellular gene transcription by the viral protein HBZ
    ISABELLE MICHELE LEMASSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain that promotes protein dimerization through interactions with appropriate leucine zippers in other proteins...
  3. Engineering Disulfide-Free Antibody Scaffolds for Intracellular and in vitro Expr
    PAUL STEPHEN MARINEC; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Subsequently, I will genetically fuse non-human leucine zippers onto the carboxy-terminal ends of the Fab scaffolds...
  4. A New Modular Tool Set for Live Imaging and Manipulating the Nervous System
    Thomas Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Aim one is to create a modular pair of labeling proteins, the Fly and the Hook, that are tied together by leucine zippers. This modular system will provide access to neurons that have eluded labeling and purification to date...
  5. ATF3 in Beta cell signaling, expression & destruction
    Tsonwin Hai; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Blood glucose levels and diabetes incidence will be analyzed to determine whether ATF3 knockout mice are less sensitive to STZ than wild type mice. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  6. ATF3 and iNOS in Islet Distruction and Graft Rejection
    Tsonwin Hai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  7. FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS STUDY OF TREPONEMA PALLIDUM
    Timothy Palzkill; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..pallidum antigenic proteins, and iii) establish a large-scale protein-protein interaction network among periplasmic and surface localized proteins. ..
  8. REGULATION OF CONTRACTION IN MUSCLE AND NONMUSCLE CELLS
    Sarah Hitchcock DeGregori; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  9. Development of a haspin kinase assay for high throughput drug screening
    JONATHAN HIGGINS; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Furthermore, such inhibitors will provide an excellent way to validate haspin as a target for cancer treatment, and they might find direct application as chemotherapeutic drugs. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  10. Motor Function and Regulation of Myosin VII
    Mitsuo Ikebe; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed project will clarify the function and regulation of myosin VIIa, thus providing important information in understanding of the mechanism underlying the human sensory disorders of deafness and blindness. ..
  11. G2 CHECKPOINT FUNCTION IN HUMAN FIBROBLASTS
    William Kaufmann; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..following DNA replication? Does ATR sends a signal through BRCA1 to inhibit Plkl when chromatid catenations are sensed? Is defective decatenation checkpoint function associated with genetic instability in cancer? ..
  12. Regulation of Mammalian Class VI Myosin
    Mitsuo Ikebe; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  13. CARDIAC AND SKELETAL MUSCLE CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNELS
    Andrew Marks; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Thus, the proposed studies are highly relevant to human diseases including heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. ..
  14. CELLULAR BIOLOGY OF THE TRABECULAR MESHWORK
    Michael P Fautsch; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These regions will be "preferential flow" regions, and aqueous tracers should appear in these regions first. If this occurs, it would change our basic understanding of how aqueous passes through the TM (aim 5). ..
  15. LSR II ANALYZER
    Christopher Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This application documents the limitations of our current facility in meeting the needs of these investigators for access to contemporary flow cytometry instruments and how an LSR II analyzer would allow us to meet these needs. ..
  16. REGULATION AND FUNCTION OF MAMMALIAN MYOSIN I
    Mitsuo Ikebe; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  17. S Checkpoint Function in Human Fibroblasts
    William Kaufmann; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This project will define genetic components of the S checkpoint and elucidate signal transduction mechanisms that underlie S checkpoint response in diploid human fibroblasts. ..
  18. Myc Antagonism and Tumor Suppression by Mnt
    Peter Hurlin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  19. SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION FROM THE T CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR
    Robert Abraham; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..However, experiments in fibroblasts stimulated with PDGF indicate that phosphorylation at residue 783 is necessary for increased enzymatic activity, while phosphorylation at Y771 results in inhibition of activity. ..
  20. HOST DEFENSE TO NEONATAL INRACELLULAR PATHOGENS
    Christopher Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These studies will provide insights into mechanisms for host defense against Lm and for the greater susceptibility of the neonate to this and related intracellular bacterial pathogens. ..
  21. THYROID HORMONE CONTROL OF A GENE EXPRESSION NETWORK
    J Furlow; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. Delivery Systems for Precision Brain Cell Targeting
    Scott Banta; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  23. Acquisition of a 500 MHz NMR Spectrometer
    WILLIAM BRACKEN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  24. Function of Small G-Protein Binding Myosin
    Mitsuo Ikebe; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed project will clarify the function and regulation of myosin IX, a unique member of myosin super family, thus provide a new insight into the mechanism of actin based motility. ..
  25. Protein Folding in Evolutionary Perspective
    Eugene Shakhnovich; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This theory will outline optimal conditions for the design of stable proteins. ..
  26. Alcohol and Muscle Stem Cells
    Gordon Huggins; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Alcoholic cardiomyopathy remains a significant public health problem. Studies outlined in this application are designed to provide needed insight into the role of alcohol on stem cell-based tissue-repair. ..
  27. Molecular Analysis of the Human Aqueous Outflow Pathway
    Michael P Fautsch; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will also determine gene and protein expression changes in the meshwork induced by normal and POAG aqueous humor. Develop a medium that can be used to mimic aqueous humor for trabecular meshwork cell culture. ..
  28. CHARGED DIHYDROPYRIDINES--PROBES OF HEART CA++ CHANNELS
    Robert Kass; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  29. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF ASSEMBLY OF APOPB LIPOPROTEINS
    JERE SEGREST; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The results of specific aims 1 and 2 will determine the specific sites and types of mutations selected. ..
  30. PROTEIN KINASES ON SMOOTH MUSCLE REGULATION
    Mitsuo Ikebe; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Specific aim 2. To define the role of PKC and CaMPKII on Ca2+ signaling and contraction of smooth muscle cells. Specific aim 3. To define the protein targets phosphorylated by the PKC and CaMPKIIcascade in smooth muscle cells. ..
  31. Function of the chromosomal kinase haspin in mitosis
    JONATHAN M HIGGINS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A greater knowledge of the role of human haspin in this process will help us understand the defects that underlie transformation and may lead to new approaches to block the division of cancer cells. ..
  32. The FIAT-ATF4 interaction and the control of bone mass
    Rene St Arnaud; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Co-I.P. and transient transfection assays with site-specific mutants will identify the functional leucine zippers within FIAT and ATF4 and examine the role of phosphorylation by RSK2 on the FIAT-ATF4 interaction...
  33. Advances in Mineral Metabolism (AIMM) annual meeting
    Rene St Arnaud; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  34. Systematic Analysis of Drosophila transcription factor binding specificities
    SCOT A contact WOLFE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This new genome "map" will help researchers understand how these elements function in normal cells and how mutations in these elements can lead to disease. ..
  35. A bacterial one-hybrid system for analyzing DNA-binding specificities
    SCOT WOLFE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The resulting database of information on transcription factors will be valuable for deciphering the mechanisms of gene regulation in higher eukaryotes. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  36. Applied Biosystems 7900HT Fast Real-Time PCR System
    Gordon Huggins; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The overall goal of these studies is to pursue new treatments for cardiovascular and other ailing diseases that will improve health and save lives. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. Proton-coupled electron translocation in metalloenzymes
    ROBERT CUKIER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Contemporaneously, we will explore PTR by simulation methodologies that we are developing, which combine quantum mechanics and molecular dynamics to quantitatively describe proton translocation. ..
  38. Protein Interactions of the Germ Cell Kinase Haspin
    JONATHAN HIGGINS; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  39. GENE EXPRESSION AND CONTENT IN CELL DIFFERENTIATION
    Giuseppe Attardi; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Furthermore, it is expected that this work will provide important insights into the regulation of mitochondrial gene expression and into fundamental features of mitochondrial genetics in mammalian cells. ..
  40. CIRCADIAN MECHANISMS REGULATING OSTEOGENESIS
    Jeffrey Gimble; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Findings from this innovative proposal have clinical implications regarding the optimal timing for daily medication regimens in bone diseases and for elective orthopedic and orthodontic procedures. ..
  41. Hunting the PLUNCs, a novel innate immune family
    ELIZABETH LECLAIR; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Taken together, the PLUNC proteins represent a novel family of therapeutic targets for the study of innate immunity and the treatment of infection. ..
  42. REGULATION OF HIK1 IN SECRETORY DIARRHEA
    DANIEL DEVOR; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..As hIK1 plays a critical role in Ca2+-mediated secretory diarrhea and may be a modifier gene of the CF phenotype an understanding of the trafficking and regulation of hIK1 would be expected to be clinically useful ..
  43. 2005 Bones & Teeth Gordon Conference
    Rene St Arnaud; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These funds, if granted, will aid immeasurably in allowing the Gordon Research Conference to fulfill its function to stimulate further creativity in bone, cartilage and tooth research. ..
  44. Spinal Fusion Using Adipose Derived Adult Stem Cells
    Jeffrey Gimble; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The availability of "off the shelf ADAS cells for clinical orthopedic procedures will have a significant commercial and therapeutic impact. ..
  45. MOLECULAR REGULATION OF SMOOTH MUSCLE ACTOMYOSIN
    Mitsuo Ikebe; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  46. Molecular Mechanisms of Regulation of Contraction
    Sarah Hitchcock DeGregori; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The results will help understand how the cytoskeleton is remodeled during complex functions such as leucocyte chemotaxis and growth factor-stimulated cellular outgrowth, processes important in both normal and pathological states. ..
  47. A NEW ANIMAL MODEL OF SCID FOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH
    Katheryn Meek; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  48. FUNCTION OF A DUAL SPECIFICITY TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR
    Peter Hurlin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Finally, gene targeting in the mouse will be used to study the biological activities of Mga and the individual roles of its bHLHZip domain and T-domain. ..
  49. ZFN-driven Gene Disruption of CCR5 as a Potential Treatment of AIDS
    Fyodor Urnov; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  50. Advances in Mineral Metabolism (AMM) meeting
    Rene St Arnaud; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  51. Regulation of APP Processing by Par-4
    Qing Guo; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Inhibition of Par-4 activity by enhancing AATF expression and/or manipulating Par-4/APP interaction may provide novel therapeutic implications for Alzheimer's disease. ..
  52. Regulation of cardiac ion channel function via allosteric modulators
    Andrew Marks; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The studies are significant because they may lead to a novel therapeutic approach based on allosteric modulation of RyR that can result in improved therapy for human cardiovascular diseases. ..
  53. REGULATION OF PSEUDOMONAS INDUCED LUNG INFLAMMATION
    Christopher Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Hypothesis: CFTR KO mice will have excessive lung inflammation. This will reflect a process intrinsic to the lung and will parallel and be dependent, at least in part, on NF-kappaB activation in the airway epithelium. ..
  54. DNA METHYLATION IN T CELL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION
    Christopher Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..2) The increased numbers of TCRgammabeta thymocytes will reflect either increased locus accessibility and rearrangement of the relevant gammabeta TCR genes or reduced Notch signaling. ..
  55. BAG-75: UNIQUE MARKER OF PRIMARY BONE FORMATION
    JEFFREY GORSKI; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Stimulation of appositional formation by lamellar bone would not be expected to have the same effect. These future functional studies require determination of the BAG-75 cDNA sequence. ..
  56. Human Mitochondrial DNA Mutations in Aging
    Giuseppe Attardi; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The achievements of the above aims will have important implications for understanding the role of these novel mtDNA mutations in aging, as well as their possible involvement in aging-related degenerative diseases. ..
  57. TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF CARDIOMYOCYTE DEVELOPMENT
    Gordon Huggins; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..They should also be relevant to understanding the molecular pathophysiology of a number of clinically important inherited and acquired cardiovascular diseases. ..
  58. MINERALIZATION OF PRIMARY BONE
    JEFFREY GORSKI; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Results of this work should better define the differences between primariy and lamellar bone, as well as aid in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. ..
  59. TRANSCRIPTIONAL CONTROL OF TH2 CELL DIFFERENTIATION
    Wei Ping Zheng; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..It is proposed that knowledge gained from these studies will advance understanding and improve treatment of immunological diseases such as allergy and infection where Th2 responses are critical. ..
  60. USE OF ADIPOSE-DERIVED PREADIPOCYTES IN BONE DISOREDERS
    Jeffrey Gimble; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This has commercial application to orthopedic and periodontal surgical treatments of joint replacement, fracture repair, and bone resorption secondary to tooth decay...
  61. DEGRADATION OF E12/E47 IN SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS
    Gordon Huggins; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The laboratory encompasses 12,000 square feet and is equipped with instruments designed for research in cellular and molecular biology. (End of Abstract) ..
  62. Motif-based elucidation of protein modification codes
    JONATHAN HIGGINS; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The development of methodology to determine the functional impact of these marks is therefore a critical requirement for future work in all areas of biomedicine. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  63. Profiles of Sucsceptibility to Toxicant Stress
    William Kaufmann; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The UNC-CH toxicogenomics research program has the scientific expertise and organizational infrastructure to provide significant and substantial benefits to the Toxicogenomics Research Consortium. ..