systematized nomenclature of medicine


Summary: Controlled vocabulary of clinical terms produced by the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation (IHTSDO).

Top Publications

  1. Elkin P, Brown S, Husser C, Bauer B, Wahner Roedler D, Rosenbloom S, et al. Evaluation of the content coverage of SNOMED CT: ability of SNOMED clinical terms to represent clinical problem lists. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006;81:741-8 pubmed
    To evaluate the ability of SNOMED CT (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms) version 1.0 to represent the most common problems seen at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn...
  2. Min Z, Baofen D, Weeber M, van Ginneken A. Mapping OpenSDE domain models to SNOMED CT. Applied to the domain of cardiovascular disease. Methods Inf Med. 2006;45:4-9 pubmed
    ..However, the usefulness of the mapping result depends on the completeness of the mapping to SNOMED CT, for which there is no gold standard. ..
  3. Rosenbloom S, Miller R, Johnson K, Elkin P, Brown S. A model for evaluating interface terminologies. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2008;15:65-76 pubmed
    ..Terminology developers and evaluators can apply the proposed model to identify areas for improving interface terminologies. ..
  4. Simpson C, Anandan C, Fischbacher C, Lefevre K, Sheikh A. Will Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms improve our understanding of the disease burden posed by allergic disorders?. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007;37:1586-93 pubmed
    ..Greater granularity of coding can be achieved by using the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT) system, which will be adopted by several countries including the United ..
  5. Richesson R, Fung K, Krischer J. Heterogeneous but "standard" coding systems for adverse events: Issues in achieving interoperability between apples and oranges. Contemp Clin Trials. 2008;29:635-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Three different data standards - the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) and the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) terminologies, and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (..
  6. Rector A, Brandt S. Why do it the hard way? The case for an expressive description logic for SNOMED. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2008;15:744-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of a more expressive language would bring major benefits including a uniform structure for context and negation. The result would be easier to use and would simplify developing software and formulating queries. ..
  7. Shahpori R, Doig C. Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms direction and its implications on critical care. J Crit Care. 2010;25:364.e1-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to describe the new advancements in Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT) terminology and its applicability to critical care documentation...
  8. Smith B. From concepts to clinical reality: an essay on the benchmarking of biomedical terminologies. J Biomed Inform. 2006;39:288-98 pubmed
    ..We conclude by outlining ways in which the framework thus defined might be exploited for purposes of diagnostic decision-support. ..
  9. Bowman S. Coordinating SNOMED-CT and ICD-10. J AHIMA. 2005;76:60-1 pubmed

More Information


  1. Fung K, Hole W, Nelson S, Srinivasan S, POWELL T, Roth L. Integrating SNOMED CT into the UMLS: an exploration of different views of synonymy and quality of editing. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2005;12:486-94 pubmed
    ..01) with a concurrence rate of 75% and an interrater agreement kappa of 0.43. The accuracy in the judgment of synonymy was comparable for UMLS editors and nonediting domain experts. There was reasonable agreement between the two groups. ..
  2. De Silva T, MacDonald D, Paterson G, Sikdar K, Cochrane B. Systematized nomenclature of medicine clinical terms (SNOMED CT) to represent computed tomography procedures. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2011;101:324-9 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the ability of systematized nomenclature of medicine clinical terms (SNOMED CT) to represent computed tomography procedures in computed tomography dictionaries used in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador...
  3. Lee D, Cornet R, Lau F. Implications of SNOMED CT versioning. Int J Med Inform. 2011;80:442-53 pubmed publisher
    To determine the changes each Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) release undergoes and the implications of those changes...
  4. Lee D, Lau F, Quan H. A method for encoding clinical datasets with SNOMED CT. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2010;10:53 pubmed publisher
    ..From the pilot, it would seem our SNOMED CT encoding method has the potential to become a general purpose terminology encoding approach that can be used in different clinical systems. ..
  5. Cimino J. In defense of the Desiderata. J Biomed Inform. 2006;39:299-306 pubmed
    ..To that end, additional Desiderata are defined that deal with the purpose, rather than the structure, of controlled medical terminologies. ..
  6. Green J, Wilcke J, Abbott J, Rees L. Development and evaluation of methods for structured recording of heart murmur findings using SNOMED-CT post-coordination. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2006;13:321-33 pubmed
    ..Requirements for implementing the two models were virtually identical. In fact, data stored using these models could be easily interconverted. There is no apparent penalty for implementing either approach. ..
  7. Sundvall E, Qamar R, Nyström M, Forss M, Petersson H, Karlsson D, et al. Integration of tools for binding archetypes to SNOMED CT. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2008;8 Suppl 1:S7 pubmed publisher
    ..The methods and tools presented are general, but here only bindings between SNOMED CT and archetypes based on the openEHR reference model are presented in detail. ..
  8. Schulz S, Hanser S, Hahn U, Rogers J. The semantics of procedures and diseases in SNOMED CT. Methods Inf Med. 2006;45:354-8 pubmed
    ..We formulate recommendations for improving SNOMED CT by replacing most occurrences of relation groups by formally more adequate "part-of" relations. ..
  9. Alecu I, Bousquet C, Jaulent M. A case report: using SNOMED CT for grouping Adverse Drug Reactions Terms. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2008;8 Suppl 1:S4 pubmed publisher
    ..This work proves that groupings already present in the MedDRA SSCs (e.g. the haemorrhage SSC) may be retrieved using classification in SNOMED CT. ..
  10. Cornet R, de Keizer N. Forty years of SNOMED: a literature review. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2008;8 Suppl 1:S2 pubmed publisher
    ..Fewer studies are available on the usage of SNOMED in clinical practice. Literature gives no indication of the use of SNOMED for direct care purposes such as decision support. ..
  11. Park H, Lundberg C, Coenen A, Konicek D. Evaluation of the content coverage of SNOMED CT representing ICNP seven-axis version 1 concepts. Methods Inf Med. 2011;50:472-8 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of SNOMED CT (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms) to represent the concepts of the ICNP version 1--the seven-axis model...
  12. Elkin P, Brown S. Automated enhancement of description logic-defined terminologies to facilitate mapping to ICD9-CM. J Biomed Inform. 2002;35:281-8 pubmed
    ..We also provide an explicit representation of the implied semantics of ICD9-CM. This tabulation will be useful for other knowledge engineering efforts involving ICD9-CM. ..
  13. Dougherty M. Standard terminology helps advance EHR. J AHIMA. 2003;74:59-60 pubmed
  14. Herbert I. CLICSIG report: issues around compositional terminologies, SNOMED-CT in particular. Inform Prim Care. 2007;15:193-7 pubmed
  15. Sundvall E, Nyström M, Petersson H, Ahlfeldt H. Interactive visualization and navigation of complex terminology systems, exemplified by SNOMED CT. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2006;124:851-6 pubmed
  16. Alecu I, Bousquet C, Mougin F, Jaulent M. Mapping of the WHO-ART terminology on Snomed CT to improve grouping of related adverse drug reactions. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2006;124:833-8 pubmed
    ..We plan to improve our method in order to retrieve associative relations between WHO-ART terms. ..
  17. Pedersen T, Pakhomov S, Patwardhan S, Chute C. Measures of semantic similarity and relatedness in the biomedical domain. J Biomed Inform. 2007;40:288-99 pubmed
    ..We conclude that there is a role both for more flexible measures of relatedness based on information derived from corpora, as well as for measures that rely on existing ontological structures. ..
  18. de Lusignan S. Codes, classifications, terminologies and nomenclatures: definition, development and application in practice. Inform Prim Care. 2005;13:65-70 pubmed
    ..The Working Group wishes to encourage shared definitions and an understanding of the practical application of structured data to improve quality in clinical practice. ..
  19. de Lusignan S, Sadek K, McDonald H, Horsfield P, Sadek N, Tahir A, et al. Call for consistent coding in diabetes mellitus using the Royal College of General Practitioners and NHS pragmatic classification of diabetes. Inform Prim Care. 2012;20:103-13 pubmed
    ..It is a challenge to develop codes that readily map to contemporary clinical concepts. However, clinicians should adopt the standard recommended codes; and audit the quality of their existing records. ..
  20. Adamusiak T, Bodenreider O. Quality assurance in LOINC using Description Logic. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2012;2012:1099-108 pubmed
    ..LOINC is a well-maintained terminology. While only a relatively small number of logical inconsistencies were found, we identified a number of areas where LOINC could benefit from the application of Description Logic. ..
  21. Xu J, Fung K. Handling age specification in the SNOMED CT to ICD-10-CM cross-map. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2012;2012:1014-22 pubmed
    ..The QA flagged 342 concepts for review (out of 7,277), of which 172 concepts (50.3%) were true positives. Without the special QA, many of the age rules would have been missed. ..
  22. Christensen E, Raciti D, Reggiani L, Verroust P, Brändli A. Gene expression analysis defines the proximal tubule as the compartment for endocytic receptor-mediated uptake in the Xenopus pronephric kidney. Pflugers Arch. 2008;456:1163-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The Xenopus pronephric kidney therefore represents a novel, simple model for physiological studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying renal tubular endocytosis. ..
  23. Wei D, Halper M, Elhanan G, Chen Y, Perl Y, Geller J, et al. Auditing SNOMED relationships using a converse abstraction network. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2009;2009:685-9 pubmed
    ..The methodology is applied to SNOMED's Device subhierarchy and the related device relationships of the Procedure hierarchy. The results indicate that the CAN is useful in finding opportunities for refining and improving SNOMED. ..
  24. Vikström A, Skånér Y, Strender L, Nilsson G. Mapping the categories of the Swedish primary health care version of ICD-10 to SNOMED CT concepts: rule development and intercoder reliability in a mapping trial. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2007;7:9 pubmed
    ..version of the International Classification of Diseases version 10' (ICD-10) is matched to the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine, Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), to describe characteristics in the coding systems that are related to ..
  25. Wu S, Liu H. Semantic characteristics of NLP-extracted concepts in clinical notes vs. biomedical literature. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2011;2011:1550-8 pubmed
    ..An important by-product for this study is the development of a weighted ontology for each domain, which gives distributional semantic information that may be used to improve NLP applications. ..
  26. Wang Y, Halper M, Wei D, Gu H, Perl Y, Xu J, et al. Auditing complex concepts of SNOMED using a refined hierarchical abstraction network. J Biomed Inform. 2012;45:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..With the use of the double bootstrap and Fisher's exact test (two-tailed), the auditing of concepts and especially roots of overlapping partial-areas is shown to yield a statistically significant higher proportion of errors. ..
  27. Spackman K. SNOMED CT milestones: endorsements are added to already-impressive standards credentials. Healthc Inform. 2004;21:54, 56 pubmed
  28. Benoit S, McDonald L, English R, Tokars J. Automated surveillance of Clostridium difficile infections using BioSense. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011;32:26-33 pubmed publisher
  29. Joubert M, Abdoune H, Merabti T, Darmoni S, Fieschi M. Assisting the translation of SNOMED CT into French using UMLS and four representative French-language terminologies. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2009;2009:291-5 pubmed
    ..The method presented will be refined. It could certainly provide useful assistance in the translation of SNOMED CT into French. Due to its general nature, it could be used to translate SNOMED CT into other languages than French. ..
  30. Ahmadian L, de Keizer N, Cornet R. The use of SNOMED CT for representing concepts used in preoperative guidelines. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2009;150:658-62 pubmed
    ..Our study showed that SNOMED CT content should be extended before preoperative assessment guidelines can be completely automated. ..
  31. Bodenreider O. Using SNOMED CT in combination with MedDRA for reporting signal detection and adverse drug reactions reporting. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2009;2009:45-9 pubmed
    ..This approach has the potential to enable the collection of adverse events related to drugs directly from clinical repositories. The quality of the mapping needs to be evaluated. ..
  32. Becker M, Böckmann B. Personalized Guideline-Based Treatment Recommendations Using Natural Language Processing Techniques. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2017;235:271-275 pubmed
    ..The Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) provides common reference terminology as well as the semantic link ..
  33. Dhombres F, Bodenreider O. Interoperability between phenotypes in research and healthcare terminologies--Investigating partial mappings between HPO and SNOMED CT. J Biomed Semantics. 2016;7:3 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, this work demonstrates interesting properties (both lexical and logical) of HPO and SNOMED CT and illustrates some limitations of mapping through UMLS. ..
  34. Daniel Le Bozec C, Steichen O, Dart T, Jaulent M. The role of local terminologies in electronic health records. The HEGP experience. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2007;129:780-4 pubmed
    ..We first describe the local dictionary of concepts of HEGP according to some published TS characterization framework. Then we discuss the specific role that a local terminology system plays with regards to reference terminologies. ..
  35. Jiang G, Chute C. Auditing the semantic completeness of SNOMED CT using formal concept analysis. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2009;16:89-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Our novel FCA-based approach can be useful for auditing the semantic completeness of SNOMED CT contents, or any large ontology, within or across domains. ..
  36. Sevenster M, van Ommering R, Qian Y. Algorithmic and user study of an autocompletion algorithm on a large medical vocabulary. J Biomed Inform. 2012;45:107-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed algorithm is a competitive candidate for searching and retrieving terms from a large medical ontology. ..
  37. Menarguez Tortosa M, Fernandez Breis J. Validation of the openEHR archetype library by using OWL reasoning. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2011;169:789-93 pubmed
    ..This method has been applied to the openEHR archetype repository, which is the largest available one nowadays. The results of this validation are also reported in this study. ..
  38. Wang Y, Patrick J, Miller G, O Hallaran J. A computational linguistics motivated mapping of ICPC-2 PLUS to SNOMED CT. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2008;8 Suppl 1:S5 pubmed publisher
    ..Automating as much as is possible of this process turns the searching and mapping task into a validation task, which can effectively reduce the cost and increase the efficiency and accuracy of this task over manual methods. ..
  39. Rajeev D, Staes C, Evans R, Mottice S, Rolfs R, Samore M, et al. Development of an electronic public health case report using HL7 v2.5 to meet public health needs. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2010;17:34-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The HL7 v2.5 message model is currently being implemented to transmit electronic case reports from Intermountain Healthcare to the Utah Department of Health. ..
  40. Liu H, Burkhart Q, Bell D. Evaluation of the NCPDP Structured and Codified Sig Format for e-prescriptions. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2011;18:645-51 pubmed publisher
  41. Donnelly K. SNOMED-CT: The advanced terminology and coding system for eHealth. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2006;121:279-90 pubmed
    ..For example, it will help reduce medication-prescribing errors, which are currently known to kill or injure many citizens. It will also reduce clinical administration effort and the overall costs of healthcare. ..
  42. Rasmussen A, Rosenbeck K. SNOMED CT implementation: implications of choosing clinical findings or observable entities. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2011;169:809-13 pubmed
    ..We discuss the possibility to further evaluate the observable entity hierarchy to overcome a potential overlapping use of the two hierarchies. ..
  43. Abdoune H, Merabti T, Darmoni S, Joubert M. Assisting the translation of the CORE subset of SNOMED CT into French. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2011;169:819-23 pubmed
    ..if needed, synonymous terms could be added by the means of synonyms in the terminologies; the proposed method is independent from French and could be applied to other natural languages. ..
  44. Casey A, Spisla C, Konicek D, Warren J. Practical definition of SNOMED CT concepts: The case of education, advice and counselling. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2006;122:742-5 pubmed
    ..Expansion of existing working groups and improved communications infrastructure will support more widespread clinical input to SNOMED CT maintenance and updating. ..
  45. Bowie J. Four options for implementing SNOMED. J AHIMA. 2004;75:30-3; quiz 35-6 pubmed
  46. Lunney M, Delaney C, Duffy M, Moorhead S, Welton J. Advocating for standardized nursing languages in electronic health records. J Nurs Adm. 2005;35:1-3 pubmed
  47. Falkman G, Gustafsson M, Torgersson O, Jontell M. Collaboration patterns in an online community of practice in oral medicine. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2008;136:175-80 pubmed
    ..The patterns for one such activity, distance consultation, are described and modeled using techniques from the Pragmatic Web. It is also shown how patterns could inform system design. ..
  48. Ryan A, Patrick J, Herkes R. Introduction of enhancement technologies into the intensive care service, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney. Health Inf Manag. 2008;37:40-5 pubmed
    ..Both systems went live in October 2007, and this report summarises the background, purpose, and progress thus far. ..
  49. Yasini M, Ebrahiminia V, Duclos C, Venot A, Lamy J. Comparing the use of SNOMED CT and ICD10 for coding clinical conditions to implement laboratory guidelines. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2013;186:200-4 pubmed
    ..By resolving the guideline ambiguity, SNOMED CT is a good choice and covers almost all of the clinical conditions in laboratory guidelines which are needed to implement in a Clinical Decision Support System. ..
  50. Thirion B, Robu I, Darmoni S. Optimization of the PubMed Automatic Term Mapping. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2009;150:238-42 pubmed
    ..The proposed query is significantly more precise than the current PubMed query (54.5% vs. 27%). The optimized query proposed would be easy to implement into PubMed. ..
  51. Henriksson A, Conway M, Duneld M, Chapman W. Identifying synonymy between SNOMED clinical terms of varying length using distributional analysis of electronic health records. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2013;2013:600-9 pubmed
    ..A distinctive feature of our method is its ability to identify synonymous relations between terms of varying length. ..
  52. Gu H, Chen Y, He Z, Halper M, Chen L. Quality Assurance of UMLS Semantic Type Assignments Using SNOMED CT Hierarchies. Methods Inf Med. 2016;55:158-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that the quality-assurance methodology can aid in effective and efficient identification of UMLS semantic-type assignment errors. ..
  53. Ceusters W, Smith B, Goldberg L. A terminological and ontological analysis of the NCI Thesaurus. Methods Inf Med. 2005;44:498-507 pubmed