logical observation identifiers names and codes


Summary: A vocabulary database of universal identifiers for laboratory and clinical test results. Its purpose is to facilitate the exchange and pooling of results for clinical care, outcomes management, and research. It is produced by the Regenstrief Institute. (LOINC and RELMA [Internet]. Indianapolis: The Regenstrief Institute; c1995-2001 [cited 2002 Apr 2]. Available from http://www.regenstrief.org/loinc)

Top Publications

  1. Skoneczna A. [Decade of genomics--methods for genome investigation in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae]. Postepy Biochem. 2006;52:435-47 pubmed
    ..All these methods permit to increase the number of genes with known cellular functions. Moreover, testing these techniques on yeast S. cerevisiae--a model eukaryotic organism--opened the door for their usage in all other species. ..
  2. Yoon S, Yoon J, Min W, Lim H, Song J, Chae S, et al. [Standardization of terminology in laboratory medicine I]. Korean J Lab Med. 2007;27:151-5 pubmed
    ..Here we report for the first time a Korean standard laboratory terminology database for test names, result description terms, result units covering most laboratory tests in primary healthcare centers. ..
  3. Hyun S, Shapiro J, Melton G, Schlegel C, Stetson P, Johnson S, et al. Iterative evaluation of the Health Level 7--Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes Clinical Document Ontology for representing clinical document names: a case report. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2009;16:395-9 pubmed publisher
    ..in iteratively testing the adequacy of three versions of the Health Level Seven (HL7) Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) Clinical Document Ontology (CDO) to represent document names at Columbia University ..
  4. White T, Hauan M. Extending the LOINC conceptual schema to support standardized assessment instruments. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2002;9:586-99 pubmed
    ..These extensions to LOINC can facilitate the use, analysis, and improvement of assessment instruments and thereby may improve the detection and management of errors. ..
  5. Kim H, El Kareh R, Goel A, Vineet F, Chapman W. An approach to improve LOINC mapping through augmentation of local test names. J Biomed Inform. 2012;45:651-7 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Our approach led to a significantly higher proportion of test names with successful mapping to LOINC, but further efforts are required to achieve more satisfactory results. ..
  6. Huff S. LOINC links grow: more and more groups are finding content in the database that they can use. Healthc Inform. 2004;21:52, 54 pubmed
  7. Staes C, Huff S, Evans R, Narus S, Tilley C, Sorensen J. Development of an information model for storing organ donor data within an electronic medical record. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2005;12:357-63 pubmed
    ..The selected strategy met our design requirements and provided an extendable information model to store donor data. This model can be used whenever it is necessary to refer to one patient's data from another patient's EMR. ..
  8. Scichilone R. The benefits of using SNOMED CT and LOINC in assessment instruments. J AHIMA. 2008;79:56-7 pubmed
  9. Brandt C, Lu C, Nadkarni P. Automating identification of adverse events related to abnormal lab results using standard vocabularies. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2005;:903 pubmed
    ..We have designed a system that uses the UMLS metathesaurus as a common source to map or link abnormal laboratory values to adverse event CTCAE coded terms and grades in the metadata of TrialDB, a generic CSDMS. ..

More Information


  1. Westra B, Subramanian A, Hart C, Matney S, Wilson P, Huff S, et al. Achieving "meaningful use" of electronic health records through the integration of the Nursing Management Minimum Data Set. J Nurs Adm. 2010;40:336-43 pubmed publisher
  2. Sun J, Sun Y. A system for automated lexical mapping. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2006;13:334-43 pubmed
    ..Lexical mapping can facilitate the integration of data from diverse sources and decrease the time and cost required for manual mapping and integration of clinical systems and medical databases. ..
  3. Häyrinen K, Mykkänen J. Mapping the Finnish National EHR to the LOINC. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2011;165:161-6 pubmed
    ..There were LOINC terms in other classes which correspond to headings. Furthermore, inconsistency exists in the names of headings. The need for mapping national headings to all terms in LOINC is needed. ..
  4. Heras Y, Mitchell J, Williams M, Brothman A, Huff S. Evaluation of LOINC for representing constitutional cytogenetic test result reports. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2009;2009:239-43 pubmed
    ..The terminology infrastructure must be developed before clinical information systems will be able to handle the high volumes of genetic data expected in the near future. ..
  5. Hussain M, Eakins J. Component-based visual clustering using the self-organizing map. Neural Netw. 2007;20:260-73 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that our component-based matching technique performs markedly better than matching using whole-image clustering, and is relatively insensitive to changes in input parameters such as network size. ..
  6. Adamusiak T, Bodenreider O. Quality assurance in LOINC using Description Logic. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2012;2012:1099-108 pubmed
    ..LOINC is a well-maintained terminology. While only a relatively small number of logical inconsistencies were found, we identified a number of areas where LOINC could benefit from the application of Description Logic. ..
  7. Vandenbussche P, Cormont S, André C, Daniel C, Delahousse J, Charlet J, et al. Implementation and management of a biomedical observation dictionary in a large healthcare information system. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2013;20:940-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the increase in the mapping implementation to LOINC ensures the interoperability allowing communication with other international health institutions. ..
  8. Matney S, Dolin G, Buhl L, Sheide A. Communicating Nursing Care Using the Health Level Seven Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture Release 2 Care Plan. Comput Inform Nurs. 2016;34:128-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The American Nurses Association has recommended the use of two terminologies, Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) for assessments and outcomes and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms ..
  9. Dolin R, Mattison J, Cohn S, Campbell K, Wiesenthal A, Hochhalter B, et al. Kaiser Permanente's Convergent Medical Terminology. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2004;107:346-50 pubmed
    ..KP has learned to exploit that terminology in ways that are clinician-acceptable and that provide powerful options for data analysis and reporting. ..
  10. Parker C, Rocha R, Campbell J, Tu S, Huff S. Detailed clinical models for sharable, executable guidelines. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2004;107:145-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, common detailed clinical models are needed to give precise semantics and to make the task of mapping between models manageable. We discuss the experience of the SAGE project related to detailed clinical models. ..
  11. Lee K, Yoon J, Min W, Lim H, Song J, Chae S, et al. Standardization of terminology in laboratory medicine II. J Korean Med Sci. 2008;23:711-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We herein described the Korean standard laboratory terminology database for test names, result description terms, and result units encompassing most of the laboratory tests in Korea. ..
  12. Haimi S, Vienonen A, Hirn M, Pelto M, Virtanen V, Suuronen R. The effect of chemical cleansing procedures combined with peracetic acid-ethanol sterilization on biomechanical properties of cortical bone. Biologicals. 2008;36:99-104 pubmed
    ..Our in vitro study indicates that the cleansing procedure proposed combined with PES affects the biomechanical properties of cortical bone only on a limited scale...
  13. Reeves R, Fitzhenry F, Brown S, Kotter K, Gobbel G, Montella D, et al. Who said it? Establishing professional attribution among authors of Veterans' Electronic Health Records. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2012;2012:753-62 pubmed
    ..7% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity. Note titles alone provided fair professional classification. Inclusion of author electronic signatures significantly boosted classification performance. ..
  14. Ranallo P, Adam T, Nelson K, Krueger R, LaVenture M, Chute C. Psychological assessment instruments: a coverage analysis using SNOMED CT, LOINC and QS terminology. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2013;2013:1333-40 pubmed
    ..Based on these findings, we recommend that systematic efforts be made to enhance standard healthcare terminologies to provide better coverage of this domain. ..
  15. Stark M. A look at LOINC. J AHIMA. 2006;77:52, 54-5; quiz 57-8 pubmed
  16. Kopanitsa G. Mapping Russian Laboratory Terms to LOINC. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2015;210:379-83 pubmed
    ..We established LOINC as a canonical coding method for a laboratory data exchange. This provided semantic interoperability for the data exchange process. ..
  17. Gamache R, Dixon B, Grannis S, Vreeman D. Impact of selective mapping strategies on automated laboratory result notification to public health authorities. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2012;2012:228-36 pubmed
    ..Our study highlights the ways that our approach to implementing vocabulary standards impacts secondary data uses such as public health reporting. ..
  18. Herbst M. Another look at LOINC (Logical Observation and Identifier Codes). J AHIMA. 2002;73:56, 58 pubmed
  19. Klepp O, Mastekaasa A, Sørensen T, Sandanger I, Kleiner R. Structure analysis of Antonovsky's sense of coherence from an epidemiological mental health survey with a brief nine-item sense of coherence scale. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2007;16:11-22 pubmed
    ..We therefore conclude in favour of a one-factor model. ..
  20. Lin M, Vreeman D, Huff S. Investigating the semantic interoperability of laboratory data exchanged using LOINC codes in three large institutions. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2011;2011:805-14 pubmed
    ..Our findings highlight the limitations of interoperability in current laboratory reporting. ..
  21. Rajda J, Vreeman D, Wei H. Semantic interoperability of Health Risk Assessments. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2011;2011:1134-43 pubmed
    ..We propose that using LOINC codes or other universal coding schema may allow semantic interoperability of a variety of HRA tools across the industry, research, and clinical settings. ..
  22. Vreeman D, Chiaravalloti M, Hook J, McDonald C. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation. J Biomed Inform. 2012;45:667-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange. ..
  23. Chmarra M, Grimbergen C, Dankelman J. Systems for tracking minimally invasive surgical instruments. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol. 2007;16:328-40 pubmed
    ..A great number of systems can be used in training environment only, most systems do not allow the use of real laparoscopic instruments, and only a small number of systems provide force feedback. ..
  24. Xu Y, Wang W, Li S. Simultaneous determination of low-molecular-weight organic acids and chlorinated acid herbicides in environmental water by a portable CE system with contactless conductivity detection. Electrophoresis. 2007;28:1530-9 pubmed
    ..The portable CE-CCD system shows advantages such as simplicity, cost effectiveness, and miniaturization. Therefore, the method presented in this report has great potential for onsite analysis of various pollutants at the trace level. ..
  25. Hara N, Onoguchi M, Nishida T, Honda M, Houjou O, Yuhi M, et al. Considerations for setting up an order entry system for nuclear medicine tests. J Nucl Med Technol. 2007;35:259-71 pubmed
  26. Wu J, Finnell J, Vreeman D. Evaluating congruence between laboratory LOINC value sets for quality measures, public health reporting, and mapping common tests. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2013;2013:1525-32 pubmed
    ..A relatively small proportion of the VSAC Quality LOINCs were used by our hospital laboratories. Our results illustrate how mapping based only on test frequency might hinder these secondary uses of laboratory test results. ..
  27. Choi J, Jenkins M, Cimino J, White T, Bakken S. Toward semantic interoperability in home health care: formally representing OASIS items for integration into a concept-oriented terminology. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2005;12:410-7 pubmed
    ..The cross-mapping results support the possibility of a hierarchical structure of the OASIS-B1 concepts within nursing terminologies in the LOINC database. ..
  28. Khan A, Griffith S, Moore C, Russell D, Rosario A, Bertolli J. Standardizing laboratory data by mapping to LOINC. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2006;13:353-5 pubmed
    ..This project may provide a model for standardization efforts in other health systems. ..
  29. Phantumvanit P, Monteil R, Walsh T, Miotti F, Carlsson P, Doukoudakis A, et al. 4.2 Clinical records and global diagnostic codes. Eur J Dent Educ. 2002;6 Suppl 3:138-46 pubmed
    ..This would require the provision of an overarching interdisciplinary focus and funding should be made available for this development and its implementation. ..
  30. Currie L, Mellino L, Cimino J, Bakken S. Development and representation of a fall-injury risk assessment instrument in a clinical information system. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2004;107:721-5 pubmed
    ..The concepts contained in the instrument are well represented by Clinical LOINC and the UMLS. Associated concepts have been identified in the existing clinical information system data dictionary for pre-population of the instrument. ..
  31. Lin M, Vreeman D, McDonald C, Huff S. Auditing consistency and usefulness of LOINC use among three large institutions - using version spaces for grouping LOINC codes. J Biomed Inform. 2012;45:658-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The LOINC committee should also provide detailed guidance on best practices for mapping from local codes to LOINC codes and for using LOINC codes in data exchange. ..
  32. Courrieu P. Density codes and shape spaces. Neural Netw. 2006;19:429-45 pubmed
    ..Moreover, a parallel neural implementation of the encoding algorithm is available for 2D image data. ..
  33. Waikar S, Wald R, Chertow G, Curhan G, Winkelmayer W, Liangos O, et al. Validity of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification Codes for Acute Renal Failure. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:1688-94 pubmed
    ..The excellent performance characteristics of ICD-9-CM codes for ARF-D suggest that administrative data sets may be particularly well suited for research endeavors that involve patients with ARF-D. ..
  34. McDonald C, Dexter P, Schadow G, Chueh H, Abernathy G, Hook J, et al. SPIN query tools for de-identified research on a humongous database. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2005;:515-9 pubmed
    ..The new SPIN/INPC database represents a new generation of the Regenstrief Medical Record system - a centralized, but federated system of repositories. ..
  35. Vreeman D, McDonald C. Automated mapping of local radiology terms to LOINC. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2005;:769-73 pubmed
    ..We have made IM freely available, with the aim of reducing the effort required to integrate disparate systems and helping move us towards the goal of interoperable health information exchange. ..
  36. Fidahussein M, Vreeman D. A corpus-based approach for automated LOINC mapping. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2014;21:64-72 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether the knowledge contained in a rich corpus of local terms mapped to LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes) could be leveraged to help map local terms from other institutions...
  37. Tempels F, Underberg W, Somsen G, de Jong G. On-line coupling of SPE and CE-MS for peptide analysis. Electrophoresis. 2007;28:1319-26 pubmed
    ..Nonetheless, positive identification of the protein was achieved, indicating the feasibility of the system for proteomics. ..
  38. Zunner C, Bürkle T, Prokosch H, Ganslandt T. Mapping local laboratory interface terms to LOINC at a German university hospital using RELMA V.5: a semi-automated approach. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2013;20:293-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) mapping of laboratory data is often a question of the effort of mapping compared with the benefits of the structure achieved...
  39. Liu C, Jiang Z, Zhen L, Su H. A bilateral integrative health-care knowledge service mechanism based on 'MedGrid'. Comput Biol Med. 2008;38:446-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Each level and detailed contents are described on MedGrid info-structure. Moreover, a new diagnosis and treatment mechanism are formed by technically connecting with electronic health-care records (EHRs). ..
  40. Cormont S, Vandenbussche P, Buemi A, Delahousse J, Lepage E, Charlet J. Implementation of a platform dedicated to the biomedical analysis terminologies management. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2011;2011:1418-27 pubmed
    ..In addition, structuring data representation has lead to a significant data quality improvement (impacting more than 10% of data). The platform is active in the 21 hospitals of the institution spread into 165 laboratories. ..
  41. Anderson N, Abend A, Mandel A, Geraghty E, Gabriel D, Wynden R, et al. Implementation of a deidentified federated data network for population-based cohort discovery. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2012;19:e60-7 pubmed
    ..Enhancing the network for more focused disease areas will require research-driven partnerships represented across all partner sites. ..
  42. Dugas M, Thun S, Frankewitsch T, Heitmann K. LOINC codes for hospital information systems documents: a case study. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2009;16:400-3 pubmed publisher
    ..HL7's Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) uses LOINC (logical observation identifiers names and Codes) codes for clinical documents...
  43. Zeren T, Ozbek M, Ekerbicer N, Yalçin G, Akdeniz K. Sensitively recorded breathing signals of rats and their nonlinear dynamics. J Biochem Biophys Methods. 2007;70:573-7 pubmed
    ..This method can be used to assess the heart performance and respiratory mechanics, and might be useful to design for the physiological studies of cardiorespiratory system in small laboratory animals. ..
  44. Hoegaerts L, De Lathauwer L, Goethals I, Suykens J, Vandewalle J, De Moor B. Efficiently updating and tracking the dominant kernel principal components. Neural Netw. 2007;20:220-9 pubmed
    ..Experiments show that our updating scheme delivers a numerically stable and accurate approximation for eigenvalues and eigenvectors at every iteration in comparison to the batch algorithm. ..
  45. Aller R. For vendors, LOINC a fast track to the future. CAP Today. 2003;17:34, 36, 38 passim pubmed
  46. Kroth P, Daneshvari S, Harris E, Vreeman D, Edgar H. Using LOINC to link 10 terminology standards to one unified standard in a specialized domain. J Biomed Inform. 2012;45:674-82 pubmed publisher
  47. Lin M, Vreeman D, McDonald C, Huff S. A characterization of local LOINC mapping for laboratory tests in three large institutions. Methods Inf Med. 2011;50:105-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our research supports the conclusions of others that not all local codes should be assigned LOINC codes. There should also be public discussions to develop more precise rules for when LOINC codes should be assigned. ..
  48. Friedlin J, McDonald C. An evaluation of medical knowledge contained in Wikipedia and its use in the LOINC database. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2010;17:283-7 pubmed publisher
    The logical observation identifiers names and codes (LOINC) database contains 55 000 terms consisting of more atomic components called parts. LOINC carries more than 18 000 distinct parts...
  49. Beitia A, Kuperman G, Delman B, Shapiro J. Assessing the performance of LOINC® and RadLex for coverage of CT scans across three sites in a health information exchange. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2013;2013:94-102 pubmed
    ..With trends toward greater interoperability, this work may provide a framework for those wishing to map radiology site codes to a standard nomenclature for purposes of tracking resource utilization. ..
  50. Euzeby J. List of new names and new combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006;56:2025-7 pubmed
    ..Indeed, some of these names may, in time, be shown to be synonyms, or the organisms may be transferred to another genus, thus necessitating the creation of a new combination. ..
  51. Lau L, Banning P, Monson K, Knight E, Wilson P, Shakib S. Mapping Department of Defense laboratory results to Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC). AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2005;:430-4 pubmed
    ..This paper presents some findings from our experience mapping DoD laboratory results to LOINC. ..
  52. Kopanitsa G. Application of a Regenstrief RELMA V.6.6 to Map Russian Laboratory Terms to LOINC. Methods Inf Med. 2016;55:177-81 pubmed publisher
    Manual mapping of laboratory data to Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) requires a major effort. Application of the LOINC mapping assistant RELMA V.6.6 can reduce the effort required for mapping...
  53. Wiltz J, Blanck H, Lee B, Kocot S, Seeff L, McGuire L, et al. Electronic Information Standards to Support Obesity Prevention and Bridge Services Across Systems, 2010-2015. Prev Chronic Dis. 2017;14:E103 pubmed publisher
    ..Healthy weight products include 2 message standards, 5 use-cases, 31 LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes) question codes, 7 healthy weight value sets, 15 public-private engagements with health ..