intensity modulated radiotherapy


Summary: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.

Top Publications

  1. Shaffer R, Vollans E, Vellani R, Welsh M, Moiseenko V, Goddard K. A radiotherapy planning study of RapidArc, intensity modulated radiotherapy, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, and parallel opposed beams in the treatment of pediatric retroperitoneal tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011;56:16-23 pubmed publisher
    ..RapidArc and cIMRT were generally no better dosimetrically than conformal techniques. RapidArc was dosimetrically very similar to cIMRT, but resulted in a major reduction in time and MU used to deliver the radiation. ..
  2. Weber D, Wang H, Cozzi L, Dipasquale G, Khan H, Ratib O, et al. RapidArc, intensity modulated photon and proton techniques for recurrent prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: a treatment planning comparison study. Radiat Oncol. 2009;4:34 pubmed publisher
    ..RA and IMPT showed improvements in conformal avoidance relative to fixed beam IMRT for 7 patients with recurrent prostate cancer. IMPT showed further sparing of organs at risk. ..
  3. Söhn M, Weinmann M, Alber M. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy optimization in a quasi-periodically deforming patient model. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;75:906-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the focus of this study was 4D lung planning, the approach can be generally applied for IMRT optimization in randomly deforming patient models. ..
  4. Vandecasteele K, De Neve W, De Gersem W, Delrue L, Paelinck L, Makar A, et al. Intensity-modulated arc therapy with simultaneous integrated boost in the treatment of primary irresectable cervical cancer. Treatment planning, quality control, and clinical implementation. Strahlenther Onkol. 2009;185:799-807 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no treatment interruptions. IMAT allows delivering an SIB to the macroscopic tumor without compromising the dose to the elective lymph nodes or the organs at risk. The clinical implementation is feasible. ..
  5. Shueng P, Lin S, Chang H, Chong N, Chen Y, Wang L, et al. Toxicity risk of non-target organs at risk receiving low-dose radiation: case report. Radiat Oncol. 2009;4:71 pubmed publisher
    ..Helical tomotherapy (HT), a new image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), delivers highly conformal dose distributions and provides an impressive ability to spare ..
  6. Yoo S, Wu Q, Lee W, Yin F. Radiotherapy treatment plans with RapidArc for prostate cancer involving seminal vesicles and lymph nodes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;76:935-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Dosimetric results and treatment delivery efficiency of RapidArc plans to those of conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were compared using the Eclipse treatment planning system for high-risk prostate cancer...
  7. Munawar I, Yaremko B, Craig J, Oliver M, Gaede S, Rodrigues G, et al. Intensity modulated radiotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer incorporating SPECT ventilation imaging. Med Phys. 2010;37:1863-72 pubmed
    ..The potential benefit of ventilation SPECT scanning can be determined by preplanning assessment of overlap volumes and the AAMvLD. ..
  8. Roeder F, Timke C, Zwicker F, Thieke C, Bischof M, Debus J, et al. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in benign giant cell tumors--a single institution case series and a short review of the literature. Radiat Oncol. 2010;5:18 pubmed publisher
    ..In our case series local control was achieved in four out of five patients with marked symptom relief in the majority of cases. No severe toxicity was observed. ..
  9. Richetti A, Fogliata A, Clivio A, Nicolini G, Pesce G, Salati E, et al. Neo-adjuvant chemo-radiation of rectal cancer with volumetric modulated arc therapy: summary of technical and dosimetric features and early clinical experience. Radiat Oncol. 2010;5:14 pubmed publisher
    ..RA treatments were performed with an average of 2.0 vs. 3.4 min of 3DC. RA proved to be a safe, qualitatively advantageous treatment modality for rectal cancer, showing some improved results in dosimetric aspects. ..

More Information


  1. Dahele M, Skinner M, Schultz B, Cardoso M, Bell C, Ung Y. Adjuvant radiotherapy for gastric cancer: A dosimetric comparison of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, tomotherapy and conventional intensity modulated radiotherapy treatment plans. Med Dosim. 2010;35:115-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Both irradiate large volumes of normal tissue to low doses. Additional studies are needed to demonstrate the clinical impact of these technologies. ..
  2. Shueng P, Wu L, Chen S, Hsiao C, Tien H, Cheng P, et al. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with helical tomotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer: a preliminary result. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;77:715-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment toxicity was acceptable, even in the setting of concurrent chemotherapy. Long-term follow-up is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. ..
  3. van Rooijen D, Van de Kamer J, Pool R, Hulshof M, Koning C, Bel A. The effect of on-line position correction on the dose distribution in focal radiotherapy for bladder cancer. Radiat Oncol. 2009;4:38 pubmed publisher
    ..For 25 patients with unifocal bladder cancer intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with 5 beams was planned...
  4. Sterzing F, Stoiber E, Nill S, Bauer H, Huber P, Debus J, et al. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of children and adolescents--a single institution's experience and a review of the literature. Radiat Oncol. 2009;4:37 pubmed publisher
    ..In selected cases the quality of IMRT plans increases the therapeutic ratio and outweighs the risk of potentially increased rates of secondary malignancies by the augmented low dose exposure. ..
  5. Pinkawa M, Attieh C, Piroth M, Holy R, Nussen S, Klotz J, et al. Dose-escalation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer--evaluation of the dose distribution with and without 18F-choline PET-CT detected simultaneous integrated boost. Radiother Oncol. 2009;93:213-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment planning with IB allows an individually adapted dose escalation. The therapeutic ratio can be improved by a considerable dose escalation to the macroscopic tumour, but only minor EUD changes to the bladder and rectum. ..
  6. Vanetti E, Clivio A, Nicolini G, Fogliata A, Ghosh Laskar S, Agarwal J, et al. Volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy for carcinomas of the oro-pharynx, hypo-pharynx and larynx: a treatment planning comparison with fixed field IMRT. Radiother Oncol. 2009;92:111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..2 Gy (RA2). RapidArc was investigated for head and neck cancer. RA1 and RA2 showed some improvements in organs at risk and healthy tissue sparing, while only RA2 offered improved target coverage with respect to conventional IMRT. ..
  7. Verbakel W, Cuijpers J, Hoffmans D, Bieker M, Slotman B, Senan S. Volumetric intensity-modulated arc therapy vs. conventional IMRT in head-and-neck cancer: a comparative planning and dosimetric study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;74:252-9 pubmed publisher
    ..82%. RA is a fast, safe, and accurate technique that uses lower MUs than conventional IMRT. Double arc plans provided at least similar sparing of OAR and better PTV dose homogeneity than single arc or IMRT. ..
  8. Prise K, O Sullivan J. Radiation-induced bystander signalling in cancer therapy. Nat Rev Cancer. 2009;9:351-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This Review outlines the key aspects of radiation-induced intercellular signalling and assesses its relevance for existing and future radiation-based therapies. ..
  9. van Haaren P, Bel A, Hofman P, van Vulpen M, Kotte A, van der Heide U. Influence of daily setup measurements and corrections on the estimated delivered dose during IMRT treatment of prostate cancer patients. Radiother Oncol. 2009;90:291-8 pubmed publisher
    ..With the daily off-line correction protocol, the remaining variations are accommodated adequately. ..
  10. Orlandi E, Palazzi M, Pignoli E, Fallai C, Giostra A, Olmi P. Radiobiological basis and clinical results of the simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer: A review. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2010;73:111-25 pubmed publisher
  11. Clivio A, Fogliata A, Franzetti Pellanda A, Nicolini G, Vanetti E, Wyttenbach R, et al. Volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy for carcinomas of the anal canal: A treatment planning comparison with fixed field IMRT. Radiother Oncol. 2009;92:118-24 pubmed publisher
    ..6+/-0.0 min for double arcs. RapidArc showed improvements in organs at risk and healthy tissue sparing with uncompromised target coverage when double arcs are applied. Optimal results were also achieved anyway with IMRT plans. ..
  12. Zhang P, Happersett L, Hunt M, Jackson A, Zelefsky M, Mageras G. Volumetric modulated arc therapy: planning and evaluation for prostate cancer cases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;76:1456-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The VMAT technique can reduce beam on time by up to 55% while maintaining dosimetric quality comparable to that of the standard IMRT approach. ..
  13. Lavrenkov K, Singh S, Christian J, Partridge M, Nioutsikou E, Cook G, et al. Effective avoidance of a functional spect-perfused lung using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): an update of a planning study. Radiother Oncol. 2009;91:349-52 pubmed publisher
    ..If the dose to FL is shown to be the determinant of lung toxicity, IMRT would allow for effective dose escalation by specific avoidance of functional lung. ..
  14. Welsh J, Lock M, Harari P, Tome W, Fowler J, Mackie T, et al. Clinical implementation of adaptive helical tomotherapy: a unique approach to image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2006;5:465-79 pubmed
  15. Fonteyne V, Villeirs G, Lumen N, De Meerleer G. Urinary toxicity after high dose intensity modulated radiotherapy as primary therapy for prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2009;92:42-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we report on: (1) Incidence of acute and late GU toxicity after intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer at Ghent University Hospital (GUH)...
  16. Chera B, Rodriguez C, Morris C, Louis D, Yeung D, Li Z, et al. Dosimetric comparison of three different involved nodal irradiation techniques for stage II Hodgkin's lymphoma patients: conventional radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and three-dimensional proton radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;75:1173-80 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the dose distribution to targeted and nontargeted tissues in Hodgkin's lymphoma patients using conventional radiotherapy (CRT), intensity-modulated RT (IMRT), and three-dimensional proton RT (3D-PRT)...
  17. Lagerwaard F, Meijer O, van der Hoorn E, Verbakel W, Slotman B, Senan S. Volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy for vestibular schwannomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;74:610-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The RA plans consistently achieved a higher CI and decrease in areas of low-dose irradiation. This, together with shorter treatment delivery times, has led to RA replacing our conventional five-arc radiosurgery technique for VS. ..
  18. Nangia S, Chufal K, Tyagi A, Bhatnagar A, Mishra M, Ghosh D. Selective nodal irradiation for head and neck cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy: application of RTOG consensus guidelines in routine clinical practice. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;76:146-53 pubmed publisher
    ..IMRT for head-neck cancer is feasible, using elective nodal selection criteria along with RTOG consensus guidelines for the radiological boundaries of levels of neck nodes. ..
  19. Diaz R, Jaboin J, Morales Paliza M, Koehler E, Phillips J, Stinson S, et al. Hypothyroidism as a consequence of intensity-modulated radiotherapy with concurrent taxane-based chemotherapy for locally advanced head-and-neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;77:468-76 pubmed publisher
    ..005). If not protected, IMRT for LAHNC can result in higher radiation to the thyroid than with conventional 3D-RT. Techniques to reduce dose and volume of radiation to thyroid tissue with IMRT are achievable and recommended. ..
  20. Lee I, Seong J, Lee C, Kim Y, Keum K, Suh C, et al. Early clinical experience and outcome of helical tomotherapy for multiple metastatic lesions. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;73:1517-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The volume of red bone marrow, as well as performance status, must be taken into account to determine optimal treatment. ..
  21. Engels B, de Ridder M, Tournel K, Sermeus A, De Coninck P, Verellen D, et al. Preoperative helical tomotherapy and megavoltage computed tomography for rectal cancer: impact on the irradiated volume of small bowel. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;74:1476-80 pubmed publisher
    ..5% to 26.5% with IMRT and to 18.0% with IMRT/IGRT (p < 0.01). The combination of helical tomotherapy and daily MV-CT imaging significantly decreases the irradiated volume of small bowel and its NTCP. ..
  22. Sirak I, Kasaova L, Petera J, Vosmik M, Zoul Z. [Intensity modulated radiation therapy technique in the treatment of gynecologic malignancies]. Ceska Gynekol. 2010;75:177-81 pubmed
    ..A feasibilty of dose excalation with preservation of low toxicity is another advandage of IMRT. It can be utilized in the treatment of most frequent gynecologic tumors, especially in endometrial, cervical, and vulvar carcinoma. ..
  23. Sanghera P, Lightstone A, Hyde D, Davey P. Case report. Fractionated Helical Tomotherapy as an alternative to radiosurgery in patients unwilling to undergo additional radiosurgery for recurrent brain metastases. Br J Radiol. 2010;83:e25-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that fractionated Helical Tomotherapy for brain metastases may be a viable alternative to radiosurgery in patients unable or unwilling to undergo that procedure. ..
  24. Mascarin M, Dall Oglio S, Palazzi M, Sartor G, Marradi P, Romano M, et al. A case of relapsed medulloblastoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy and temozolomide. Tumori. 2010;96:327-31 pubmed
    ..TMZ was continued for another 5 cycles and then stopped. At 14 months from the completion of IMRT, a new MRI scan showed multiple nodular relapses around the fourth ventricle and the patient is currently treated with oral etoposide. ..
  25. Seppälä J, Kulmala J, Lindholm P, Minn H. A method to improve target dose homogeneity of craniospinal irradiation using dynamic split field IMRT. Radiother Oncol. 2010;96:209-15 pubmed publisher
    ..With the sfIMRT technique only a single treatment plan is required to deliver the total treatment dose and the resulting dose distribution is also less volatile for technical uncertainties of the treatment. ..
  26. Wright J, Patil S, Temple L, Minsky B, Saltz L, Goodman K. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: patterns and predictors of failure and implications for intensity-modulated radiation treatment planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;78:1064-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed patterns of failure support inclusion of the inguinal and all pelvic nodal groups in the CTV for IMRT. In patients with advanced tumor or nodal stage, common iliac nodes should also be included in the CTV. ..
  27. Reddy N, Nori D, Sartin W, Maiorano S, Modena J, Mazur A, et al. Influence of volumes of prostate, rectum, and bladder on treatment planning CT on interfraction prostate shifts during ultrasound image-guided IMRT. Med Phys. 2009;36:5604-11 pubmed
    ..Daily image-guided adoptive radiotherapy would be required for patients with distended or empty rectum on planning CT to reduce rectal toxicity in the case of empty rectum and to minimize geometric miss of prostate. ..
  28. Saitoh J, Saito Y, Kazumoto T, Kudo S, Ichikawa A, Hayase N, et al. Therapeutic effect of linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy with a micro-multileaf collimator for the treatment of patients with brain metastases from lung cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2010;40:119-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypofactionated stereotactic radiotherapy with mMLC is considered to be an effective and safe modality for the treatment of brain metastases in lung cancer patients. ..
  29. Park H, Kim K, Park S, Kay C, Oh J. Early CT findings of tomotherapy-induced radiation pneumonitis after treatment of lung malignancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;193:W209-13 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the location of the radiation pneumonitis tended not to correspond to the planned target volume and had a centrifugal distribution. In addition, the immediate area around the target tended to be spared. ..
  30. Santoro J, Yorke E, Goodman K, Mageras G. From phase-based to displacement-based gating: a software tool to facilitate respiration-gated radiation treatment. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2009;10:2982 pubmed
    ..Displacement gating is less prone to such errors, as evidenced by the lower in-gate residual motion in a large majority of cases. ..
  31. Morganti A, Balducci M, Salvati M, Esposito V, Romanelli P, Ferro M, et al. A phase I dose-escalation study (ISIDE-BT-1) of accelerated IMRT with temozolomide in patients with glioblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;77:92-7 pubmed publisher
    ..No Grade >2 late neurologic toxicities were noted. Accelerated IMRT to a dose of 65 Gy in 25 fractions is well tolerated with TMZ at a daily dose of 75 mg. ..
  32. Rose P, Laufer I, Boland P, Hanover A, Bilsky M, Yamada J, et al. Risk of fracture after single fraction image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy to spinal metastases. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:5075-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may help clinicians identify high-risk patients who would benefit from prophylactic vertebro- or kyphoplasty. ..
  33. Han Z, Ng S, Bhagwat M, Lyatskaya Y, Zygmanski P. Evaluation of MatriXX for IMRT and VMAT dose verifications in peripheral dose regions. Med Phys. 2010;37:3704-14 pubmed
    ..In all cases, good agreements between MatriXX and an ion chamber are achieved after corrections. The authors conclude that with proper corrections, MatriXX can be reliably used for peripheral dose measurements within the ranges studied. ..
  34. Wolff D, Stieler F, Welzel G, Lorenz F, Abo Madyan Y, Mai S, et al. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) vs. serial tomotherapy, step-and-shoot IMRT and 3D-conformal RT for treatment of prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2009;93:226-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Plans which were calculated with 3D-CRT provided good target coverage but resulted in higher dose to the rectum. ..
  35. Rickhey M, Moravek Z, Eilles C, Koelbl O, Bogner L. 18F-FET-PET-based dose painting by numbers with protons. Strahlenther Onkol. 2010;186:320-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The presented investigation fortifies the feasibility of (18)F-FET-PET-based dose painting with protons. ..
  36. Dejean C, Kantor G, Henriques de Figueiredo B, Lisbona A, Mahe M, Mervoyer A, et al. [Helical tomotherapy: description and clinical applications]. Bull Cancer. 2010;97:783-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Dosimetric characteristics as quality of homogeneity, cut-off outside target volumes allow IMRT treatments for large and complex volumes and a good organ at risk sparing. First comparative dosimetric studies are discussed. ..
  37. Corvò R. [Helical tomotherapy in oncology: new indications and innovative potentials with advanced radiotherapy technology]. Recenti Prog Med. 2009;100:535-40 pubmed
    ..This review briefly describes the wide potential impact of HT upon either clinical practice or technologic research in oncology. ..
  38. Wagner D, Christiansen H, Wolff H, Vorwerk H. Radiotherapy of malignant gliomas: comparison of volumetric single arc technique (RapidArc), dynamic intensity-modulated technique and 3D conformal technique. Radiother Oncol. 2009;93:593-6 pubmed publisher
    ..If PTV is distant to OAR, the use of 3D conformal technique is sufficient. Otherwise an intensity-modulated technique should be used. RapidArc was faster than conventional IMRT and should be preferred if PTV coverage is adequate. ..
  39. Anjum M, Parker W, Ruo R, Afzal M. Evaluation criteria for film based intensity modulated radiation therapy quality assurance. Phys Med. 2010;26:38-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study may be useful for other institutions which use verification software and EBT films for patient specific IMRT QA. ..
  40. Devisetty K, Mell L, Salama J, Schomas D, Miller R, Jani A, et al. A multi-institutional acute gastrointestinal toxicity analysis of anal cancer patients treated with concurrent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and chemotherapy. Radiother Oncol. 2009;93:298-301 pubmed publisher
    ..For V(30)>450 cc and < or =450 cc, acute GI toxicity was 33% and 8%, respectively (p=0.003)...
  41. Yang R, Xu S, Jiang W, Xie C, Wang J. Integral dose in three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy and helical tomotherapy. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2009;21:706-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of 18MV improved the integral doses to normal tissue and the whole body in both 3DCRT and IMRT. ..
  42. Wu A, Gomez J, Zhung J, Chan K, Gomez D, Wolden S, et al. Radiotherapy after surgical resection for head and neck mucosal melanoma. Am J Clin Oncol. 2010;33:281-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To present our single-institution experience with postoperative radiotherapy for mucosal melanoma of the head and neck...
  43. Van de Werf E, Lievens Y, Verstraete J, Pauwels K, Van den Bogaert W. Time and motion study of radiotherapy delivery: Economic burden of increased quality assurance and IMRT. Radiother Oncol. 2009;93:137-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Both increased QA and the delivery of IMRT were found to be significant parameters determining daily treatment time (TT), which in turn translates in increased treatment costs. ..
  44. Hartel C, Nikoghosyan A, Durante M, Sommer S, Nasonova E, Fournier C, et al. Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of prostate cancer patients treated with IMRT and carbon ions. Radiother Oncol. 2010;95:73-8 pubmed publisher
    ..No cytogenetic "signature" of exposure to densely ionizing carbon ions could be detected in vivo. ..
  45. Bittner N, Butler W, Reed J, Murray B, Kurko B, Wallner K, et al. Electromagnetic tracking of intrafraction prostate displacement in patients externally immobilized in the prone position. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;77:490-5 pubmed publisher
    ..For patients with large girth, in whom the supine position may preclude accurate detection of implanted radiofrequency transponders, treatment in the prone position is a suitable alternative. ..
  46. van der Laan H, Dolsma W, Schilstra C, Korevaar E, de Bock G, Maduro J, et al. Limited benefit of inversely optimised intensity modulation in breast conserving radiotherapy with simultaneously integrated boost. Radiother Oncol. 2010;94:307-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In breast-conserving RT, results obtained with 3D-CRT-SIB and IMRT-SIB are generally comparable. Patient characteristics could be used to identify patients that are most likely to benefit from IMRT-SIB. ..
  47. Smeenk R, Teh B, Butler E, van Lin E, Kaanders J. Is there a role for endorectal balloons in prostate radiotherapy? A systematic review. Radiother Oncol. 2010;95:277-82 pubmed publisher
  48. Tanyi J, He T, Summers P, Mburu R, Kato C, Rhodes S, et al. Assessment of planning target volume margins for intensity-modulated radiotherapy of the prostate gland: role of daily inter- and intrafraction motion. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;78:1579-85 pubmed publisher
  49. Salguero F, Arrans R, Palma B, Leal A. Intensity- and energy-modulated electron radiotherapy by means of an xMLC for head and neck shallow tumors. Phys Med Biol. 2010;55:1413-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical implementation of this technique will be able to offer a viable alternative for the treatment of shallow head and neck tumors. ..
  50. Jin R, Min Z, Song E, Liu H, Ye Y. A novel fluence map optimization model incorporating leaf sequencing constraints. Phys Med Biol. 2010;55:1243-64 pubmed publisher
    ..While keeping plans in the similar conformity level, our new models gain much better performance on reducing TNMU. ..
  51. Ahunbay E, Peng C, Holmes S, Godley A, Lawton C, Li X. Online adaptive replanning method for prostate radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;77:1561-72 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of this study, the developed online replanning scheme is being implemented in the clinic for prostate RT. ..
  52. Beltran C, Naik M, Merchant T. Dosimetric effect of setup motion and target volume margin reduction in pediatric ependymoma. Radiother Oncol. 2010;96:216-22 pubmed publisher
    ..3D. IMRT improves calculated TCP vs. 3D. Daily localization can allow for a safe reduction in the PTV margin, while maintaining target coverage; reducing the CTV margin can further reduce NTCP and may reduce future side-effects. ..
  53. Aleman D, Glaser D, Romeijn H, Dempsey J. Interior point algorithms: guaranteed optimality for fluence map optimization in IMRT. Phys Med Biol. 2010;55:5467-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a convex FMO formulation and an interior point algorithm that yields an optimal treatment plan in seconds, making it a viable option for clinical applications. ..