copying processes


Summary: Reproduction of data in a new location or other destination, leaving the source data unchanged, although the physical form of the result may differ from that of the source.

Top Publications

  1. Furukawa Y, Aizawa Y, Okada M, Watanabe M, Niitsuya M, Kotani M. Negative effect of photocopier toner on alveolar macrophages determined by in vitro magnetometric evaluation. Ind Health. 2002;40:214-21 pubmed
    ..However, although the present study examined only effects in vitro, exposure to toner should be minimized because lung overloading in animals has been reported. ..
  2. Zhou J, Chen W, Tong G. Ozone emitted during copying process--a potential cause of pathological oxidative stress and potential oxidative damage in the bodies of operators. Biomed Environ Sci. 2003;16:95-104 pubmed
  3. Goud K, Hasan Q, Balakrishna N, Rao K, Ahuja Y. Genotoxicity evaluation of individuals working with photocopying machines. Mutat Res. 2004;563:151-8 pubmed
    ..The results showed a significant increase in the frequency of MN in buccal epithelial cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes, as well as chromosomal aberrations in the exposed as compared to the control subjects. ..
  4. Bai R, Zhang L, Liu Y, Meng L, Wang L, Wu Y, et al. Pulmonary responses to printer toner particles in mice after intratracheal instillation. Toxicol Lett. 2010;199:288-300 pubmed publisher
    ..The health and safety effects from working indoors in offices with fumes and particles released from photocopiers and printers need to be paid more attention. ..
  5. Morawska L, He C, Johnson G, Jayaratne R, Salthammer T, Wang H, et al. An investigation into the characteristics and formation mechanisms of particles originating from the operation of laser printers. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:1015-22 pubmed
  6. Slesinski R, Turnbull D. Chronic inhalation exposure of rats for up to 104 weeks to a non-carbon-based magnetite photocopying toner. Int J Toxicol. 2008;27:427-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The 104-week study showed no increase in the incidence of pulmonary tumors. ..
  7. Morimoto Y, Oyabu T, Horie M, Kambara T, Izumi H, Kuroda E, et al. Pulmonary toxicity of printer toner following inhalation and intratracheal instillation. Inhal Toxicol. 2013;25:679-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The changes observed in the pulmonary responses in this inhalation study indicate that the high concentration (16?mg/m(3)) is an LOAEL and that the medium concentration (4?mg/m(3)) is an NOAEL. ..
  8. Rosseto M, Palma F, Ferreira R, Pinzan A, Vellini Ferreira F. Comparative study of dental arch width in plaster models, photocopies and digitized images. Braz Oral Res. 2009;23:190-5 pubmed
    ..It may be concluded that photocopies and digitized images of the plaster models provided reliable reproductions of the dental arches for obtaining transversal intra-arch measurements. ..
  9. Haugh R. Legal. E-disclosures. Hosp Health Netw. 2006;80:22, 24 pubmed

More Information


  1. Thompson P, Bell P. Potential student abuse of technology in the clinical setting. Nurse Educ. 2007;32:145-6 pubmed
  2. Otis L, Sherman R. Assessing the accuracy of caries diagnosis via radiograph. Film versus print. J Am Dent Assoc. 2005;136:323-30 pubmed
    ..Other factors that must be considered are the type of printer, printer resolution, paper quality and type of ink used. With careful consideration of printing parameters, clinicians can be assured of diagnostic quality in printed images. ..
  3. Williams J. Cloned hard drives reduce time, improve service. Biomed Instrum Technol. 2007;41:449-50 pubmed
  4. Spindel D. EMR vs. DIMS. Yea: full EMR offers enhanced efficiency and workflow. MGMA Connex. 2005;5:15-6 pubmed
  5. Sheets V. Fraudulent documents and licensure applications. JONAS Healthc Law Ethics Regul. 2008;10:40-1 pubmed publisher
  6. Gaona González A, Santillán Doherty A, Arenas Rosas R, Muñóz Delgado J, Aguillón Pantaleón M, Ordoñez Gómez J, et al. Recording vocalizations with Bluetooth technology. Behav Res Methods. 2011;43:340-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We also describe how the transmitting system is encapsulated and fixed on the animal and a way to video record a spider monkey's behavior simultaneously with the audio recordings. ..
  7. Dunn R. Copy cost questions require closer look. J AHIMA. 2003;74:56-7 pubmed
  8. Tomlin A. OPL--small blessings. Natl Netw. 2002;27:13, 20 pubmed
  9. Clarke P, Booth D. Copying medical summaries on deceased infants to bereaved parents. Acta Paediatr. 2011;100:1262-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Most bereaved parents welcome an exact copy of the detailed medical summary that provides a complete record of their baby's clinical course, brief life and terminal events. ..
  10. Henschel D, Fortmann R, Roache N, Liu X. Potential for reducing indoor styrene exposure from copied paper through use of low-emitting toners. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2003;53:1347-54 pubmed
    ..The ability to generalize these conclusions is limited by the fact that only one copier and two toners could be tested. ..
  11. Lee C, Dai Y, Chien C, Hsu D. Characteristics and health impacts of volatile organic compounds in photocopy centers. Environ Res. 2006;100:139-49 pubmed
    ..0 (range 26.2-1.8) because of the high level of benzene in the photocopy centers. ..
  12. Schulte D. What can I charge patients for copying their dental records?. J Mich Dent Assoc. 2004;86:18 pubmed
  13. Fukuyama A, Ando S, Maeda K, Ida K, Suzuki T, Fukuyama K, et al. Method of duplicating film using the CR system: evaluation of detectability in a simulated nodule. Radiat Med. 2005;23:336-40 pubmed
    ..This method may be a reasonable substitute for the conventional duplication system. ..
  14. Nischelsky J. [Loaning digitally processed roentgen images in "diagnostic quality"]. Chirurg. 2006;Suppl:292 pubmed
  15. Raths D. Image is everything. Many healthcare organizations are finding that document imaging is a first critical step in the long march toward electronic medical records. Healthc Inform. 2006;23:26-9 pubmed
  16. Morimoto Y, Kitamura H, Kuga H, Ide R, Myojo T, Higashi T, et al. [New investigation of the effect of toner and its by-products on human health and occupational health management of toner]. Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2009;51:1-10 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we have examined whole occupational health management of toner and its by-products. ..
  17. Goedert J. Teaching old tech some new tricks. Health Data Manag. 2006;14:48, 50, 52-5 pubmed
  18. Thorsen O, Grimsmo A. [Should patients in general practice be offered a copy of their medical record?]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2006;126:603-4 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that many patients in general practice will find it useful to read their medical record. The study may indicate a better quality of the record when doctors are aware that the patients will have a copy. ..
  19. Li J, Wang Y, Wang J, Yao L, Zhang B. [Study on analysis of copy paper by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2009;29:1521-5 pubmed
    ..The results of fast identification of copy papers by FTIR are satisfactory. ..
  20. Gerrard G. Printed radiographs--is what you see what you get?. Dent Update. 2013;40:637-8, 641 pubmed
    ..Wherever possible, radiographs should be transmitted digitally between clinicians to maintain image integrity. This paper illustrates the potential pitfalls of printing radiographs to be sent with referrals. ..
  21. Henschel D, Fortmann R, Roache N, Liu X. Variations in the emissions of volatile organic compounds from the toner for a specific photocopier. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2001;51:708-17 pubmed
    ..01). The emission differences between the retailer and manufacturer toners are probably due to differences in the manufacturing processes and/or feedstocks used to produce the toners from these different sources. ..
  22. Morimoto Y, Kim H, Oyabu T, Hirohashi M, Nagatomo H, Ogami A, et al. Negative effect of long-term inhalation of toner on formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in DNA in the lungs of rats in vivo. Inhal Toxicol. 2005;17:749-53 pubmed
    ..Inhalation of the toner for 1 and even 2 yr did not induce the formation of 8-OH-Gua in DNA in rat lungs. These data suggest that long-term inhalation of toner may not induce lung tumors. ..
  23. Levy N. Plagiarism. Nurse Author Ed. 2005;15:7-8 pubmed
  24. El Ali H, Ljungberg M, Strand S, Palmer J, Malmgren L, Nilsson J. Calibration of a radioactive ink-based stack phantom and its applications in nuclear medicine. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2003;18:201-7 pubmed
    ..The phantom is a very flexible device and clearly much more versatile than conventional phantoms which have a fixed geometry and spatial limitation. ..
  25. De Bruyn B, Davis A. Breakdown of spatial parallel coding in children's drawing. Dev Sci. 2005;8:226-8 pubmed
    ..This finding demonstrates a major constraint on young children's spatial parallel coding. ..
  26. Hill T. Hospital libraries and technology. Natl Netw. 2003;28:10 pubmed
  27. Burrington Brown J. In search of document imaging best practices. J AHIMA. 2008;79:60-1 pubmed
  28. Yang C, Haung Y. A cross-sectional study of respiratory and irritant health symptoms in photocopier workers in Taiwan. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71:1314-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study results suggest that the current exposure levels in photocopy centers may be sufficiently safe in well-controlled work environments, especially if the photocopier is handled carefully. ..
  29. Reason J. Combating omission errors through task analysis and good reminders. Qual Saf Health Care. 2002;11:40-4 pubmed
    ..Such a programme is applicable to a variety of healthcare procedures. ..
  30. Hamilton M. EMR vs. DIMS. Nay: DIMS effective, less costly than EMR and easier to use. MGMA Connex. 2005;5:15-7 pubmed
  31. Helmer G. Time to be clutter-free. Occup Health Saf. 2007;76:19-20 pubmed
  32. Declercq J. [Presentation of a French bibliographic data bank for odontostomatology: Bibliodent]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2007;108:83-7 pubmed
  33. Khatri M, Bello D, Pal A, Cohen J, Woskie S, Gassert T, et al. Evaluation of cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory responses of nanoparticles from photocopiers in three human cell lines. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2013;10:42 pubmed publisher
    ..Further toxicological evaluations of these nanoparticles, including across different toner formulations, are warranted. ..
  34. DeJohn P. Extreme makeover for Hartford's print shop. Hosp Mater Manage. 2005;30:1, 9-11 pubmed
  35. Rogers M. Duplication of x-rays by scanning. J Clin Orthod. 2002;36:208-9 pubmed
  36. Arsikere H, Lulich S, Alwan A. Automatic estimation of the first subglottal resonance. J Acoust Soc Am. 2011;129:EL197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the derived relation, Sg1 was automatically estimated from voiced sounds in English and Spanish sentences spoken by 22 different speakers (11 males and 11 females). The error in estimating Sg1 was less than 50 Hz, on average. ..
  37. Kowalska M, Zajusz Zubek E. [Occupational exposure to ozone in workers using photocopiers and printers]. Med Pr. 2010;61:549-51 pubmed
    ..012-0.035 mg/m3) hence it can be suggested that the occupational exposure to ozone in those premises is not hazardous to workers. Our own data are close to the observations made by others authors. ..
  38. Connell J, Ritschdorff E, Whiteley M, Shear J. 3D printing of microscopic bacterial communities. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:18380-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this approach, we show that a picoliter-volume aggregate of Staphylococcus aureus can display substantial resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics by enclosure within a shell composed of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ..
  39. Jessop E. Be the best--Copy EXACTLY!. J Public Health Med. 2003;25:87 pubmed
  40. Abraham A, Gange S, Rawleigh S, Glass L, Springer G, Samet J. Retrospective mortality study among employees occupationally exposed to toner. J Occup Environ Med. 2010;52:1035-41 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no evidence that toner exposure increases the risk of all-cause mortality or cause-specific mortality for the 23 categories of death analyzed. ..
  41. Rybicki B, Amend K, Maliarik M, Iannuzzi M. Photocopier exposure and risk of sarcoidosis in African-American sibs. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis. 2004;21:49-55 pubmed
    ..83 to 2.19 depending on the exposure measure used. These results suggest that photocopier toner dust may be a previously unrecognized antigen in the pathophysiology of some patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis. ..
  42. Peretz B, Kaffe I, Amir E. Digital images obtained with a digital camera are not associated with a loss of critical information--a preliminary study. Br Dent J. 2009;206:E9; discussion 268-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical implication Clinicians can use digital cameras to digitise and store radiographic images without losing important diagnostic information. ..
  43. Theodorakou C, Horrocks J, Marshall N, Speller R. A novel method for producing x-ray test objects and phantoms. Phys Med Biol. 2004;49:1423-38 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the method is a reliable, cost-effective, flexible and alternative way for producing x-ray test objects and clinically related phantoms. ..
  44. Bar Sela S, Shoenfeld Y. Photocopy machines and occupational antiphospholipid syndrome. Isr Med Assoc J. 2008;10:52-4 pubmed
    ..The possible cause-effect inter-relationship between their occupational exposure and autoimmune disease is discussed. ..
  45. Dixon D, Hildebolt C. An overview of radiographic film holders. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2005;34:67-73 pubmed
    ..Readily available devices are adequate for routine clinical use; however, user-friendly and patient-friendly film-holding devices that result in highly reliable and accurate measurements have yet to be introduced. ..
  46. Al Dashti A, Cook P, Curzon M. A comparative study on methods of measuring mesiodistal tooth diameters for interceptive orthodontic space analysis. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2005;6:97-104 pubmed
    ..The measurement of photocopies was unreliable and the image analysis method had a too high error factor. ..
  47. Brown S. Assessment of pollutant emissions from dry-process photocopiers. Indoor Air. 1999;9:259-67 pubmed
    ..Small emissions of nitrogen dioxide, ozone and formaldehyde were observed but were difficult to interpret. A procedure for assessing pollutant emissions from photocopiers is recommended. ..
  48. Della Mea V. Prerecorded telemedicine. J Telemed Telecare. 2005;11:276-84 pubmed
  49. Hicks D, McGeorge B. Copying clinic letters to patients. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2005;31:337 pubmed
  50. Sayed E, Murray S. User satisfaction survey and usage of an electronic desktop document delivery service at an academic medical library. Med Ref Serv Q. 2003;22:21-9 pubmed
    ..To better support users, the library's Web page was updated to include hardware and software requirements for successful use of the Prospero service, as well as screen shots of the Prospero process. ..
  51. Kouble R, Craig G. A comparison between direct and indirect methods available for human bite mark analysis. J Forensic Sci. 2004;49:111-8 pubmed
    ..The modified ABFO scoring system was able to discriminate between a correct match and several incorrect matches by awarding a high score to the correct match...
  52. Treacy K, Elborn J, Rendall J, Bradley J. Copying letters to patients with cystic fibrosis (CF): letter content and patient perceptions of benefit. J Cyst Fibros. 2008;7:511-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Most patients (48/50, 96%) would rather receive a copy with 40/50 (80%) reporting advantages. Copying letters is well received amongst patients with CF, with numerous advantages and few disadvantages reported. ..
  53. Baumgartner M, Mussoline S. A generalized baleen whale call detection and classification system. J Acoust Soc Am. 2011;129:2889-902 pubmed publisher