expert systems


Summary: Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.

Top Publications

  1. Bota M, Arbib M. Integrating databases and expert systems for the analysis of brain structures: connections, similarities, and homologies. Neuroinformatics. 2004;2:19-58 pubmed
  2. Seto E, Leonard K, Cafazzo J, Barnsley J, Masino C, Ross H. Developing healthcare rule-based expert systems: case study of a heart failure telemonitoring system. Int J Med Inform. 2012;81:556-65 pubmed publisher
    The use of expert systems to generate automated alerts and patient instructions based on telemonitoring data could enable increased self-care and improve clinical management...
  3. Cao Y, Liu F, Simpson P, Antieau L, Bennett A, Cimino J, et al. AskHERMES: An online question answering system for complex clinical questions. J Biomed Inform. 2011;44:277-88 pubmed publisher
    ..AskHERMES, available at, has the potential to help physicians practice evidence-based medicine and improve the quality of patient care. ..
  4. Lozano Zahonero S, Gottlieb D, Haberthür C, Guttmann J, Moller K. Automated mechanical ventilation: adapting decision making to different disease states. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2011;49:349-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, clinical knowledge can be extended, updated, and the resulting mechanical ventilation therapies can be individually adapted, analyzed, and evaluated. ..
  5. Aniba M, Siguenza S, Friedrich A, Plewniak F, Poch O, Marchler Bauer A, et al. Knowledge-based expert systems and a proof-of-concept case study for multiple sequence alignment construction and analysis. Brief Bioinform. 2009;10:11-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We review the recent use of integrated expert systems aimed at providing more efficient knowledge extraction for bioinformatics research...
  6. Soman S, Zasuwa G, Yee J. Automation, decision support, and expert systems in nephrology. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2008;15:42-55 pubmed
  7. Abbod M, Catto J, Linkens D, Hamdy F. Application of artificial intelligence to the management of urological cancer. J Urol. 2007;178:1150-6 pubmed
    ..staging and prognostic prediction of urological cancers, some groups are exploring other techniques, such as expert systems and neuro-fuzzy modeling systems...
  8. Akbarzadeh T M, Moshtagh Khorasani M. A hierarchical fuzzy rule-based approach to aphasia diagnosis. J Biomed Inform. 2007;40:465-75 pubmed
    ..Statistical t-test analysis confirms that the proposed approach uses fewer Aphasia features while also presenting a significant improvement in terms of accuracy. ..
  9. Elyashberg M, Blinov K, Williams A, Molodtsov S, Martin G. Are deterministic expert systems for computer-assisted structure elucidation obsolete?. J Chem Inf Model. 2006;46:1643-56 pubmed
    b>Expert systems for spectroscopic molecular structure elucidation have been developed since the mid-1960s...

More Information


  1. Winstanley T, Courvalin P. Expert systems in clinical microbiology. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011;24:515-56 pubmed publisher
    This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading)...
  2. Cruchet S, Gaudinat A, Boyer C. Supervised approach to recognize question type in a QA system for health. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2008;136:407-12 pubmed
    ..It leads us to use an external source of knowledge: UMLS. A future improvement will be the usage of UMLS semantic network to better categorize a query according to the medical domain. ..
  3. Tsipouras M, Voglis C, Fotiadis D. A framework for fuzzy expert system creation--application to cardiovascular diseases. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2007;54:2089-105 pubmed
    A methodology for the automated development of fuzzy expert systems is presented. The idea is to start with a crisp model described by crisp rules and then transform them into a set of fuzzy rules, thus creating a fuzzy model...
  4. Masic I, Gribajcevic M, Pandza H. [Expert systems in gastroenterology]. Med Arh. 2002;56:57-8 pubmed
    b>Expert systems are the software systems developed by the application of the various intelligence, which could successfully compete to peoples-experts, and have the consultant function with the characteristics of the explanations and the ..
  5. Berner E, Maisiak R, Cobbs C, Taunton O. Effects of a decision support system on physicians' diagnostic performance. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 1999;6:420-7 pubmed
    ..Physicians' diagnostic performance can be strongly influenced by the quality of information the system produces and the type of cases on which the system is used. ..
  6. Staal J, Abramoff M, Niemeijer M, Viergever M, van Ginneken B. Ridge-based vessel segmentation in color images of the retina. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2004;23:501-9 pubmed
    ..and Jiang et al. The results show that our method is significantly better than the two rule-based methods (p < 0.01). The accuracy of our method is 0.944 versus 0.947 for a second observer. ..
  7. Greatbatch D, Hanlon G, Goode J, O Cathain A, Strangleman T, Luff D. Telephone triage, expert systems and clinical expertise. Sociol Health Illn. 2005;27:802-30 pubmed
    ..of using CAS as a means of standardising service delivery will achieve only limited success due not only to the professional ideology of nursing but also to the fact that rule-based expert systems capture only part of what 'experts' do.
  8. Jansen J, Martin E. Target-biased scoring approaches and expert systems in structure-based virtual screening. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2004;8:359-64 pubmed
    ..Such biases are implemented in methods that vary from filtering tools for pre- or post-processing, to expert systems, quantitative (re)scoring functions, and docking tools that generate target-biased poses.
  9. Benfenati E, Gini G. Computational predictive programs (expert systems) in toxicology. Toxicology. 1997;119:213-25 pubmed
    ..Several so called expert systems (ES) have been claimed to be able to predict toxicity of certain chemical structures...
  10. Prochaska J, Velicer W, Redding C, Rossi J, Goldstein M, DePue J, et al. Stage-based expert systems to guide a population of primary care patients to quit smoking, eat healthier, prevent skin cancer, and receive regular mammograms. Prev Med. 2005;41:406-16 pubmed
    ..Stage-based expert systems were applied to reduce smoking, improve diet, decrease sun exposure, and prevent relapse from regular ..
  11. Van Hoof V, Wormek A, Schleutermann S, Schumacher T, Lothaire O, Trendelenburg C. Medical expert systems developed in j.MD, a Java based expert system shell: application in clinical laboratories. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2004;107:89-93 pubmed
    ..Introduction of artificial intelligence by means of expert systems has gained an important place in this automation process...
  12. McNeely M. The use of expert systems for improving test use and enhancing the accuracy of diagnosis. Clin Lab Med. 2002;22:515-28 pubmed
    ..The CARTKS provided by computer systems is the most powerful approach to use control and it has the additional benefit of doing so while enhancing medical care. ..
  13. Feldon S. Computerized expert system for evaluation of automated visual fields from the Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial: methods, baseline fields, and six-month longitudinal follow-up. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2004;102:269-303 pubmed
    ..02). No treatment effect was noted. A novel rule-based expert system successfully interpreted visual field defects at baseline of eyes enrolled in the IONDT. ..
  14. Mortera J, Dawid A, Lauritzen S. Probabilistic expert systems for DNA mixture profiling. Theor Popul Biol. 2003;63:191-205 pubmed
    We show how probabilistic expert systems can be used to structure and solve complex cases of forensic identification involving DNA traces that might be mixtures of several DNA profiles...
  15. Prochaska J, Velicer W, Rossi J, Redding C, Greene G, Rossi S, et al. Multiple risk expert systems interventions: impact of simultaneous stage-matched expert system interventions for smoking, high-fat diet, and sun exposure in a population of parents. Health Psychol. 2004;23:503-16 pubmed
    ..26%), and 30% for sun exposure (vs. 22%). Proactive, home-based, and stage-matched expert systems can produce significant multiple behavior changes in at-risk populations where the majority of participants ..
  16. Zazzi M, Cozzi Lepri A, Prosperi M. Computer-Aided Optimization of Combined Anti-Retroviral Therapy for HIV: New Drugs, New Drug Targets and Drug Resistance. Curr HIV Res. 2016;14:101-9 pubmed
  17. Knight A. Non-animal methodologies within biomedical research and toxicity testing. ALTEX. 2008;25:213-31 pubmed
    ..evaluation and computerised modelling, including the use of structure-activity relationships and expert systems. Minimally-sentient animals from lower phylogenetic orders or early developmental vertebral stages may be used,..
  18. Kooper R, Shirk A, Lee S, Lin A, Folberg R, Bajcsy P. 3D medical volume reconstruction using web services. Comput Biol Med. 2008;38:490-500 pubmed publisher
    ..The prototype system has been used for multiple 3D volume reconstructions of blood vessels and vasculogenic mimicry patterns in histological sections of uveal melanoma studied by fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscope. ..
  19. de Oña J, Mujalli R, Calvo F. Analysis of traffic accident injury severity on Spanish rural highways using Bayesian networks. Accid Anal Prev. 2011;43:402-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The variables that best identify the factors that are associated with a killed or seriously injured accident (accident type, driver age, lighting and number of injuries) were identified by inference. ..
  20. Doerfel H. IDEA system--a new computer-based expert system for incorporation monitoring. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;127:425-9 pubmed
    ..With these well-defined procedures the expert system follows the aim, in which all recommendations and guidelines are applied properly and the results in terms of committed effective and organ doses are close to the best estimate. ..
  21. Nunes L, Pinheiro P, Pequeno T, Pinheiro M. Toward an application to psychological disorders diagnosis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2011;696:573-80 pubmed publisher
  22. Hazlehurst B, McMullen C, Gorman P. Distributed cognition in the heart room: how situation awareness arises from coordinated communications during cardiac surgery. J Biomed Inform. 2007;40:539-51 pubmed
    ..We argue for the "activity system" as the appropriate unit of analysis, and distributed cognition as a powerful theoretical framework for studying the socio-technical work of health care. ..
  23. Shieh J, Fu M, Huang S, Kao M. Comparison of the applicability of rule-based and self-organizing fuzzy logic controllers for sedation control of intracranial pressure pattern in a neurosurgical intensive care unit. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2006;53:1700-5 pubmed
    ..The results show that a SOFLC can provide a more stable ICP pattern by administering more propofol and changing the rate of delivery more often when rule-base modifications have been considered. ..
  24. Tsipouras M, Exarchos T, Fotiadis D. A comparison of methodologies for fuzzy expert system creation--application to arrhythmic beat classification. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2006;1:2316-9 pubmed
    In this work, three different methodologies for fuzzy expert systems creation are compared: a well-known neuro-fuzzy approach, a knowledge-based approach and a novel methodology, based on rule-extraction...
  25. Kawa J, Pietka E. Kernelized fuzzy c-means method in fast segmentation of demyelination plaques in multiple sclerosis. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007;2007:5616-9 pubmed
    ..Received classification masks are then used to detect the region of interest, eliminate false positives and label MS lesions. ..
  26. Fisher A, Hagan R, Brown M. Automatic positioning of cursors in the transient pattern electroretinogram (PERG) with very poor SNR using an Expert System. Doc Ophthalmol. 2007;115:61-8 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that this system is generic and similarly applicable to other transient recordings. A comprehensive Internet demonstration (SPoC: Smart Positioning of Cursors) is maintained at ..
  27. Shtienberg D. Will decision-support systems be widely used for the management of plant diseases?. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2013;51:1-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible explanations for the widely varying acceptance rates are presented, and the effects of anticipated changes in the agribusiness sector on the future use of DSSs are discussed. ..
  28. Daub C, Sonnhammer E. Employing conservation of co-expression to improve functional inference. BMC Syst Biol. 2008;2:81 pubmed publisher
    ..While the differences between distance measures were small, Spearman correlation showed to give most robust results. ..
  29. Banerjee S, Goswami R. GST profile expression study in some selected plants: in silico approach. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010;336:109-26 pubmed publisher
  30. Caucci L, Barrett H, Devaney N, Rodriguez J. Application of the Hotelling and ideal observers to detection and localization of exoplanets. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2007;24:B13-24 pubmed
    ..For the case where the PSF is known exactly, we compare the Hotelling observer to other observers commonly used for planet detection; comparison is based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and localization ROC (LROC) curves. ..
  31. Lee H, Wang W, Lu S, Wu B, Ko L. Home-based mobile cardio-pulmonary rehabilitation consultant system. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011;2011:989-92 pubmed publisher
  32. Hristozov D, da Costa F, Gasteiger J. Sesquiterpene lactones-based classification of the family asteraceae using neural networks and k-nearest neighbors. J Chem Inf Model. 2007;47:9-19 pubmed
    ..In addition, the problem of defining the applicability domain of the models was assessed by means of two different approaches-principal component analysis combined with Hotelling T2 statistic and an a posteriori probability-based rule. ..
  33. Hsiao M, Chen C, Chen J. BrainKnowledge: a human brain function mapping knowledge-base system. Neuroinformatics. 2011;9:21-38 pubmed publisher
  34. Jiang C, Chang C, Huang S, Wu C. Segmentation of the striatum from MR brain images to calculate the 99mTc-TRODAT-1 binding ratio in SPECT images. Comput Math Methods Med. 2013;2013:593175 pubmed publisher
    ..The binding ratio derived by this method correlated well (R (2)?=?0.76) with those values calculated by commercial software, suggesting the feasibility of the proposed method. ..
  35. Kumar B. A fuzzy expert system design for analysis of body sounds and design of an unique electronic stethoscope (development of HILSA kit). Biosens Bioelectron. 2007;22:1121-5 pubmed
    ..We have found that unique stethoscope developed by us is far superior to conventional stethoscope by its overall performance. ..
  36. Buchert R, Berding G, Wilke F, Martin B, von Borczyskowski D, Mester J, et al. IBZM tool: a fully automated expert system for the evaluation of IBZM SPECT studies. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2006;33:1073-83 pubmed
    ..The IBZM tool has the potential for widespread use, since it appears to be fairly independent of the performance characteristics of the particular SPECT system used. The tool is available free of charge. ..
  37. Schmidt R, Vorobieva O. Case-based reasoning to explain medical model exceptions. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2008;136:259-64 pubmed
    ..The case base has to be set up incrementally, it contains the exceptional cases, and their explanations are the solutions, which can be used to help to explain further exceptional cases. ..
  38. Goicoechea M, Vidal A, Capparelli E, Rigby A, Kemper C, Diamond C, et al. A computer-based system to aid in the interpretation of plasma concentrations of antiretrovirals for therapeutic drug monitoring. Antivir Ther. 2007;12:55-62 pubmed
    ..001] and 47 out of 49 EFV cases (kappa = 0.91; P < 0.001). The AI system successfully estimated LPV and EFV trough concentrations and achieved good agreement with expert committee TDM recommendations for EFV- and LPV-treated patients. ..
  39. Tung S, Quek C, Guan C. SaFIN: a self-adaptive fuzzy inference network. IEEE Trans Neural Netw. 2011;22:1928-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently, the proposed SaFIN model is employed in a series of benchmark simulations to demonstrate its efficiency as a self-organizing neural fuzzy system, and excellent performances have been achieved. ..
  40. Babu D, Mellone S, Fusco I, Petri A, Walker G, Bellone S, et al. Novel mutations in the GH gene (GH1) uncover putative splicing regulatory elements. Endocrinology. 2014;155:1786-92 pubmed publisher
    ..261 variant. Thus, our results evidenced novel putative splicing regulatory elements within exon 3, confirming the crucial role of this exon in mRNA processing. ..
  41. Song Y, Liu J, Huang S, Zhang L. Analysis of differentially expressed genes in placental tissues of preeclampsia patients using microarray combined with the Connectivity Map database. Placenta. 2013;34:1190-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the data obtained in this study might provide clues to better understand the pathophysiology of PE and to identify potential therapeutic agents for PE patients. ..
  42. Parenty A, Button W, Ott M. An expert system to predict the forced degradation of organic molecules. Mol Pharm. 2013;10:2962-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Building the knowledge base is facilitated by data sharing between the users. ..
  43. Vukusic I, Grellscheid S, Wiehe T. Applying genetic programming to the prediction of alternative mRNA splice variants. Genomics. 2007;89:471-9 pubmed
    ..2%. Prediction accuracies on the SCE data are lower, 47.3% (sensitivity) and 70.9% (specificity), indicating that alternative splicing of introns can be better captured by sequence properties than that of exons. ..
  44. Momani L, Alkharabsheh A, Al Nuaimy W. Design of an intelligent and personalised shunting system for hydrocephalus. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008;2008:779-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These tasks can be achieved by implementing an agent approach in designing this system. Such system would help us to understand more about the dynamics of hydrocephalus. ..
  45. Silva A, Cortez P, Santos M, Gomes L, Neves J. Rating organ failure via adverse events using data mining in the intensive care unit. Artif Intell Med. 2008;43:179-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The obtained results show that it is possible to use DM methods to get knowledge from easy obtainable data, thus making room for the development of intelligent clinical alarm monitoring. ..
  46. Deng H, King I, Lyu M. Enhanced models for expertise retrieval using community-aware strategies. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern B Cybern. 2012;42:93-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of both community-aware strategies. Moreover, the improvements made in the enhanced models are significant and consistent. ..
  47. Garcia E, Taylor A, Manatunga D, Folks R. A software engine to justify the conclusions of an expert system for detecting renal obstruction on 99mTc-MAG3 scans. J Nucl Med. 2007;48:463-70 pubmed
    ..This tool is expected to increase physician confidence in the interpretations provided by RENEX and to assist physicians and trainees in gaining a higher level of expertise. ..
  48. Greenes R, Buchanan B, Ellison D. Presentation of the 2006 Morris F. Collen Award to Edward H.(Ted) Shortliffe. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2007;14:376-85 pubmed
  49. Schuurmann G, Ebert R, Kühne R. Prediction of the sorption of organic compounds into soil organic matter from molecular structure. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:7005-11 pubmed
    ..Comparison with existing models including linear solvation energy relationships illustrates the superiority of the new model. ..
  50. Chi C, Street W, Ward M. Building a hospital referral expert system with a Prediction and Optimization-Based Decision Support System algorithm. J Biomed Inform. 2008;41:371-86 pubmed
    ..With proper formulation, this expert system can combine multiple factors to give hospital-selection decision support at the individual level. ..
  51. Chater N, Tenenbaum J, Yuille A. Probabilistic models of cognition: where next?. Trends Cogn Sci. 2006;10:292-3 pubmed
  52. Cotterill J, Chaudhry M, Matthews W, Watkins R. In silico assessment of toxicity of heat-generated food contaminants. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:1905-18 pubmed publisher
    ..This study used two in silico toxicity Expert Systems (Topkat and Derek for Windows), as a preliminary screening tool to identify potential toxicants among the heat-..
  53. Gu Q, Ding Y, Jiang X, Zhang T. Prediction of subcellular location apoptosis proteins with ensemble classifier and feature selection. Amino Acids. 2010;38:975-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The supplement information and software written in Matlab are available by contacting the corresponding author. ..