electronic mail


Summary: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.

Top Publications

  1. McGeady D, Kujala J, Ilvonen K. The impact of patient-physician web messaging on healthcare service provision. Int J Med Inform. 2008;77:17-23 pubmed
    ..Further quantitative research in particular is required to assess the impact of online communication, with special regard to the effect on overall patient demand and on healthcare process efficiency. ..
  2. Eggert C, Protti D. Clinical electronic communications: a new paradigm that is here to stay?. Healthc Q. 2006;9:88-96, 4 pubmed
    ..The paper provides a concise summary of what is known about clinical electronic communications in healthcare: what is working, what the challenges are and what is promising. ..
  3. Hamilton R, Bowers B. Internet recruitment and e-mail interviews in qualitative studies. Qual Health Res. 2006;16:821-35 pubmed
    ..They include some practical suggestions on a research design for a qualitative study employing both Internet recruitment and e-mail interviewing. ..
  4. Dunton G, Robertson T. A tailored Internet-plus-email intervention for increasing physical activity among ethnically-diverse women. Prev Med. 2008;47:605-11 pubmed publisher
    ..However, given the lack of comparable research contact in the control group, these findings should be taken cautiously. ..
  5. Pluye P, Grad R, Johnson Lafleur J, Bambrick T, Burnand B, Mercer J, et al. Evaluation of email alerts in practice: Part 2. Validation of the information assessment method. J Eval Clin Pract. 2010;16:1236-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The content relevance of seven items was supported. For three items, revisions were needed. Interviews suggested one new item. This study has yielded a 2008 version of IAM. ..
  6. Khadjesari Z, Murray E, Kalaitzaki E, White I, McCambridge J, Thompson S, et al. Impact and costs of incentives to reduce attrition in online trials: two randomized controlled trials. J Med Internet Res. 2011;13:e26 pubmed publisher
    ..The marginal costs involved require careful consideration. ISRCTN31070347; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN31070347 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5wgr5pl3s). ..
  7. Ramo D, Hall S, Prochaska J. Reaching young adult smokers through the internet: comparison of three recruitment mechanisms. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12:768-75 pubmed publisher
    ..A multipronged approach to Internet recruitment is most likely to generate a broad diverse sample of young adult smokers. ..
  8. Pluye P, Grad R, Granikov V, Jagosh J, Leung K. Evaluation of email alerts in practice: Part 1. Review of the literature on clinical emailing channels. J Eval Clin Pract. 2010;16:1227-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with existing evaluation tools, our review suggests IAM is comprehensive, generic and systematic. ..
  9. Bilardi J, Fairley C, Hopkins C, Hocking J, Sze J, Chen M. Let Them Know: evaluation of an online partner notification service for chlamydia that offers E-mail and SMS messaging. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37:563-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A substantial and increasing number of text messages were sent, pointing to the potential for improved partner notification rates. ..

More Information


  1. Ekman D, Andersson A, Nilsen P, Ståhlbrandt H, Johansson A, Bendtsen P. Electronic screening and brief intervention for risky drinking in Swedish university students--a randomized controlled trial. Addict Behav. 2011;36:654-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, further studies in similar naturalistic settings are warranted with delayed assessment groups as controls in order to increase our understanding of reactivity assessment in email-based interventions among students. ..
  2. Robroek S, Brouwer W, Lindeboom D, Oenema A, Burdorf A. Demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial correlates of using the website component of a worksite physical activity and healthy nutrition promotion program: a longitudinal study. J Med Internet Res. 2010;12:e44 pubmed publisher
    ..ISRCTN52854353; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN52854353 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5smxIncB1). ..
  3. Houston T, Coley H, Sadasivam R, Ray M, Williams J, Allison J, et al. Impact of content-specific email reminders on provider participation in an online intervention: a dental PBRN study. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2010;160:801-5 pubmed
    ..Email contact, such as day of week an email is sent and notice of new content post-ing, is critical to longitudinal engagement. Further research is needed to understand which messages and how frequently, will maximize participation. ..
  4. Schneider F, van Osch L, Schulz D, Kremers S, de Vries H. The influence of user characteristics and a periodic email prompt on exposure to an internet-delivered computer-tailored lifestyle program. J Med Internet Res. 2012;14:e40 pubmed publisher
    ..trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=1786 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/65hBXA6V7). ..
  5. Morgan A, Jorm A, Mackinnon A. Email-based promotion of self-help for subthreshold depression: Mood Memos randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2012;200:412-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Emails promoting self-help strategies were beneficial. Internet delivery of self-help messages affords a low-cost, easily disseminated and highly automated approach for indicated prevention of depression. ..
  6. Svensson M, Svensson T, Hansen A, Trolle Lagerros Y. The effect of reminders in a web-based intervention study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2012;27:333-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Frequent reminders were effective on response rates, especially for those with high Internet availability. The highest increases in response rates were found in September. ..
  7. Atherton H, Huckvale C, Car J. Communicating health promotion and disease prevention information to patients via email: a review. J Telemed Telecare. 2010;16:172-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Many articles discussed the potential use of email for health promotion and disease prevention but did not provide evidence. There is much scope for further research in this area. ..
  8. Sheaves B, Jones R, Williamson G, Chauhan R. Phase 1 pilot study of e-mail support for people with long term conditions using the Internet. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2011;11:20 pubmed publisher
    ..An RCT is feasible and necessary to evaluate the potential benefits of anonymous email support. Our methods could be used by other researchers studying Internet use by people with LTCs. ..
  9. Staes C, Wuthrich A, Gesteland P, Allison M, Leecaster M, Shakib J, et al. Public health communication with frontline clinicians during the first wave of the 2009 influenza pandemic. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2011;17:36-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Communication between public health, health care organizations and clinicians was redundant and overwhelming and can be enhanced considering clinician preferences and institutional communication channels. ..
  10. Brouwer W, Kroeze W, Crutzen R, De Nooijer J, De Vries N, Brug J, et al. Which intervention characteristics are related to more exposure to internet-delivered healthy lifestyle promotion interventions? A systematic review. J Med Internet Res. 2011;13:e2 pubmed publisher
    ..More research is needed to identify whether other characteristics of Internet interventions are associated with greater exposure. ..
  11. Atherton H, Sawmynaden P, Sheikh A, Majeed A, Car J. Email for clinical communication between patients/caregivers and healthcare professionals. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;11:CD007978 pubmed publisher
    ..Potential outcomes of interest for future research include cost-effectiveness and health service resource use. ..
  12. Mohr D, Cuijpers P, Lehman K. Supportive accountability: a model for providing human support to enhance adherence to eHealth interventions. J Med Internet Res. 2011;13:e30 pubmed publisher
    ..Each component of the proposed model is a testable hypothesis. As we develop viable human support models, these should be manualized to facilitate dissemination. ..
  13. van Wier M, Dekkers J, Hendriksen I, Heymans M, Ariëns G, Pronk N, et al. Effectiveness of phone and e-mail lifestyle counseling for long term weight control among overweight employees. J Occup Environ Med. 2011;53:680-6 pubmed publisher
    ..9 kg (95% CI, -2.0 to 0.3) and -0.4 kg (95% CI, -1.4 to 0.7). Among complete cases, the Internet intervention showed modest long-term weight loss, but among all participants neither program version was more effective than self-help. ..
  14. McCambridge J, Bendtsen P, Bendtsen M, Nilsen P. Alcohol email assessment and feedback study dismantling effectiveness for university students (AMADEUS-1): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2012;13:49 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of blinding and deception in this study raise ethical issues that warrant further attention. ISRCTN28328154. ..
  15. Bond M, Klemt R, Merlis J, Kopinski J, Hirshon J. Computer access and Internet use by urban and suburban emergency department customers. J Emerg Med. 2012;43:159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Urban and suburban ED customers had similar access to the Internet. Both groups were willing to use the Internet to access personal health information. ..
  16. te Poel F, Bolman C, Reubsaet A, de Vries H. Efficacy of a single computer-tailored e-mail for smoking cessation: results after 6 months. Health Educ Res. 2009;24:930-40 pubmed publisher
  17. Kralik D, Warren J, Price K, Koch T, Pignone G. The ethics of research using electronic mail discussion groups. J Adv Nurs. 2005;52:537-45 pubmed
    ..that have confronted and challenged the research team when researchers facilitate conversations using private electronic mail discussion lists...
  18. Sciamanna C, Rogers M, Shenassa E, Houston T. Patient access to U.S. physicians who conduct internet or e-mail consults. J Gen Intern Med. 2007;22:378-81 pubmed
    ..g., medications prescribed) characteristics. Access to physicians who do internet or e-mail consults is generally low and did not increase between 2001 and 2003, despite growth in internet access and in other internet-related activities. ..
  19. Menachemi N, Powers T, Brooks R. The role of information technology usage in physician practice satisfaction. Health Care Manage Rev. 2009;34:364-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Potential adopters and/or policy makers interested in influencing IT adoption should consider the positive impact that computer automation can have on medical practice. ..
  20. Block G, Sternfeld B, Block C, Block T, Norris J, Hopkins D, et al. Development of Alive! (A Lifestyle Intervention Via Email), and its effect on health-related quality of life, presenteeism, and other behavioral outcomes: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res. 2008;10:e43 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00607009; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00607009 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5cLpCWcT6). ..
  21. Wolf M, Maurer W, Dogs P, Kordy H. [E-mail in psychotherapy--an aftercare model via electronic mail for psychotherapy inpatients]. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol. 2006;56:138-46 pubmed
    ..Based on these first positive experiences the perspectives of using E-mail in psychotherapy will be discussed. ..
  22. Tate D, Jackvony E, Wing R. A randomized trial comparing human e-mail counseling, computer-automated tailored counseling, and no counseling in an Internet weight loss program. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:1620-5 pubmed
    ..Further research is needed to improve the efficacy of automated computer-tailored feedback as a population-based weight loss approach. ..
  23. Stalberg P, Yeh M, Ketteridge G, Delbridge H, Delbridge L. E-mail access and improved communication between patient and surgeon. Arch Surg. 2008;143:164-8; discussion 168-9 pubmed publisher
  24. Rosen P, Kwoh C. Patient-physician e-mail: an opportunity to transform pediatric health care delivery. Pediatrics. 2007;120:701-6 pubmed
    ..In our experience in an academic pediatric subspecialty practice, patients reported enhanced communication and access with the e-mail service. ..
  25. Heinzelmann P, Jacques G, Kvedar J. Telemedicine by email in remote Cambodia. J Telemed Telecare. 2005;11 Suppl 2:S44-7 pubmed
    ..001). The success of the pilot telemedicine programme confirms the value of email support for non-physician health-care workers in the developing world. ..
  26. Goodyear Smith F, Wearn A, Everts H, Huggard P, Halliwell J. Pandora's electronic box: GPs reflect upon email communication with their patients. Inform Prim Care. 2005;13:195-202 pubmed
    ..One example for general practitioners (GPs) is communication with patients via electronic mail (email). GPs face issues regarding e-communication with patients, including how and when it should it be used...
  27. Audet A, Doty M, Peugh J, Shamasdin J, Zapert K, Schoenbaum S. Information technologies: when will they make it into physicians' black bags?. MedGenMed. 2004;6:2 pubmed
    ..Cost remains the most important barrier to adoption. Attention needs to be focused on policies and business models that will make IT tools accessible and affordable to all physicians. ..
  28. Block G, Block T, Wakimoto P, Block C. Demonstration of an E-mailed worksite nutrition intervention program. Prev Chronic Dis. 2004;1:A06 pubmed
    ..73 times/day, P < .001) and significant decrease in intake of fat sources (-0.39 times/day, P < .001). This inexpensive program is feasible and appears to be effective. A randomized controlled trial is needed. ..
  29. Couchman G, Forjuoh S, Rascoe T, Reis M, Koehler B, Walsum K. E-mail communications in primary care: what are patients' expectations for specific test results?. Int J Med Inform. 2005;74:21-30 pubmed
    ..The implication is that integration of e-mail communications into primary care ought to assure prompt and accurate patient access to a plethora of specific clinical services. ..
  30. Smith K, Merchen E, Turner C, Vaught C, Nagykaldi Z, Aspy C, et al. Patient-physician e-mail communication revisited a decade later: an OKPRN study. J Okla State Med Assoc. 2009;102:291-3 pubmed
    ..A substantial majority would like to use e-mail to communicate with their primary care clinicians. Since 1997, rural patients have caught up with urbanites in their access to computers. ..
  31. Nordqvist C, Hanberger L, Timpka T, Nordfeldt S. Health professionals' attitudes towards using a Web 2.0 portal for child and adolescent diabetes care: qualitative study. J Med Internet Res. 2009;11:e12 pubmed publisher
    ..0 resources. Investigations of attitudes towards implementing similar systems in the care of adults with chronic diseases are warranted. ..
  32. Plotnikoff R, Pickering M, McCargar L, Loucaides C, Hugo K. Six-month follow-up and participant use and satisfaction of an electronic mail intervention promoting physical activity and nutrition. Am J Health Promot. 2010;24:255-9 pubmed publisher
    ..E-mail offers a promising medium for promoting health-enhancing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Additional research is needed to determine optimal message dose and content. ..
  33. Castrén J, Niemi M, Virjo I. Use of email for patient communication in student health care: a cross-sectional study. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2005;5:2 pubmed
    ..The notable proportion of un-recorded email messages establishes the need for an electric communication system built into the EPR to improve the quality of patient care and to limit medico-legal risks. ..
  34. Leong S, Gingrich D, Lewis P, Mauger D, George J. Enhancing doctor-patient communication using email: a pilot study. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2005;18:180-8 pubmed
    ..The volume of messages and the time spent answering messages for the e-mail group physicians was not increased. E-mail has the potential to improve the doctor-patient relationship as a result of better communication. ..
  35. Abdolrasulnia M, Collins B, Casebeer L, Wall T, Spettell C, Ray M, et al. Using email reminders to engage physicians in an Internet-based CME intervention. BMC Med Educ. 2004;4:17 pubmed
    ..Repetition of email communications contributes to physician online participation. ..
  36. Zhou Y, Garrido T, Chin H, Wiesenthal A, Liang L. Patient access to an electronic health record with secure messaging: impact on primary care utilization. Am J Manag Care. 2007;13:418-24 pubmed
    ..52 (29.9%). This 0.20 (13.7%) difference was significant (P < .01). Patient access to the secure messaging feature of KP HealthConnect Online was associated with decreased rates of primary care office visits and telephone contacts. ..
  37. Ware L, Hurling R, Bataveljic O, Fairley B, Hurst T, Murray P, et al. Rates and determinants of uptake and use of an internet physical activity and weight management program in office and manufacturing work sites in England: cohort study. J Med Internet Res. 2008;10:e56 pubmed publisher
    ..When combined with objective monitoring devices for PA and weight, both use of the website and outcomes can be tracked, allowing the online coaching program to become more personalized to the individual. ..
  38. Kummervold P, Chronaki C, Lausen B, Prokosch H, Rasmussen J, Santana S, et al. eHealth trends in Europe 2005-2007: a population-based survey. J Med Internet Res. 2008;10:e42 pubmed publisher
    ..We see that experienced Internet health users are also using the Internet as an active communication channel, both for reaching health professionals and for communicating with peers. ..
  39. Titov N, Andrews G, Choi I, Schwencke G, Mahoney A. Shyness 3: randomized controlled trial of guided versus unguided Internet-based CBT for social phobia. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008;42:1030-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These data confirm that self-guided education or treatment programmes for common anxiety disorders can result in significant improvements. ..
  40. Caffery L, Crew Wegner K, Reid W, Wootton R. Automatic message handling for a national counselling service. J Telemed Telecare. 2004;10 Suppl 1:18-21 pubmed
    ..4 days, a decrease of 2.0 days. Automatic message handling appears to be a promising method of managing the administration of a steadily increasing email counselling service. ..
  41. Lasker J, Sogolow E, Sharim R. The role of an online community for people with a rare disease: content analysis of messages posted on a primary biliary cirrhosis mailinglist. J Med Internet Res. 2005;7:e10 pubmed
  42. Saitz R, Palfai T, Freedner N, Winter M, Macdonald A, Lu J, et al. Screening and brief intervention online for college students: the ihealth study. Alcohol Alcohol. 2007;42:28-36 pubmed
    ..Web screening and brief intervention show promise for addressing unhealthy alcohol use by college students. ..
  43. Nijland N, van Gemert Pijnen J, Boer H, Steehouder M, Seydel E. Evaluation of internet-based technology for supporting self-care: problems encountered by patients and caregivers when using self-care applications. J Med Internet Res. 2008;10:e13 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research should focus on the effectiveness of such Web-based triage mechanisms for medical complaints and on the development of interactive features to enhance patients' self-care. ..
  44. Ralston J, Rutter C, Carrell D, Hecht J, Rubanowice D, Simon G. Patient use of secure electronic messaging within a shared medical record: a cross-sectional study. J Gen Intern Med. 2009;24:349-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies should clarify variation in the use of electronic patient-provider messaging and its impact on the quality and cost of care received. ..
  45. Fry J, Neff R. Periodic prompts and reminders in health promotion and health behavior interventions: systematic review. J Med Internet Res. 2009;11:e16 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, various types of communication technology should be used and evaluated to expand and refine their use. ..
  46. Singh H, Fox S, Petersen N, Shethia A, Street R. Older patients' enthusiasm to use electronic mail to communicate with their physicians: cross-sectional survey. J Med Internet Res. 2009;11:e18 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Electronic mail (email) represents a means of communication that, coupled with face-to-face communication, could enhance ..
  47. Bot M, Milder I, Bemelmans W. Nationwide implementation of Hello World: a Dutch email-based health promotion program for pregnant women. J Med Internet Res. 2009;11:e24 pubmed publisher
    ..001). In this real-life setting, pregnant women can be reached through an email-based health promotion program. Selective engagement by education level remains a challenge. ..
  48. Ye J, Rust G, Fry Johnson Y, Strothers H. E-mail in patient-provider communication: a systematic review. Patient Educ Couns. 2010;80:266-73 pubmed publisher
    ..More efforts need to be made to educate patients and providers to appropriately and effectively use e-mail for communication. ..
  49. Stopponi M, Alexander G, McClure J, Carroll N, Divine G, Calvi J, et al. Recruitment to a randomized web-based nutritional intervention trial: characteristics of participants compared to non-participants. J Med Internet Res. 2009;11:e38 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00169312; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00169312 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5jB50xSfU). ..
  50. Malmgren R, Stouffer D, Motter A, Amaral L. A Poissonian explanation for heavy tails in e-mail communication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:18153-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Using standard statistical techniques, we show that our model is consistent with the empirical data. Our findings may also provide insight into the origins of heavy-tailed distributions in other complex systems. ..
  51. Woodall W, Buller D, Saba L, Zimmerman D, Waters E, Hines J, et al. Effect of emailed messages on return use of a nutrition education website and subsequent changes in dietary behavior. J Med Internet Res. 2007;9:e27 pubmed
    ..Those who responded to the messages by logging on to the website may have been influenced to improve their diet. ..
  52. Polosa R, Russo C, Di Maria A, Arcidiacono G, Morjaria J, Piccillo G. Feasibility of using E-mail counseling as part of a smoking-cessation program. Respir Care. 2009;54:1033-9 pubmed
    ..The integration of e-mail consultation counseling in a smoking-cessation intervention is feasible and effective. E-mail counseling as part of a smoking-cessation program warrants further evaluation. ..
  53. Johansen M, Wootton R, Kimble R, Mill J, Smith A, Hockey A. A feasibility study of email communication between the patient's family and the specialist burns team. J Telemed Telecare. 2004;10 Suppl 1:53-6 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the technique has potential as a low-cost telemedicine service in burns follow-up, and that it requires only modest investment in equipment, training and support. ..