medical illustration


Summary: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.

Top Publications

  1. MacKenzie Graham A, Jones E, Shattuck D, Dinov I, Bota M, Toga A. The informatics of a C57BL/6J mouse brain atlas. Neuroinformatics. 2003;1:397-410 pubmed
    ..A comprehensive framework that encompasses many forms of information in the context of anatomic imaging holds tremendous promise for producing new insights. The atlas and associated tools can be found at ..
  2. Heintz N. Gene expression nervous system atlas (GENSAT). Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:483 pubmed
  3. MacKenzie Graham A, Lee E, Dinov I, Bota M, Shattuck D, Ruffins S, et al. A multimodal, multidimensional atlas of the C57BL/6J mouse brain. J Anat. 2004;204:93-102 pubmed
    ..Thus, the atlas becomes a framework for managing complex genetic and epigenetic information about the mouse brain. The atlas and associated tools may be accessed at ..
  4. Blomstedt P. Cataract surgery in ancient Egypt. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2014;40:485-9 pubmed publisher
    ..No example of cataract surgery or of any other invasive ophthalmologic procedure can be found in the original sources...
  5. Eknoyan G. The late medieval kidney--nephrology in and about the fourteenth century. Semin Dial. 2012;25:550-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Gekeler F, Kopp A, Sachs H, Besch D, Greppmaier U, Zrenner E, et al. Visualisation of active subretinal implants with external connections by high-resolution CT. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94:843-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Since all, except intra-ocular, parts of the implant evade direct examination, CT can be useful to assess the technical integrity and the biocompatibility and biostability of retinal implants. ..
  7. Isler H. Chapter 8: the development of neurology and the neurological sciences in the 17th century. Handb Clin Neurol. 2010;95:91-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus Willis recognized and presented the key themes of the future specialty. ..
  8. Hayashi A, Yoshizawa H, Natori Y, Senda D, Tanaka R, Mizuno H. Levator lengthening technique using cartilage or fascia graft for paralytic lagophthalmos in facial paralysis. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2016;69:679-86 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the level of the upper eyelid can be easily adjusted by changing the fixation position of the cartilage. Additional experience is required to obtain more consistent outcomes. ..
  9. Cueva K, Cueva M, Dignan M, LANDIS K. Print Material in Cancer Prevention: an Evaluation of Three Booklets Designed with and for Alaska's Community Health Workers. J Cancer Educ. 2016;31:279-84 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Martins R, Bastos D, Siqueira M, Heise C, Teixeira M. Traumatic injuries of peripheral nerves: a review with emphasis on surgical indication. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2013;71:811-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews the physiopathology of traumatic peripheral nerve injury, considers the most used classification, and discusses the main aspects of surgical timing and treatment of such a condition. ..
  2. Vilensky J, Mukhamedzyanov R, Gilman S. Encephalitis lethargica in the Soviet Union. Eur Neurol. 2008;60:113-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Some Russian clinicians emphasized an increased prevalence of EL among Jews and a relationship with illness and trauma, whereas others found strong evidence for contagion, especially in rural areas...
  3. Nutton V. Vesalius revised. His annotations to the 1555 Fabrica. Med Hist. 2012;56:415-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of annotations shows Vesalius' passionate concern not only for accuracy but also for the most effective way of proclaiming his new anatomical message. ..
  4. Halperin E. The pornographic anatomy book? The curious tale of the Anatomical Basis of Medical Practice. Acad Med. 2009;84:278-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Professor Becker and his coauthors thought that they were writing a witty, engaging, and funny book. Their detractors thought the book denigrated women. ..
  5. Wellmann J. [Picture metamorphosis. The transformation of insects from the end of the seventeenth to the beginning of the nineteenth century]. NTM. 2008;16:183-211 pubmed
    ..Herold, working in the context of epigenetic embryology, took a very different strategy: the developmental series became the central pictorial means by which development as a gradual process of transformation was depicted. ..
  6. Lee L, Fleegler E, Forbes P, Olson K, Mooney D. The modern paediatric injury pyramid: injuries in Massachusetts children and adolescents. Inj Prev. 2010;16:123-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The 2004 injury pyramids differed by mechanism and intent. Compared with 1980, there were lower rates for overall injury and for most major injury mechanisms in Massachusetts in 2004. ..
  7. Nowinski W, Liu J, Thirunavuukarasuu A. Quantification and visualization of three-dimensional inconsistency of the ventrointermediate nucleus of the thalamus in the Schaltenbrand-Wahren brain atlas. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2008;150:647-53; discussion 653 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, absolute and direct reliance on the original SW atlas is unreliable and unsafe, and this atlas has to be used with great care and understanding of its strengths and limitations. ..
  8. Cote T. How to perform subcutaneous hydration. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2008;9:291 pubmed publisher
  9. Aciduman A, Er U, Belen D. Peripheral nerve disorders and treatment strategies according to Avicenna in his medical treatise, Canon of medicine. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:172-7; discussion 177-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This treatise influenced physicians for several centuries. In this presentation, we analyze excerpts from the Canon that concern peripheral nerve disorders and strategies for their management. ..
  10. Stengel D, Calori G, Giannoudis P. Graphical data presentation. Injury. 2008;39:659-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The researcher's essential graphical toolbox should contain histograms, bar charts (always with measures of error), box-and-whiskers plots, scatter plots and forest plots. ..
  11. Skinder Meredith A. Innovative activities for teaching anatomy of speech production. Anat Sci Educ. 2010;3:234-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The responses were overwhelmingly positive with level of usefulness and level of clinical relevance rated higher on average than the level of enjoyment. ..
  12. Matthews B. Bravo! Neurology at the opera. Front Neurol Neurosci. 2010;27:119-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Consideration is also given to the neuroanatomy and neuropathology of opera singers with further speculation regarding the neural underpinnings of the passion of opera's audience. ..
  13. Kozhenkov S, Baitaluk M. Mining and integration of pathway diagrams from imaging data. Bioinformatics. 2012;28:739-42 pubmed publisher
    ..BiologicalNetworks software and the pathway repository are freely available at Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. ..
  14. Hanel R, Brasiliense L, Spetzler R. Microsurgical revascularization of proximal vertebral artery: a single-center, single-operator analysis. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:1043-50; discussion 1051 pubmed publisher
    ..Randomized studies are needed to compare the efficacy of surgical revascularization and stenting, especially drug-eluting stents, for this indication. ..
  15. Beretta M. Imaging the experiments on respiration and transpiration of Lavoisier and Séguin: two unknown drawings by Madame Lavoisier. Nuncius. 2012;27:163-91 pubmed
    ..As we will show, these drawings were intended to illustrate the collection of papers on respiration being prepared by Lavoisier for his Mémoires de physique et de chimie (1792-1805). ..
  16. Wu O, Manjila S, Malakooti N, Cohen A. The remarkable medical lineage of the Monro family: contributions of Alexander primus, secundus, and tertius. J Neurosurg. 2012;116:1337-46 pubmed publisher
    ..A vivid historical overview of the medical contributions of the most famous and influential dynasty of physicians in Edinburgh at that time is provided, with relevant excerpts from original publications. ..
  17. Palma J, Gaia D, Caputi G, Agreli G, Breda J, Braile D, et al. Pulsatile stent graft: a new alternative in chronic ventricular assistance. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2013;28:217-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The continuity of the study and material improvement are necessary to obtain more efficient model from the point of view of energy and pulse, to allow ejection volumes comparable with the intra-aortic balloons. ..
  18. Kim D, Jeon T, Kim D, Kim D, Sim M, Kim S. Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy using modified hemi-double stapling. Dig Surg. 2009;26:364-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy using the modified hemi-double stapling technique can achieve reconstruction more simply, safely and quickly, and may provide an alternative reconstruction method for distal gastrectomy. ..
  19. Tubbs R, Riech S, Verma K, Mortazavi M, Loukas M, Benninger B, et al. Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842) and his contributions to early neurosurgery. Childs Nerv Syst. 2012;28:331-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Bell is recognized for his diligence, perseverance, and his remarkable contributions to surgery. The present review will explore his contributions to the discipline now known as neurosurgery. ..
  20. Clark R, Dierckman B, Sampatacos N, Sampaticos N, Snyder S. Biomechanical performance of traditional arthroscopic knots versus slippage-proof knots. Arthroscopy. 2013;29:1175-81 pubmed publisher
  21. Aciduman A, Belen D. Hydrocephalus and its treatment according to Rhazes. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2009;3:161-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Although he did not introduce novel concepts of hydrocephalus and its management, by combining the different approaches of experienced scholars he endeavored to improve treatment and knowledge of this problematic disease. ..
  22. Brannelly S. '3Dme--a look inside' creative studio. J Vis Commun Med. 2012;35:43-6 pubmed publisher
    ..3Dme has made, and continues to make, significant investments in technology based hardware and software, boasting one of the largest in-house, fully equipped animation render farms in Queensland, Australia. ..
  23. Collmann H. [Georges Schaltenbrand (26. 11. 1897 24. 10. 1979)]. Wurzbg Medizinhist Mitt. 2008;27:63-92 pubmed
    ..As a historical fact, not only before but also after World War II these legal acts were widely ignored and became only gradually accepted. ..
  24. Théodoridou Z, Triarhou L. Challenging the supremacy of the frontal lobe: early views (1906-1909) of Christfried Jakob on the human cerebral cortex. Cortex. 2012;48:15-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Modern neuroscience seems to support Jakob's rejection of distinguishable motor and sensory regions and to adopt a cautious stance concerning oversimplified localization views. ..
  25. Kalavrezos N, Bhandari R. Current trends and future perspectives in the surgical management of oral cancer. Oral Oncol. 2010;46:429-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Further refinement in the flap selection and harvesting techniques will lead to free-style flap reconstruction, minimising the morbidity of the donor site and increasing the versatility of reconstruction at the recipient site. ..
  26. Evans W, Acherman R, Anderson R. One hundred years of texts describing congenitally malformed hearts from 1814 to 1914. Cardiol Young. 2009;19:12-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Attention to their content could have served to ameliorate controversies, some of them ongoing. ..
  27. Lykomitros V, Papavasiliou K, Alzeer Z, Sayegh F, Kirkos J, Kapetanos G. Management of traumatic sacral fractures: a retrospective case-series study and review of the literature. Injury. 2010;41:266-72 pubmed publisher
  28. McTavish L. Practices of looking and the medical humanities: imagining the unborn in France, 1550-1800. J Med Humanit. 2010;31:11-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal is to encourage medical practitioners to reflect on their own visual skills, comparing and contrasting them with the visual methodologies of art history. ..
  29. Narsete T, Ersek R. Lip augmentation in conjunction with facelift: preliminary experience with a new permanent implant. Aesthet Surg J. 2009;29:356-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Neither experienced any distortion or migration. The implants are easy to insert if proper care is taken. The results are permanent and address the aging mouth effectively. A formal two-year study is pending. ..
  30. Jihui J, Liu Y, Hou R. Ulnar artery distal cutaneous descending branch as free flap in hand reconstruction. Injury. 2009;40:1320-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The outcomes of surgical hand-wound repair using free vascularised flaps based on the descending branch of the ulnar artery were successful. The operative method was simple, and the method appears to be worthy of clinical application. ..
  31. Challoner A, Erolin C. Creating pathology models from MRI data: a comparison of virtual 3D modelling and rapid prototyping techniques. J Vis Commun Med. 2013;36:11-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A questionnaire was conducted to collect feedback from tutors and students in order to evaluate the models and determine user preference. It was found that the majority preferred the physical models to the virtual model. ..
  32. Sakoda K, Jorge P, Carrara C, Machado M, Valarelli F, Pinzan A, et al. 3D analysis of effects of primary surgeries in cleft lip/palate children during the first two years of life. Braz Oral Res. 2017;31:e46 pubmed publisher
    ..At the time of palate repair and at two years of age, the maxillary dimensions were very similar in both groups. It can be concluded that the maxillary arches of children with UCLP and CP changed as a result of primary surgery. ..
  33. Cortes A, Cortes D, Arita E. Effectiveness of piezoelectric surgery in preparing the lateral window for maxillary sinus augmentation in patients with sinus anatomical variations: a case series. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2012;27:1211-5 pubmed
    ..No implants were lost during a mean follow-up period of 19 months. The use of piezoelectric surgery allowed for the accomplishment of all rehabilitation treatments within the follow-up period of this study. ..
  34. Shivakumar N, Hammad A, Gamblin T. Frank Netter: A Man of Art and Science. Am Surg. 2016;82:377-9 pubmed
    ..Medicine lost an educator and an artist in 1991; however, his collection of illustrations remains as his lasting gift to the field. ..
  35. Osawa S, Rhoton A, Tanriover N, Shimizu S, Fujii K. Microsurgical anatomy and surgical exposure of the petrous segment of the internal carotid artery. Neurosurgery. 2008;63:210-38; discussion 239 pubmed publisher
    ..The most frequent branch was a periosteal artery. An understanding of the complex relationships of the petrous carotid provides the basis for surgically accessing any 1 or more of its 5 segments. ..
  36. Belli G, D Agostino A, Fantini C, Belli A, Cioffi L, Limongelli P, et al. Laparoscopic hand-assisted right hemihepatectomy by ultrasound-directed intrahepatic approach. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2009;16:781-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This technique may be a useful option to simplify the operation, reduce operative time, and increase the safety of the procedure. ..
  37. Khalili M, Shoja M, Tubbs R, Loukas M, Alakbarli F, Newman A. Illustration of the heart and blood vessels in medieval times. Int J Cardiol. 2010;143:4-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, a brief history of Mansur's Anatomy and an English translation of selected sections from this book regarding the heart and blood vessels are presented. ..
  38. Murphy D, Challacombe B, Elhage O, Khan M, Dasgupta P. Robotically assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty. BJU Int. 2008;102:136-51 pubmed publisher
  39. Stapleford L, Lawson J, Perkins C, Edelman S, Davis L, McDonald M, et al. Evaluation of automatic atlas-based lymph node segmentation for head-and-neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;77:959-66 pubmed publisher
  40. Lauritzen P. Visual bioethics. Am J Bioeth. 2008;8:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Examining the appeal to images of the embryo and fetus in debates about abortion and stem cell research, I suggest that bioethicists would be well served by attending much more carefully to how images function in public policy debates. ..
  41. Martins A, Lima S, Araújo L, Vilar F, Cavalcante N. A wet dressing for hypospadias surgery. Int Braz J Urol. 2013;39:408-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Its main advantage is the possibility of several washes along the day without the need of any other manipulation. ..
  42. van Gijn J, Kunen M, Slagter R. [Illustrations in the 'Dutch Journal of Medicine': from woodcut to layered imaging]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2011;155:A2979 pubmed
    ..One new development--layered images--allows the reader to see 'through' organs and discover underlying structures. The next step is interactive anatomy, via the Internet. ..
  43. Pillai P, Lubow M, Ortega A, Ammirati M. Endoscopic transconjunctival surgical approach to the optic nerve and medial intraconal space: a cadaver study. Neurosurgery. 2008;63:204-8; discussion 208-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The approach is easy; minimally disturbs structures; and lends itself to biopsy, drainage, and even excision of selected lesions in this region without muscle transection and with aesthetically acceptable anatomic closure. ..
  44. Swamy M, Searle R. Anatomy teaching with portable ultrasound to medical students. BMC Med Educ. 2012;12:99 pubmed publisher
    ..Early exposure to this imaging technology may prime students for later encounters with ultrasound during clinical practice. ..
  45. Chan J, Wei W. Recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma after salvage nasopharyngectomy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;138:572-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In the presence of previous maxillary swing surgery, reswing or contralateral swing operation is feasible, without major complications. ..
  46. Engelmann L. [An analytical visualization practice. The pathological-anatomical illustrations of Jean Cruveilhier in relation to clinical observations]. Ber Wiss. 2012;35:7-24 pubmed
    ..The Atlas serves thereby as a sample to trace the genealogies of a clinical visualization practice in characteristic images that is both engaged with an individual case and classificational tasks. ..
  47. Esteves S, Miyaoka R, Agarwal A. Sperm retrieval techniques for assisted reproduction. Int Braz J Urol. 2011;37:570-83 pubmed
    ..Lastly, we summarize the results from the current literature of sperm retrieval, as well as the clinical outcome of ICSI in the clinical scenario of obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia. ..
  48. Collado A, Gómez Ferrer A, Rubio Briones J, Bonillo M, Iborra I, Solsona E. [Which patients with stress urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy benefit from the indication of an Invance?]. Arch Esp Urol. 2009;62:851-9 pubmed
    ..Patients with mild-moderate incontinence, without urodynamic anomalies nor previous radiotherapy are the ideal candidates. ..
  49. Bewsher S, Azzi A, Wright T. Use of standard hypodermic needles for accessing laparoscopic adjustable gastric band ports. Obes Surg. 2010;20:761-7 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no more risk of "coring" the septum with a SN than with a NCN. SN can be used safely and routinely to access laparoscopic adjustable gastric band ports. ..
  50. Ng K, Peh W. Preparing effective illustrations. Part 2: photographs, images and diagrams. Singapore Med J. 2009;50:330-4; quiz 335 pubmed
    ..This article provides some basic guidelines to assist authors in preparing effective photographs, radiological images and diagrams. ..
  51. Cabello J, Benway B, Bhayani S. Robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy: surgical technique using a 3-arm approach and sliding-clip renorrhaphy. Int Braz J Urol. 2009;35:199-203; discussion 203-4 pubmed
    ..The renorrhaphy described is performed under complete control of the console surgeon, and has demonstrated a reduction in the warm ischemia times in our series. ..
  52. Crawford L, Foley J, Elmore S. Histology atlas of the developing mouse hepatobiliary system with emphasis on embryonic days 9.5-18.5. Toxicol Pathol. 2010;38:872-906 pubmed publisher
    ..Authors' note: All digital images can be viewed online at with the username "ToxPathLiver" and the password "embryolivers." ..
  53. Hansen B. Medical History's Moment in Art Photography (1920 to 1950): How Lejaren à Hiller and Valentino Sarra Created a Fashion for Scenes of Early Surgery. J Hist Med Allied Sci. 2017;72:381-421 pubmed publisher
    ..An appreciation of these photographs enlarges our understanding of the place of medical history in American culture during the first half of the twentieth century...