graft vs host reaction


Summary: An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.

Top Publications

  1. Grosskreutz C, Gudzowaty O, Shi P, Rodriguez Laiz G, Malone A, Isola L. Partial HLA matching and RH incompatibility resulting in graft versus host reaction and Evans syndrome after liver transplantation. Am J Hematol. 2008;83:599-601 pubmed publisher
    ..HLA typing was critical in confirming this rare diagnosis and elucidating its cause. Recipients of solid organs from donors that are partially matched in the direction of rejection may need to be closely monitored for GVHD. ..
  2. Leo A, Mytilineos J, Voso M, Weber Nordt R, Liebisch P, Lensing C, et al. Passenger lymphocyte syndrome with severe hemolytic anemia due to an anti-Jk(a) after allogeneic PBPC transplantation. Transfusion. 2000;40:632-6 pubmed
    ..In most cases, this syndrome is triggered by ABO system antibodies. This is the first reported case of passenger lymphocyte syndrome after PBPC transplantation that was due to an alloantibody that did not belong to the ABO system. ..
  3. Pelot M, Pearson D, Swenson K, Zhao G, Sachs J, Yang Y, et al. Lymphohematopoietic graft-vs.-host reactions can be induced without graft-vs.-host disease in murine mixed chimeras established with a cyclophosphamide-based nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 1999;5:133-43 pubmed
  4. Thomas E, Buckner C, Banaji M, Clift R, Fefer A, Flournoy N, et al. One hundred patients with acute leukemia treated by chemotherapy, total body irradiation, and allogeneic marrow transplantation. Blood. 1977;49:511-33 pubmed
  5. Mapara M, Leng C, Kim Y, Bronson R, Lokshin A, Luster A, et al. Expression of chemokines in GVHD target organs is influenced by conditioning and genetic factors and amplified by GVHR. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2006;12:623-34 pubmed
  6. Pavletic S, Carter S, Kernan N, Henslee Downey J, Mendizabal A, Papadopoulos E, et al. Influence of T-cell depletion on chronic graft-versus-host disease: results of a multicenter randomized trial in unrelated marrow donor transplantation. Blood. 2005;106:3308-13 pubmed
    ..In spite of a significant reduction of acute GVHD, TCD did not reduce the incidence of cGVHD or improve survival in patients who developed cGVHD. ..
  7. Dickinson A, Wang X, Sviland L, Vyth Dreese F, Jackson G, Schumacher T, et al. In situ dissection of the graft-versus-host activities of cytotoxic T cells specific for minor histocompatibility antigens. Nat Med. 2002;8:410-4 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first in situ dissection of GvH effects by mHag-specific CTLs and show that ubiquitously expressed mHags are the prime targets of GvH disease. ..
  8. Sharma A, Armstrong A, Posner M, Kimball P, Cotterell A, King A, et al. Graft-versus-host disease after solid organ transplantation: a single center experience and review of literature. Ann Transplant. 2012;17:133-9 pubmed
    ..Future approaches may focus on early recognition of risk factors and improving treatment protocols using a combination of mesenchymal stromal cell transplantation with pharmacotherapy. ..
  9. Anderson I. Bone marrow transplants. Proc R Soc Med. 1975;68:577-8 pubmed

More Information


  1. Ishimoto T, Shimada M, Araya C, Huskey J, Garin E, Johnson R. Minimal change disease: a CD80 podocytopathy?. Semin Nephrol. 2011;31:320-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings lead us to suggest that proteinuria in minimal change disease is caused by persistent CD80 expression in podocytes, possibly initiated by stimulation of these cells by antigens or cytokines. ..
  2. Novota P, Sviland L, Zinöcker S, Stocki P, Balavarca Y, Bickeböller H, et al. Correlation of Hsp70-1 and Hsp70-2 gene expression with the degree of graft-versus-host reaction in a rat skin explant model. Transplantation. 2008;85:1809-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed induction of the MHC-encoded Hsp70-1 and Hsp70-2 genes might serve as new markers of GVHR and as potentially novel diagnostic tools for GVHD. ..
  3. Ekberg H, Qi Z, Pahlman C, Veress B, Bundick R, Craggs R, et al. The specific monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT-1) inhibitor, AR-C117977, induces donor-specific suppression, reducing acute and chronic allograft rejection in the rat. Transplantation. 2007;84:1191-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, AR-C117977 inhibited the occlusion of transplanted trachea in a OB model. This report describes a MCT-1 specific inhibitor having immunosuppressive activity on alloimmune responses and inducing donor-specific suppression. ..
  4. Quiros Tejeira R, Chang I, Scott J, Goss J, Teruya J. Mycophenolate mofetil in the management of alloimmune hemolytic anemia in ABO-compatible but non-identical pediatric liver transplantation. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005;41:125-8 pubmed
  5. Rohde D. 'Undo-Allo' stem cell transplantation: another concept to control allogeneic immunotherapy?. Urol Int. 2004;72:178 pubmed
  6. Simpson E, Scott D, James E, Lombardi G, Cwynarski K, Dazzi F, et al. Minor H antigens: genes and peptides. Eur J Immunogenet. 2001;28:505-13 pubmed
  7. Slavin S, Morecki S, Weigensberg M, Bar S, Weiss L. Functional clonal deletion versus suppressor cell-induced transplantation tolerance in chimeras prepared with a short course of total-lymphoid irradiation. Transplantation. 1986;41:680-7 pubmed
  8. Vanderbeeken Y, Duchateau J, Collet H, Van Boogaert L, Desseilles P, Lucas A. Functional modifications of the CD4+ and the CD8+ subset due to maternal serum. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1989;11:397-420 pubmed
    ..Appearing quite early during the gestation (at the 5-6th week), this factor was vanishing 2 weeks after the delivery. ..
  9. Ando T, Yujiri T, Nomiyama J, Mitani N, Seguchi M, Matsubara A, et al. Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from related donors mismatched at 2 HLA loci in the host-versus-graft direction. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2008;214:159-63 pubmed
    ..Our experience suggests that PBSC transplantation with an HVG-mismatched related donor and an appropriate conditioning regimen may be a therapeutic option for patients in whom early transplantation is desirable. ..
  10. Cucuianu A, Bosly A. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in malignant lymphoproliferative diseases. A single center, retrospective study. Rom J Intern Med. 1999;37:227-37 pubmed
  11. Luft T, Moos M, Goldschmidt H, Ho A, Görner M. Dissociation of putative graft-versus-haematopoiesis and graft-versus-myeloma effects in patients with rapidly progressive multiple myeloma. Br J Haematol. 2003;123:646-53 pubmed
    ..Secondly, the graft-versus-myeloma effect that induced CR did not correlate with FDC but was associated with grade III-IV GvHD in our group of heavily pretreated patients. ..
  12. Reinders M, Fang J, Wong W, Ganz P, Briscoe D. Expression patterns of vascular endothelial growth factor in human cardiac allografts: association with rejection. Transplantation. 2003;76:224-30 pubmed
    ..2). These findings define VEGF as an important proinflammatory cytokine after transplantation and indicate that its expression pattern might identify patients at risk for the development of GVD. ..
  13. Torregrosa N, Rodriguez J, Llorente S, Balsalobre M, Rios A, Jimeno L, et al. Definitive treatment for persistent hypoparathyroidism in a kidney transplant patient: parathyroid allotransplantation. Thyroid. 2005;15:1299-302 pubmed
    ..The graft is functioning after 2 years. ..
  14. Oudshoorn M, Doxiadis I, van den Berg Loonen P, Voorter C, Verduyn W, Claas F. Functional versus structural matching: can the CTLp test be replaced by HLA allele typing?. Hum Immunol. 2002;63:176-84 pubmed
    ..It is unclear whether they are all clinically relevant but they certainly provide additional insight in allograft recognition. ..
  15. Wang X, Haniffa M, Holtick U, Collin M, Jackson G, Hilkens C, et al. Regulatory T-cell suppression of CD8+ T-cell-mediated graft-versus-host reaction requires their presence during priming. Transplantation. 2009;88:188-97 pubmed publisher
    ..quot;Donor"-derived Treg seem to be safe and do not induce GVH histopathologic damage. ..
  16. Dalous J, Pansiot J, Pham H, Châtel P, Nadaradja C, D Agostino I, et al. Use of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells to prevent perinatal brain injury: a preclinical study. Stem Cells Dev. 2013;22:169-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the intraperitoneal injection of high amounts of hUCB-MNCs aggravated WMD and was associated with systemic inflammation. ..
  17. Fraziano M, Montesano C, Sammarco I, Di Cesare S, Caroleo M, Mattei M, et al. Induction of graft versus host disease in SCID mice by MRL/lpr cell transfer. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1994;71:265-72 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these data support the hypothesis that lymphocytes from the MRL/lpr mice may escape tolerance in the GvH reaction. ..
  18. OKunewick J, Kociban D, Machen L, Buffo M. Comparison of the effects of CD3 and CD5 donor T cell depletion on graft-versus-leukemia in a murine model for MHC-matched unrelated-donor transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1994;13:11-7 pubmed
  19. Zaleski M, Klein J. Genetic control of the immune response to Thy-1 antigens. Immunol Rev. 1978;38:120-62 pubmed
  20. Abrahamsen I, Kjellevoll S, Greve Isdahl M, Mensali N, Walchli S, Kumari S, et al. T cells raised against allogeneic HLA-A2/CD20 kill primary follicular lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Int J Cancer. 2012;130:1821-32 pubmed publisher
    ..A search clarified that donors meeting these criteria can be readily identified even for patients with rare haplotypes. The results bear further promise for the clinical utility of CD20-specific T cells in B cell malignancies. ..
  21. Fedecka Bruner B, Vaigot P, Désveaux Chabrol J, Gendreau M, Kroemer G, Dieterlen Lievre F. T-lymphocyte subsets in the embryonic spleen undergoing a graft-versus-host reaction. Dev Immunol. 1991;1:163-8 pubmed
    ..The data demonstrate that nonspecific host and potentially specific donor-derived cellular elements contribute to splenomegaly. ..
  22. Meyers J, Flournoy N, Thomas E. Infection with herpes simplex virus and cell-mediated immunity after marrow transplant. J Infect Dis. 1980;142:338-46 pubmed
    ..Recovery of responsiveness to HSV antigen after marrow transplant is primarily related to recurrent virus infection and not to the pretransplant immune status of the donor. ..
  23. Schirrmacher V, Beutner U, Bucur M, Umansky V, Rocha M, Von Hoegen P. Loss of endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus superantigen increases tumor resistance. J Immunol. 1998;161:563-70 pubmed
    ..Mls-1a, the mice became again more tumor susceptible. Finally, we demonstrate the ability to transfer immunoresistance and graft-vs-leukemia reactivity from tumor-resistant to tumor-susceptible mice. ..
  24. Budhecha S, Hamilton B. Immune dysfunction associated with graft-vs-host reaction in mice transplanted across minor histocompatibility barriers. II. Reversible defect in T-dependent antibody responses. J Immunol. 1989;142:3740-5 pubmed
  25. Duffie G, Romanelli R, Ellis N, Young M, Wepsic H. The effects of E series prostaglandins on blastogenic responses in vitro and graft vs. host responses in vivo. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1988;10:597-615 pubmed
    ..We conclude that prostaglandins of the E series can function as immunosuppressive reagents both in vitro and in vivo. In the future they may serve to augment existing forms of immunosuppressive therapy. ..
  26. Chakraverty R, Côté D, Buchli J, Cotter P, Hsu R, Zhao G, et al. An inflammatory checkpoint regulates recruitment of graft-versus-host reactive T cells to peripheral tissues. J Exp Med. 2006;203:2021-31 pubmed
    ..Our studies help to explain the paradox whereby GVH-reactive T cells can mediate graft-versus-leukemia responses without inducing GVHD in established MCs. ..
  27. Volk H, Brocke S, Osawa H, Diamantstein T. Effects of in-vivo administration of a monoclonal antibody specific for the interleukin-2 receptor on the acute graft-versus-host reaction in mice. Clin Exp Immunol. 1986;66:126-31 pubmed
    ..MoAb directed against antigens whose expression is restricted to activated lymphocytes, such as the IL-2 receptor, might become useful for a short term immunosuppression with limited side effects. ..
  28. Schirrmacher V, Beckhove P, Choi C, Griesbach A, Mahnke Y. Tumor-immune memory T cells from the bone marrow exert GvL without GvH reactivity in advanced metastasized cancer. Int J Oncol. 2005;27:1141-9 pubmed
    ..Bone marrow cells from naive donor mice or T cell depleted iBM cells were completely devoid of GvL reactivity. The low number of tumor-immune memory T cells thus conferred the GvL reactivity of iBM cells. ..
  29. DeConde R, Kim P, Levy D, Lee P. Post-transplantation dynamics of the immune response to chronic myelogenous leukemia. J Theor Biol. 2005;236:39-59 pubmed
    ..These observations lead to the hypothesis that anti-host T cells benefit from stimulation by general host blood cells, which induce them to proliferate to sufficient levels to eliminate cancer. ..
  30. del Rio M, Kurtz J, Perez Martinez C, Ghosh A, Perez Simon J, Rodriguez Barbosa J. B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator targeting protects against the acute phase of graft versus host reaction by inhibiting donor anti-host cytotoxicity. Transplantation. 2011;92:1085-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings place BTLA receptor as a potential immunoregulatory target for the modulation of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated alloresponses. ..
  31. Smith S, Terminelli C, Epps S, Watnick A, Umland S. A study of the immunosuppressive properties of Sch 24937. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1987;9:333-59 pubmed
  32. Chen J, Chang M, Lee H, Muench M. Haploidentical donor T cells fail to facilitate engraftment but lessen the immune response of host T cells in murine fetal transplantation. Br J Haematol. 2004;126:377-84 pubmed
    ..The persistence of donor cells in the peritoneal cavity also correlated with tolerance induction. ..
  33. Albers R, van der Pijl A, Seinen W, Pieters R, Bloksma N. The autoimmunogenic chemicals HgCl2 and diphenylhydantoin stimulate IgG production to TNP-Ficoll and TNP-OVA, supporting and extending the graft-versus-host hypothesis for chemical induction of autoimmunity. Immunology. 1996;89:468-73 pubmed
    ..In addition, the chemicals modify TNP-ovalbumin such that B cells recognizing this antigen become susceptible to non-cognate stimulation by GVH reactions. ..
  34. Stockmann H, Ijzermans J. Prospects for the temporary treatment of acute liver failure. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002;14:195-203 pubmed
    ..These include the use of new immortalized human cell lines and human fetal hepatocytes, and the possibility of isolating, expanding and genetically manipulating stem cells in order to have stable differentiated and committed cells. ..
  35. Jiang Y, Barrett J. The allogeneic CD4+ T-cell-mediated graft-versus-leukemia effect. Leuk Lymphoma. 1997;28:33-42 pubmed
    ..Candidate antigens recognised by CD4+ cells are described and new approaches to GVL modulation in clinical bone marrow transplantation are discussed. ..
  36. Maris M, Sandmaier B, Maloney D, McSweeney P, Woolfrey A, Chauncey T, et al. Non-myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Transfus Clin Biol. 2001;8:231-4 pubmed
  37. Wulff J, Held H, Mueller Hermelink H, Schlaak M. Purification and characterization of human bone marrow lymphocyte subpopulations: evidence for the existence of an alloreactive immature T cell. Clin Exp Immunol. 1981;44:485-90 pubmed
    ..This cell type could be involved in GVHD in addition to mature T cells after clinical bone marrow transplantation. ..
  38. Mavin E, Ahmed S, O Boyle G, Turner B, Douglass S, Norden J, et al. Regulatory T cells inhibit CD8(+) T-cell tissue invasion in human skin graft-versus-host reactions. Transplantation. 2012;94:456-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This therapeutic effect is associated with a failure of CD8 T cells to increase tissue homing receptors after allo-stimulation, together with a breakdown of interferon-?-induced chemoattractant expression in the target tissue. ..
  39. Ford W, Simmonds S, Atkins R. Early cellular events in a systemic graft-vs.-host reaction. II. Autoradiographic estimates of the frequency of donor lymphocytes which respond to each Ag-B-determined antigenic complex. J Exp Med. 1975;141:681-96 pubmed
    ..A speculative model of antigen recognition by T cells which accounts for the high proportion of responders is outlined. ..
  40. Giovarelli M, Cappello P, Forni G, Salcedo T, Moore P, LeFleur D, et al. Tumor rejection and immune memory elicited by locally released LEC chemokine are associated with an impressive recruitment of APCs, lymphocytes, and granulocytes. J Immunol. 2000;164:3200-6 pubmed
    ..The ability of LEC to markedly improve recognition of poorly immunogenic cells by promoting APC-T cell cross-talk suggests that it could be an effective component of antitumor vaccines. ..
  41. Iclozan C, Yu Y, Liu C, Liang Y, Yi T, Anasetti C, et al. T helper17 cells are sufficient but not necessary to induce acute graft-versus-host disease. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2010;16:170-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Th17 cells are sufficient but not necessary to induce GVHD...
  42. Pagliaro J, White S, Strutton G, Guerin D. Lichen planus-like eruption following autologous bone marrow transplantation for chronic myeloid leukaemia. Australas J Dermatol. 2001;42:188-91 pubmed
    ..The eruption resolved with topical betamethasone valerate 0.1% cream despite the ongoing use of the immunomodulatory agent interferon-alpha2b. Such a reaction in an autologous setting has only been described once previously. ..
  43. Kunisaki S, Haller G, Fuchimoto Y, Huang C, Sachs D. Peripheral regulation of graft-versus-host alloreactivity in mixed chimeric miniature swine. Transplantation. 2001;72:523-6 pubmed
  44. Devetten M, Armitage J. Hematopoietic cell transplantation: progress and obstacles. Ann Oncol. 2007;18:1450-6 pubmed
    ..Long-term complications are starting to emerge, and will gain in importance in the near future. ..
  45. Simpson E, Tomonari K, Lovering E. Minor transplantation antigens: their role in shaping the T cell repertoire. Immunol Lett. 1989;21:39-44 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, T cell receptor usage by T cells specific for allogeneic minor H antigens appears not to be representative of T cell receptor usage in the peripheral pool.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  46. Holloway P, Kaldenhoven N, Kok Schoemaker H, Van Kessel B, Van Blokland W, Bloem A, et al. Antigens shared by malignant plasma cells and normal B cells may be involved in graft versus myeloma. Clin Exp Immunol. 2003;131:340-6 pubmed
    ..Identification of these proteins will give insight into the relationship between graft versus myeloma (GvM) and GvHD and may provide immunotherapeutical targets in the treatment of MM. ..
  47. Leibowitz S, Schwartz R. Malignancy as a complication of immunosuppressive therapy. Adv Intern Med. 1971;17:95-123 pubmed
  48. Yaniv I, Ash S, Farkas D, Askenasy N, Stein J. Consideration of strategies for hematopoietic cell transplantation. J Autoimmun. 2009;33:255-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This proposition refocuses the need to develop strategies of immunomodulation without immunosuppression. ..
  49. Hiestand P, Gunn H, Gale J, Ryffel B, Borel J. Comparison of the pharmacological profiles of cyclosporine, (Nva2)-cyclosporine and (Val2)dihydro-cyclosporine. Immunology. 1985;55:249-55 pubmed
    ..It does not suppress humoral immunity and allograft rejection, but suppresses some types of cell-mediated immune responses. This derivative may prove useful in autoimmune situations where T cells are involved in the disease process. ..
  50. Rocha V, Gluckman E. Outcomes of transplantation in children with acute leukaemia. Lancet. 2007;369:1906-8 pubmed
  51. Moritz K, Weinrich M, Kröger J, Klar E. [Pancreas-preserving duodenectomy in acute situations. Surgical treatment of an iatrogenic hemorrhage in the duodenal wall]. Chirurg. 2011;82:723-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A pancreas-preserving duodectomy was carried out. ..
  52. Simonsen M. The impact on the developing embryo and newborn animal of adult homologous cells. APMIS. 2007;115:510-30; discussion 531-2 pubmed
  53. Curtis J, Messner H. Bone marrow transplantation for leukemia and aplastic anemia: management of ABO incompatibility. Can Med Assoc J. 1982;126:649-55 pubmed
    ..Marrow transplantation, when possible, is the treatment of choice for young patients with acute leukemia in remission and for patients with aplastic anemia. Marrow transplantation may also prove to be effective in patients with CML. ..