transplantation immunology


Summary: A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.

Top Publications

  1. Scandling J, Busque S, Dejbakhsh Jones S, Benike C, Sarwal M, Millan M, et al. Tolerance and withdrawal of immunosuppressive drugs in patients given kidney and hematopoietic cell transplants. Am J Transplant. 2012;12:1133-45 pubmed publisher
    ..All 16 patients had excellent graft function at the last observation point with or without maintenance drugs...
  2. Wood K, Bushell A, Hester J. Regulatory immune cells in transplantation. Nat Rev Immunol. 2012;12:417-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We consider the potential of these regulatory immune cells to develop and function in transplant recipients and their potential use as cellular therapies to promote long-term graft function. ..
  3. Chinen J, Buckley R. Transplantation immunology: solid organ and bone marrow. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:S324-35 pubmed publisher
  4. Sener A, Tang A, Farber D. Memory T-cell predominance following T-cell depletional therapy derives from homeostatic expansion of naive T cells. Am J Transplant. 2009;9:2615-23 pubmed publisher
  5. Qiu J, Terasaki P, Miller J, Mizutani K, Cai J, Carosella E. Soluble HLA-G expression and renal graft acceptance. Am J Transplant. 2006;6:2152-6 pubmed
    ..sHLA-G had a negative association with allograft failure from chronic rejection, and a negative relationship with the production of HLA IgG antibodies. The significance of sHLA-G in renal transplants remains to be determined. ..
  6. Thaunat O, Badet L, El Jaafari A, Kanitakis J, Dubernard J, Morelon E. Composite tissue allograft extends a helping hand to transplant immunologists. Am J Transplant. 2006;6:2238-42 pubmed
    ..In this sense, composite tissue allografts extend a helping hand to transplant immunologists. ..
  7. Ravindra K, Wu S, Bozulic L, Xu H, Breidenbach W, Ildstad S. Composite tissue transplantation: a rapidly advancing field. Transplant Proc. 2008;40:1237-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, some important hurdles that must be overcome in using bone marrow chimerism to induce tolerance to CTA are also discussed. ..
  8. Walker W, Nasr I, Camirand G, Tesar B, Booth C, Goldstein D. Absence of innate MyD88 signaling promotes inducible allograft acceptance. J Immunol. 2006;177:5307-16 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this study provides evidence that absence of MyD88 promotes inducible allograft acceptance and implies that inhibiting innate immunity may be a potential, clinically relevant strategy to facilitate transplantation tolerance. ..
  9. Veit T, Chies J. Tolerance versus immune response -- microRNAs as important elements in the regulation of the HLA-G gene expression. Transpl Immunol. 2009;20:229-31 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Wieczorek G, Asemissen A, Model F, Turbachova I, Floess S, Liebenberg V, et al. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of FOXP3 as a new method for counting regulatory T cells in peripheral blood and solid tissue. Cancer Res. 2009;69:599-608 pubmed publisher
    ..The assay presented here measures Treg robustly in blood and solid tissues regardless of conservation levels, promising fast screening of Treg in various clinical settings. ..
  2. Rosen H. Transplantation immunology: what the clinician needs to know for immunotherapy. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:1789-801 pubmed publisher
  3. Siemionow M, Nasir S. Impact of donor bone marrow on survival of composite tissue allografts. Ann Plast Surg. 2008;60:455-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, bone marrow-based therapy protocols of experimental and clinical models are presented in composite tissue transplantation. ..
  4. Scandling J, Busque S, Dejbakhsh Jones S, Benike C, Millan M, Shizuru J, et al. Tolerance and chimerism after renal and hematopoietic-cell transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:362-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Adverse events requiring hospitalization were limited to a 2-day episode of fever with neutropenia. The patient has had neither rejection episodes nor clinical manifestations of graft-versus-host disease...
  5. Neujahr D, Chen C, Huang X, Markmann J, Cobbold S, Waldmann H, et al. Accelerated memory cell homeostasis during T cell depletion and approaches to overcome it. J Immunol. 2006;176:4632-9 pubmed
    ..These data have clinically relevant implications related to the development of novel strategies to overcome resistance to tolerance. ..
  6. Fishman J. Infection in solid-organ transplant recipients. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:2601-14 pubmed
  7. Yamazaki M, Pearson T, Brehm M, Miller D, Mangada J, Markees T, et al. Different mechanisms control peripheral and central tolerance in hematopoietic chimeric mice. Am J Transplant. 2007;7:1710-21 pubmed
    ..In contrast, chimerism is lost, but skin allografts survive following naïve T-cell injection. We conclude that hematopoietic chimerism and peripheral tolerance may be maintained by different mechanisms in mixed hematopoietic chimeras. ..
  8. Snanoudj R, de Préneuf H, Creput C, Arzouk N, Deroure B, Beaudreuil S, et al. Costimulation blockade and its possible future use in clinical transplantation. Transpl Int. 2006;19:693-704 pubmed
    ..Given the diversity of the different costimulation molecules, future strategies for human transplantation may involve the simultaneous blockade of several selected pathways or the simultaneous use of conventional immunosuppressants. ..
  9. Savoldo B, Goss J, Hammer M, Zhang L, Lopez T, Gee A, et al. Treatment of solid organ transplant recipients with autologous Epstein Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Blood. 2006;108:2942-9 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with an expansion and persistence of adoptively transferred EBV-CTLs that is limited in the presence of continued immunosuppression but that nonetheless produces clinically useful antiviral activity. ..
  10. Larsen C, Knechtle S, Adams A, Pearson T, Kirk A. A new look at blockade of T-cell costimulation: a therapeutic strategy for long-term maintenance immunosuppression. Am J Transplant. 2006;6:876-83 pubmed
    ..Recent clinical data using the selective costimulation blocker, belatacept (LEA29Y), as a part of a CNI-free maintenance immunosuppressive regimen in renal transplantation is highlighted. ..
  11. Tripathy S, Keyel P, Yang L, Pingel J, Cheng T, Schneeberger A, et al. Continuous engagement of a self-specific activation receptor induces NK cell tolerance. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1829-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, engagement of self-specific activation receptors in vivo induces an NK cell tolerance effect that is not affected by self-MHC-specific inhibitory receptors...
  12. Kawai T, Cosimi A, Spitzer T, Tolkoff Rubin N, Suthanthiran M, Saidman S, et al. HLA-mismatched renal transplantation without maintenance immunosuppression. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:353-61 pubmed publisher
  13. Leung W, Handgretinger R, Iyengar R, Turner V, Holladay M, Hale G. Inhibitory KIR-HLA receptor-ligand mismatch in autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for solid tumour and lymphoma. Br J Cancer. 2007;97:539-42 pubmed
    ..01). The potential applicability of the receptor-ligand mismatch model to autologous HCTs and to patients with lymphoma or solid tumour is clinically significant because of the prevalence of the HCT procedure. ..
  14. Trivedi H. Immunobiology of rejection and adaptation. Transplant Proc. 2007;39:647-52 pubmed
    ..Adaptation and tolerance are based on the principle of exhaustion of donor-specific immune responses by an activation-deletion-exhaustion pathway. ..
  15. Copelan E. Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1813-26 pubmed
  16. Sharma K, Radha R, Pao A, Amet N, Baden L, Jordan S, et al. Mycophenolic acid and intravenous immunoglobulin exert an additive effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis in the mixed lymphocyte reaction. Transpl Immunol. 2010;23:117-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These in vitro observations may have implications for modification of therapeutic approaches to protocols utilizing IVIG for desensitization and immune modulation. ..
  17. Neal M, Raval J, Triulzi D, Simmons R. Innate immune activation after transfusion of stored red blood cells. Transfus Med Rev. 2013;27:113-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible mechanisms by which each might perturb the innate immune response are reviewed in a search for potential novel pathways through which transfusion can lead to an altered inflammatory response. ..
  18. Gertow J, Berglund S, Okas M, Kärre K, Remberger M, Mattsson J, et al. Expansion of T-cells from the cord blood graft as a predictive tool for complications and outcome of cord blood transplantation. Clin Immunol. 2012;143:134-44 pubmed publisher
  19. González Moreno J, Callejas Rubio J, Ríos Fernández R, Ortego Centeno N. Antiphospholipid syndrome, antiphospholipid antibodies and solid organ transplantation. Lupus. 2015;24:1356-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this article is to review the literature related to transplantation of solid organs in patients diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome or patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies. ..
  20. Iyer H, Jackson A, Zachary A, Montgomery R. Transplanting the highly sensitized patient: trials and tribulations. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2013;22:681-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Rigorous investigations into newer interventions will help in broadening the options for these patients and also expand the living donor pool. ..
  21. Uygun B, Yarmush M. Engineered liver for transplantation. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2013;24:893-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This opinion paper presents the current advances and discusses the challenges of creating fully functional transplantable liver grafts with this whole liver engineering approach. ..
  22. Wiebe C, Rush D, Nevins T, Birk P, Blydt Hansen T, Gibson I, et al. Class II Eplet Mismatch Modulates Tacrolimus Trough Levels Required to Prevent Donor-Specific Antibody Development. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;28:3353-3362 pubmed publisher
    ..Recipients with high HLA alloimmune risk should not target tacrolimus levels <5 ng/ml unless essential, and monitoring for dnDSA may be advisable in this setting. ..
  23. Koshika T, Phelps C, Fang J, Lee S, Fujita M, Ayares D, et al. Relative efficiency of porcine and human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 immunoglobulin in inhibiting human CD4+ T-cell responses co-stimulated by porcine and human B7 molecules. Immunology. 2011;134:386-97 pubmed publisher
    ..High-level tissue-specific production of pCTLA4-Ig may be required for sufficient immunosuppression for organ or cell (e.g., islets) transplantation. ..
  24. Knight M, Tiong H, Li J, Pidwell D, Goldfarb D. Transplant nephrectomy after allograft failure is associated with allosensitization. Urology. 2011;78:314-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Rejection episodes and early TN after graft failure might result in a greater degree of sensitization. ..
  25. EKSIOGLU E, Kielbasa J, Eisen S, Reddy V. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor increases the proportion of circulating dendritic cells after autologous but not after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Cytotherapy. 2011;13:888-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that administration of GM-CSF improves DC reconstitution after autologous rather than allogeneic HSCT. ..
  26. Hymes L, Warshaw B. Five-year experience using sirolimus-based, calcineurin inhibitor-free immunosuppression in pediatric renal transplantation. Pediatr Transplant. 2011;15:437-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experience with SRL-based immunosuppression demonstrates that a CNI-free regimen can be successful in lower-risk patients meeting our selection criteria. Aphthous ulcers and BK virus viremia were the most prevalent adverse events. ..
  27. Vanhove B. [Monoclonal antibodies in organ transplantation]. Med Sci (Paris). 2009;25:1121-5 pubmed publisher
  28. Gorantla V, Schneeberger S, Brandacher G, Sucher R, Zhang D, Lee W, et al. T regulatory cells and transplantation tolerance. Transplant Rev (Orlando). 2010;24:147-59 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on current understanding of regulatory T cells and their role in transplantation tolerance. ..
  29. Langer F, Puls F, Buchholz S, Loddenkemper C, Ganser A, Kreipe H. [Histopathology of graft-versus-host disease]. Pathologe. 2011;32:144-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This review covers the diagnostic morphological criteria and differential diagnoses of GvHD in the skin, gastrointestinal tract and the liver. ..
  30. Kokseng S, Blair J. Successful kidney transplantation after coccidioidal meningitis. Transpl Infect Dis. 2011;13:285-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We present the first successful case of a kidney transplant in a patient after treatment for coccidioidal meningitis without post-transplant reactivation of the coccidioidal infection. ..
  31. Cantisán S, Torre Cisneros J, Lara R, Rodriguez Benot A, Santos F, Gutiérrez Aroca J, et al. Age-dependent association between low frequency of CD27/CD28 expression on pp65 CD8+ T cells and cytomegalovirus replication after transplantation. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:1429-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are necessary to define the significance of these changes in HCMV-associated clinical complications posttransplantation. ..
  32. San Segundo D, Fernandez Fresnedo G, Ruiz J, Rodrigo E, Benito M, Arias M, et al. Two-year follow-up of a prospective study of circulating regulatory T cells in renal transplant patients. Clin Transplant. 2010;24:386-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, circulating Tregs decrease in the first six months but recover thereafter up to two yr after kidney transplantation. Such a decrease is favored by high levels of tacrolimus but not by induction protocols with anti-CD25. ..
  33. Seissler N, Schmitt E, Hug F, Sommerer C, Zeier M, Schaier M, et al. Methylprednisolone treatment increases the proportion of the highly suppressive HLA-DR(+)-Treg-cells in transplanted patients. Transpl Immunol. 2012;27:157-61 pubmed publisher
  34. Charreau B. Signaling of endothelial cytoprotection in transplantation. Hum Immunol. 2012;73:1245-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This review also provides an update of the characteristics of some established and novel protective molecules for the endothelium, identified in transplantation. ..
  35. English K, Wood K. Immunogenicity of embryonic stem cell-derived progenitors after transplantation. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2011;16:90-5 pubmed publisher
  36. Li N, Matte Martone C, Zheng H, Cui W, Venkatesan S, Tan H, et al. Memory T cells from minor histocompatibility antigen-vaccinated and virus-immune donors improve GVL and immune reconstitution. Blood. 2011;118:5965-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These data establish a strategy for augmenting GVL and immune reconstitution without elaborate T-cell manipulation. ..
  37. CENTANNI J, Straseski J, Wicks A, Hank J, Rasmussen C, Lokuta M, et al. StrataGraft skin substitute is well-tolerated and is not acutely immunogenic in patients with traumatic wounds: results from a prospective, randomized, controlled dose escalation trial. Ann Surg. 2011;253:672-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We envision that this novel skin tissue technology will be widely used to facilitate the healing of traumatic cutaneous wounds.This study was registered at (NCT00618839). ..
  38. Molinero L, Alegre M. Role of T cell-nuclear factor ?B in transplantation. Transplant Rev (Orlando). 2012;26:189-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeted inhibition of NF-?B in selected cell types may promote graft survival with fewer adverse effects compared with global immunosuppressive therapies. ..
  39. Zimring J, Welniak L, Semple J, Ness P, Slichter S, Spitalnik S. Current problems and future directions of transfusion-induced alloimmunization: summary of an NHLBI working group. Transfusion. 2011;51:435-41 pubmed publisher
  40. Lackner C, Offner F, Nizze H. [Small intestine, pancreas and islet cell transplantation]. Pathologe. 2011;32:135-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Currently, technical and medical problems as well as high costs prevent the application of islet transplantation as a therapeutic option for a larger number of patients with diabetes mellitus. ..
  41. Zhao S, Li J, Zheng X, Peng F, Ye Y, Chen Q. Irradiated haploidentical donor leukocyte infusions as an adoptive immunotherapy strategy to induce host-versus-tumor effects. Tumori. 2011;97:522-31 pubmed publisher
    ..As an adoptive therapy, irradiated haploidentical DLI without bone marrow transplantation might be a promising and safe treatment for cancer. ..
  42. Romee R, Weisdorf D, Brunstein C, Wagner J, Cao Q, Blazar B, et al. Impact of ABO-mismatch on risk of GVHD after umbilical cord blood transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2013;48:1046-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas ABO-compatible donors are preferred in recipients of URD-HCT, ABO compatibility generally need not be considered in recipients of UCB-HCT. ..
  43. Lisboa L, Kumar D, Wilson L, Humar A. Clinical utility of cytomegalovirus cell-mediated immunity in transplant recipients with cytomegalovirus viremia. Transplantation. 2012;93:195-200 pubmed publisher
    ..CMI assessment shortly after the onset of CMV viremia may be useful to predict progression versus spontaneous viral clearance, thereby helping guide the need for antiviral therapy and refining current preemptive strategies. ..
  44. Hautz T, Krapf C, Grahammer J, Zelger B, Hickethier T, Seger C, et al. Targeting the Kv1.3 potassium channel for immunosuppression in vascularized composite allotransplantation - a pilot study. Transpl Int. 2013;26:552-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Subcutaneous injection did not lead to systemic plasma levels. The Kv1.3-channel is a potential drug target worth exploring in more detail for immunosuppression in vascularized composite allotransplantation. ..
  45. Dasgupta A, Saxena R. Regulatory T cells: a review. Natl Med J India. 2012;25:341-51 pubmed
    ..This overview provides a framework for integrating these concepts of basic and translational research. ..
  46. Pham B, Piard Ruster K, Silva R, Gallo A, Esquivel C, Martinez O, et al. Changes in natural killer cell subsets in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Pediatr Transplant. 2012;16:176-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the numbers and subsets of circulating NK cells are altered in children after liver transplantation. ..
  47. Redfield R, Parsons R, Rodriguez E, Mustafa M, Cassuto J, Vivek K, et al. Underutilization of A2 ABO incompatible kidney transplantation. Clin Transplant. 2012;26:489-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Graft outcomes are similar among A2 compatible and incompatible recipients. Shorter waiting time and improved access might be achieved if A2 kidneys are considered in all blood groups. ..
  48. Wu Y, Liang J, Zhang W, Tanaka Y, Sugiyama H. Immunotherapies: the blockade of inhibitory signals. Int J Biol Sci. 2012;8:1420-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the progress that has been made with the mentioned receptors in the field of immunotherapies for autoimmune diseases, malignancies, infectious diseases, and transplantation. ..
  49. Baba H, Wohlschlager J, Stypmann J, Hiemann N. [Heart transplantation. Pathology, clinical work-up and therapy]. Pathologe. 2011;32:95-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether or not non-invasive diagnostic approaches (e.g. gene array profile analysis on leukocytes) can replace morphological investigations needs to be clarified in randomised, prospective clinical studies. ..
  50. Cecka J. Calculated PRA (CPRA): the new measure of sensitization for transplant candidates. Am J Transplant. 2010;10:26-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The calculated panel-reactive antibody, which provides an estimate of the percentage of deceased organ donors that will be crossmatch incompatible for a candidate provides both consistency and accountability. ..
  51. Valenzuela N, McNamara J, Reed E. Antibody-mediated graft injury: complement-dependent and complement-independent mechanisms. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2014;19:33-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapeutic strategies, which target endothelial activation induced by antibodies may ameliorate vascular inflammation and mononuclear cell infiltration characteristic of AMR. ..
  52. Floreth T, Bhorade S, Ahya V. Conventional and novel approaches to immunosuppression. Clin Chest Med. 2011;32:265-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, conventional immunosuppressive regimens, novel approaches to preventing graft rejection, and investigational agents for solid organ transplantation are reviewed. ..
  53. Todd J, Palmer S. Danger signals in regulating the immune response to solid organ transplantation. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:2464-2472 pubmed publisher