Summary: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.

Top Publications

  1. Ursic K, Kos Š, Kamensek U, Cemazar M, Scancar J, Bucek S, et al. Comparable effectiveness and immunomodulatory actions of oxaliplatin and cisplatin in electrochemotherapy of murine melanoma. Bioelectrochemistry. 2018;119:161-171 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, both drugs display equal and specific immune responses following ECT. ..
  2. Bournazos S, Ravetch J. Fc? Receptor Function and the Design of Vaccination Strategies. Immunity. 2017;47:224-233 pubmed publisher
    ..Within this context, we discuss vaccination strategies to elicit broad and potent immune responses based on the immunomodulatory properties of Fc-Fc?R interactions. ..
  3. Jensen Jarolim E, Pali Schöll I, Roth Walter F. Outstanding animal studies in allergy II. From atopic barrier and microbiome to allergen-specific immunotherapy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;17:180-187 pubmed publisher
    Animal studies published within the past 18 months were assessed, focusing on innate and specific immunomodulation, providing knowledge of high translational relevance for human atopic and allergic diseases...
  4. Mir F, Contreras Ruiz L, Masli S. Thrombospondin-1-dependent immune regulation by transforming growth factor-β2-exposed antigen-presenting cells. Immunology. 2015;146:547-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings introduce the integrin-independent mechanism of TGF-β activation as an integral part of peripheral immune tolerance associated with TGF-β2-expressing tissues. ..
  5. Nibbs R, Graham G. Immune regulation by atypical chemokine receptors. Nat Rev Immunol. 2013;13:815-29 pubmed
  6. Sparrow R. Red blood cell storage and transfusion-related immunomodulation. Blood Transfus. 2010;8 Suppl 3:s26-30 pubmed publisher
  7. Mansour M, Teo Z, Luen S, Loi S. Advancing Immunotherapy in Metastatic Breast Cancer. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2017;18:35 pubmed publisher
    ..Results of ongoing clinical trials including combinations with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapies are eagerly awaited. ..
  8. Braverman J, Stanley S. Nitric Oxide Modulates Macrophage Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection through Activation of HIF-1? and Repression of NF-?B. J Immunol. 2017;199:1805-1816 pubmed publisher
    ..IFN-? signaling must carefully calibrate an effective immune response that does not cause excessive tissue damage, and this study identifies NO as a key player in establishing this balance during M. tuberculosis infection. ..
  9. Miyazaki M, Miyazaki K, Chen K, Jin Y, Turner J, Moore A, et al. The E-Id Protein Axis Specifies Adaptive Lymphoid Cell Identity and Suppresses Thymic Innate Lymphoid Cell Development. Immunity. 2017;46:818-834.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these and previous observations, we propose that the E-Id protein axis specifies innate and adaptive lymphoid cell fate. ..

More Information


  1. Goswami K, Ghosh T, Ghosh S, Sarkar M, Bose A, Baral R. Tumor promoting role of anti-tumor macrophages in tumor microenvironment. Cell Immunol. 2017;316:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Basic questions on the factors responsible for homing of macrophages in tumors, mechanism of conversion of M1 to M2 TAMs, their functionality and, finally, the possible ways to target M2 TAMs are discussed. ..
  2. Kuen J, Darowski D, Kluge T, Majety M. Pancreatic cancer cell/fibroblast co-culture induces M2 like macrophages that influence therapeutic response in a 3D model. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182039 pubmed publisher
  3. Chen L, Han X. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy of human cancer: past, present, and future. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:3384-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that these fundamental principles set the standard for future immunotherapies and will guide our efforts to develop more efficacious and less toxic immune therapeutics to treat human cancers. ..
  4. Bakke S, Aune M, Niyonzima N, Pilely K, Ryan L, Skjelland M, et al. Cyclodextrin Reduces Cholesterol Crystal-Induced Inflammation by Modulating Complement Activation. J Immunol. 2017;199:2910-2920 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these findings support the potential for using BCD in treatment of atherosclerosis. ..
  5. Kaleta B, Boguska A. Sildenafil, a Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor, Downregulates Osteopontin in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2017;65:347-353 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, it is needed to evaluate sildenafil's activity in PBMCs from patients with elevated OPN levels. ..
  6. Almon E, Khoury T, Drori A, Gingis Velitski S, Alon S, Chertkoff R, et al. An oral administration of a recombinant anti-TNF fusion protein is biologically active in the gut promoting regulatory T cells: Results of a phase I clinical trial using a novel oral anti-TNF alpha-based therapy. J Immunol Methods. 2017;446:21-29 pubmed publisher
    ..The PRX-106 may provide a safe orally administered effective anti-TNF alpha-based immune therapy for inflammatory bowel diseases and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, as well as other autoimmune, TNF-mediated diseases. ..
  7. Harnett M, Harnett W. Can Parasitic Worms Cure the Modern World's Ills?. Trends Parasitol. 2017;33:694-705 pubmed publisher
    ..with a particular focus on exciting recent advances in the identification of potential novel targets for immunomodulation that can be exploited therapeutically...
  8. Masarova L, Verstovsek S, Kantarjian H, Daver N. Immunotherapy based approaches in myelofibrosis. Expert Rev Hematol. 2017;10:903-914 pubmed publisher
  9. Stiehm E, Orange J, Ballow M, Lehman H. Therapeutic use of immunoglobulins. Adv Pediatr. 2010;57:185-218 pubmed publisher
  10. Zhang Y, Zhang L, Huang X, Duan Y, Yang L, Wang J. Association between cigarette smoking and impaired clinical symptoms in systemic sclerosis: A review. Cell Immunol. 2017;318:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..smoking is known to affect many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases through various mechanisms, including immunomodulation and chemical exposure...
  11. Holly M, Diaz K, Smith J. Defensins in Viral Infection and Pathogenesis. Annu Rev Virol. 2017;4:369-391 pubmed publisher
    ..Model systems to study defensin biology, including more physiologic models designed to bridge this gap, are also discussed. ..
  12. Ishihara K. Virulence factors of Treponema denticola. Periodontol 2000. 2010;54:117-35 pubmed publisher
  13. Vitale G, Dicitore A, Gentilini D, Cavagnini F. Immunomodulatory effects of VEGF: Clinical implications of VEGF-targeted therapy in human cancer. Cancer Biol Ther. 2010;9:694-8 pubmed
  14. Burbage M, Keppler S, Montaner B, Mattila P, Batista F. The Small Rho GTPase TC10 Modulates B Cell Immune Responses. J Immunol. 2017;199:1682-1695 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, by combining in vivo and in vitro analysis using TC10-deficient mice, we define the poorly studied Rho GTPase TC10 as an immunomodulatory molecule playing a role in physiological B cell responses. ..
  15. Kasten Jolly J, Lawrence D. Sex-specific effects of developmental lead exposure on the immune-neuroendocrine network. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;334:142-157 pubmed publisher
    ..This review describes some of the different genes involved in female and male responses to Pb exposure and involved pathways. ..
  16. Das M, Zhu C, Kuchroo V. Tim-3 and its role in regulating anti-tumor immunity. Immunol Rev. 2017;276:97-111 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses the recent findings on Tim-3, the role it plays in regulating immune responses in different cell types and the rationale for targeting Tim-3 for effective cancer immunotherapy. ..
  17. Steiger S, Kumar S, Honarpisheh M, Lorenz G, Günthner R, Romoli S, et al. Immunomodulatory Molecule IRAK-M Balances Macrophage Polarization and Determines Macrophage Responses during Renal Fibrosis. J Immunol. 2017;199:1440-1452 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results strongly support a role for IRAK-M in renal injury and identify IRAK-M as a possible modulator in driving an alternatively activated profibrotic macrophage phenotype in UUO-induced CKD. ..
  18. Flynn M, Hartley J. The emerging role of anti-CD25 directed therapies as both immune modulators and targeted agents in cancer. Br J Haematol. 2017;179:20-35 pubmed publisher
  19. Colliou N, Ge Y, Sahay B, Gong M, Zadeh M, Owen J, et al. Commensal Propionibacterium strain UF1 mitigates intestinal inflammation via Th17 cell regulation. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:3970-3986 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results mechanistically elucidate the protective effects of HBM and P. UF1-induced immunoregulation, which safeguard against proinflammatory diseases, including NEC...
  20. Charan Raja M, Velappan A, Chellappan D, Debnath J, Kar Mahapatra S. Eugenol derived immunomodulatory molecules against visceral leishmaniasis. Eur J Med Chem. 2017;139:503-518 pubmed publisher
    ..35, as an immunomodulatory molecule, can induce host protective immune response against visceral leishmaniasis through enhanced NO generation and Th1 response, which are essentials against this deadly disease. ..
  21. Long S, Thorpe J, Herold K, Ehlers M, Sanda S, Lim N, et al. Remodeling T cell compartments during anti-CD3 immunotherapy of type 1 diabetes. Cell Immunol. 2017;319:3-9 pubmed publisher
  22. Weber E, Reynaud Q, Fort R, Durupt S, Cathebras P, Durieu I, et al. Immunomodulatory treatments for persistent and chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis of 28 studies. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7534 pubmed publisher
    ..Thanks to their best efficacy and safety profiles, dapsone and hydroxychloroquine in patients with antinuclear antibodies should be preferred over danazol and interferon alpha. ..
  23. Haney E, Wu B, Lee K, Hilchie A, Hancock R. Aggregation and Its Influence on the Immunomodulatory Activity of Synthetic Innate Defense Regulator Peptides. Cell Chem Biol. 2017;24:969-980.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, some derivatives exhibited reduced aggregation while maintaining certain immunomodulatory functions, demonstrating that it is possible to engineer optimized synthetic HDPs to avoid unwanted peptide aggregation. ..
  24. Lok A, Zoulim F, Dusheiko G, Ghany M. Hepatitis B cure: From discovery to regulatory approval. Hepatology. 2017;66:1296-1313 pubmed publisher
    ..The safety of any new curative therapies will be paramount given the excellent safety of currently approved nucleos(t)ide analogues. (Hepatology 2017). ..
  25. Jiang H, Rivera Molina Y, Gomez Manzano C, Clise Dwyer K, Bover L, Vence L, et al. Oncolytic Adenovirus and Tumor-Targeting Immune Modulatory Therapy Improve Autologous Cancer Vaccination. Cancer Res. 2017;77:3894-3907 pubmed publisher
    ..i>Cancer Res; 77(14); 3894-907. ©2017 AACR. ..
  26. Cybulska P, Goss C, Tew W, Parameswaran R, Sonoda Y. Indications for and complications of transfusion and the management of gynecologic malignancies. Gynecol Oncol. 2017;146:416-426 pubmed publisher
  27. Trsan T, Vuković K, Filipović P, Brizić A, Lemmermann N, Schober K, et al. Cytomegalovirus vector expressing RAE-1? induces enhanced anti-tumor capacity of murine CD8+ T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2017;47:1354-1367 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that immunomodulation of CD8+ T-cell responses promoted by herpesvirus expressing a ligand for NKG2D receptor can ..
  28. Veldhuizen E, Scheenstra M, Tjeerdsma van Bokhoven J, Coorens M, Schneider V, Bikker F, et al. Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Activity of PMAP-23 Derived Peptides. Protein Pept Lett. 2017;24:609-616 pubmed publisher
    ..PMAP-23 is mainly antibacterial with only limited immunomodulating capacity; the full length peptide is required for the full spectrum of activities. ..
  29. Mills E, Kelly B, O Neill L. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of immunity. Nat Immunol. 2017;18:488-498 pubmed publisher
    ..These discoveries are revealing mitochondrial targets that could potentially be exploited for therapeutic gain in inflammation and cancer. ..
  30. Pyzer A, Stroopinsky D, Rosenblatt J, Anastasiadou E, Rajabi H, Washington A, et al. MUC1 inhibition leads to decrease in PD-L1 levels via upregulation of miRNAs. Leukemia. 2017;31:2780-2790 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest MUC1 is a critical regulator of PD-L1 expression via its effects on microRNA levels and represents a potential therapeutic target to enhance anti-tumor immunity...
  31. Foster H, Ulasov I, Cobbs C. Human cytomegalovirus-mediated immunomodulation: Effects on glioblastoma progression. Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer. 2017;1868:273-276 pubmed publisher
    ..Emerging antiviral approaches to treating GBM, including antiviral drugs and immunotherapies directed against HCMV, are also examined. ..
  32. Vladimer G, Snijder B, Krall N, Bigenzahn J, Huber K, Lardeau C, et al. Global survey of the immunomodulatory potential of common drugs. Nat Chem Biol. 2017;13:681-690 pubmed publisher
    ..The approach offers an attractive platform for the personalized identification and characterization of immunomodulatory therapeutics. ..
  33. Rice T. Immunonutrition in critical illness: limited benefit, potential harm. JAMA. 2014;312:490-1 pubmed publisher
  34. Tanner M, Tajhya R, Huq R, Gehrmann E, Rodarte K, Atik M, et al. Prolonged immunomodulation in inflammatory arthritis using the selective Kv1.3 channel blocker HsTX1[R14A] and its PEGylated analog. Clin Immunol. 2017;180:45-57 pubmed publisher
    ..PEG-HsTX1[R14A] has the additional advantages of reduced non-specific adsorption to inert surfaces and enhanced circulating half-life. ..
  35. De Feo D, Merlini A, Brambilla E, Ottoboni L, Laterza C, Menon R, et al. Neural precursor cell-secreted TGF-β2 redirects inflammatory monocyte-derived cells in CNS autoimmunity. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:3937-3953 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these observations identify TGF-β2 as the crucial mediator of NPC immunomodulation. This study provides evidence that intrathecally transplanted NPCs interfere with the CNS-restricted ..
  36. Ullah I, Subbarao R, Rho G. Human mesenchymal stem cells - current trends and future prospective. Biosci Rep. 2015;35: pubmed publisher
    ..Multilineage potential, immunomodulation and secretion of anti-inflammatory molecules makes MSCs an effective tool in the treatment of chronic ..
  37. Rice T, Pugh A, Caldwell C, Schneider B. Balance Between the Proinflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Immune Responses with Blood Transfusion in Sepsis. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2017;29:331-340 pubmed publisher
  38. Chen C, Mittal R, Klingensmith N, Burd E, Terhorst C, Martin G, et al. Cutting Edge: 2B4-Mediated Coinhibition of CD4+ T Cells Underlies Mortality in Experimental Sepsis. J Immunol. 2017;199:1961-1966 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results illuminate a novel role for 2B4 coinhibitory signaling on CD4+ T cells in mediating immune dysregulation. ..
  39. Holstein S, McCarthy P. Immunomodulatory Drugs in Multiple Myeloma: Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Experience. Drugs. 2017;77:505-520 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the clinical efficacy of these agents in myeloma is reviewed and the structure-function relationship, the molecular mechanisms of action, and the association of IMiDs with second primary malignancies and thrombosis are discussed. ..
  40. Charmsaz S, Scott A, Boyd A. Targeted therapies in hematological malignancies using therapeutic monoclonal antibodies against Eph family receptors. Exp Hematol. 2017;54:31-39 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we detail the modes of action of antibody-based therapies with a focus on the Eph family of proteins as potential targets for therapy in hematological malignancies. ..
  41. Oh E, Oh K, Han M, Seo H, Chang K, Lee S, et al. Early anti-TNF/immunomodulator therapy is associated with better long-term clinical outcomes in Asian patients with Crohn's disease with poor prognostic factors. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177479 pubmed publisher
    ..094-5.249, P < 0.001) than early treatment. In conclusion, treatment of Asian CD patients having poor prognostic factors with anti-TNFs/IMs within 2 years of diagnosis is associated with better clinical outcomes than later treatment. ..
  42. Huang D. Challenges in randomized controlled trials and emerging multiple sclerosis therapeutics. Neurosci Bull. 2015;31:745-54 pubmed
  43. Bajgai J, Fadriquela A, Ara J, Begum R, Ahmed M, Kim C, et al. Balneotherapeutic effects of high mineral spring water on the atopic dermatitis-like inflammation in hairless mice via immunomodulation and redox balance. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:481 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our study indicates a balneotherapeutic effect of HMW on DNCB-induced AD like inflammation in hairless mice via immunomodulation and redox balance.
  44. Pavon L, Besedosky H, Bottasso O, Hernández R, Velasco M, LORIA R. Clinical and experimental immunomodulation. Clin Dev Immunol. 2013;2013:801251 pubmed publisher
  45. Guivier E, Lippens C, Faivre B, Sorci G. Plastic and micro-evolutionary responses of a nematode to the host immune environment. Exp Parasitol. 2017;181:14-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our study shows that H. polygyrus can plastically adjust the expression of immunomodulatory genes and life history traits, and responds to selection exerted by the host immune system. ..
  46. Palabiyik S, Girgin G, Tutkun E, Yılmaz Ö, Baydar T. Immunomodulation and oxidative stress in denim sandblasting workers: changes caused by silica exposure. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2013;64:431-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that silica exposure activates the cellular immune response. The increased neopterin levels and tryptophan degradation confirm the possibility of their use as an indicator of cellular immune response. ..
  47. Bauer J, Becker A, Elyaman W, Peltola J, Ruegg S, Titulaer M, et al. Innate and adaptive immunity in human epilepsies. Epilepsia. 2017;58 Suppl 3:57-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the identification of new immunomodulatory compounds remains of utmost importance. ..
  48. Zanotti L, Sarukhan A, Dander E, Castor M, Cibella J, Soldani C, et al. Encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells for in vivo immunomodulation. Leukemia. 2013;27:500-3 pubmed publisher
  49. Slominski A, Carlson J. Melanoma resistance: a bright future for academicians and a challenge for patient advocates. Mayo Clin Proc. 2014;89:429-33 pubmed publisher
  50. Mendlovic F, Cruz Rivera M, Diaz Gandarilla J, Flores Torres M, Avila G, Perfiliev M, et al. Orally administered Taenia solium Calreticulin prevents experimental intestinal inflammation and is associated with a type 2 immune response. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186510 pubmed publisher
  51. Wood M, Yu E, Mehta S. The Human Microbiome in the Fight Against Tuberculosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;96:1274-1284 pubmed publisher
    ..Current evidence suggests that the gut and lung microbiome are associated with TB infection and disease. However, as studies are limited, etiological and longitudinal research is needed to determine clinical relevance. ..
  52. Sandes S, Alvim L, Silva B, Acurcio L, Santos C, Campos M, et al. Selection of new lactic acid bacteria strains bearing probiotic features from mucosal microbiota of healthy calves: Looking for immunobiotics through in vitro and in vivo approaches for immunoprophylaxis applications. Microbiol Res. 2017;200:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These strains were able to colonize germ-free mice mucosa and trigger sIgA synthesis at a local level, in addition to stimulating, in different ways, adaptive immune responses at a systemic level. ..
  53. Gupte K, Vanikar A, Trivedi H, Patel C, Patel J. In-vitro generation of interleukin-10 secreting B-regulatory cells from donor adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells and recipient peripheral blood mononuclear cells for potential cell therapy. Biomed J. 2017;40:49-54 pubmed publisher
    ..They carry out immunomodulation by release of specific cytokines and/or cell-to-cell contact...
  54. Bagwe S, Tharappel L, Kaur G, Buttar H. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical. J Complement Integr Med. 2015;12:175-85 pubmed publisher
  55. Menard C, Tarte K. Immunoregulatory properties of clinical grade mesenchymal stromal cells: evidence, uncertainties, and clinical application. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2013;4:64 pubmed publisher
  56. Mattock E, Blocker A. How Do the Virulence Factors of Shigella Work Together to Cause Disease?. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:64 pubmed publisher
  57. Pircher M, Schirrmann T, Petrausch U. T Cell Engineering. Prog Tumor Res. 2015;42:110-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we summarize and discuss the preclinical and clinical data indicating the tremendous potential of redirected T cells to become a mainstay of cancer immunotherapy. ..
  58. Morgan M, Rider S, Arlian L. Identification of antigenic Sarcoptes scabiei proteins for use in a diagnostic test and of non-antigenic proteins that may be immunomodulatory. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005669 pubmed publisher
    ..These could be among the molecules that are responsible for this mite's ability to modulate its host's innate and adaptive immune responses. ..
  59. Berezow A, Darveau R. Microbial shift and periodontitis. Periodontol 2000. 2011;55:36-47 pubmed publisher
  60. Banugaria S, Patel T, Kishnani P. Immune modulation in Pompe disease treated with enzyme replacement therapy. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2012;8:497-9 pubmed
  61. Lind E, Ohashi P. Mir-155, a central modulator of T-cell responses. Eur J Immunol. 2014;44:11-5 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the function of mir-155 in T cells and the impact of this miRNA on autoimmunity, tumor immunity, and pathogen-induced immunity. ..
  62. Pincikova T, Paquin Proulx D, Sandberg J, Flodstrom Tullberg M, Hjelte L. Vitamin D treatment modulates immune activation in cystic fibrosis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2017;189:359-371 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data indicate that vitamin D has robust pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects in CF. Larger studies are needed to explore the immunomodulatory treatment potential of vitamin D in CF in more detail. ..
  63. Crouse J, Xu H, Lang P, Oxenius A. NK cells regulating T cell responses: mechanisms and outcome. Trends Immunol. 2015;36:49-58 pubmed
    ..We review these recent findings here, and outline emerging principles of how this regulation influences the overall outcome of adaptive immunity in infection and disease. ..
  64. Schokker D, Jansman A, Veninga G, de Bruin N, Vastenhouw S, de Bree F, et al. Perturbation of microbiota in one-day old broiler chickens with antibiotic for 24 hours negatively affects intestinal immune development. BMC Genomics. 2017;18:241 pubmed publisher
  65. Maeda A, Kulbatski I, Dacosta R. Emerging Applications for Optically Enabled Intravital Microscopic Imaging in Radiobiology. Mol Imaging. 2015;14:452-74 pubmed
    ..We also comment on the potential influence that these newer imaging techniques may have on the clinical translation of new preclinical radiobiology discoveries. ..
  66. Probst D, Heitz M, Poirier M, Gan B, Delalande C, Reymond J. Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry 2017 in Bern, Switzerland. ChemMedChem. 2017;12:1645-1651 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we summarize the many conference highlights, and look forward to the next FiMC meeting, to be held in Jena (Germany) in March 2018. ..
  67. Azadmehr A, Latifi R, Mosalla S, Hajiaghaee R, Shahnazi M. Immunomodulatory effects of Ziziphora tenuior L. extract on the dendritic cells. Daru. 2014;22:63 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings possibly in part explain the traditional use of this plant in treatment of immune-mediated disorders. However future studies are needed. ..
  68. Reardon D, Wen P, Wucherpfennig K, Sampson J. Immunomodulation for glioblastoma. Curr Opin Neurol. 2017;30:361-369 pubmed publisher
    ..We also highlight potential challenges confronting the development of these agents...
  69. Lindblad K, Goswami M, Hourigan C, Oetjen K. Immunological effects of hypomethylating agents. Expert Rev Hematol. 2017;10:745-752 pubmed publisher
  70. Padovan E. Modulation of CD4+ T Helper Cell Memory Responses in the Human Skin. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2017;173:121-137 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in healthy individuals, T cell immunomodulation fulfils the task of eliciting protective immune responses where they are needed...
  71. Sultana M, Du A, Carow B, Angbjär C, Weidner J, Kanatani S, et al. Downmodulation of Effector Functions in NK Cells upon Toxoplasma gondii Infection. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that infection of NK cells by T. gondii impairs NK cell recognition of target cells and cytokine release, two mechanisms that independently could enhance T. gondii survival. ..
  72. Lin W, Hou J, Guo H, Qiu Y, Li L, Li D, et al. Dualistic immunomodulation of sub-chronic microcystin-LR exposure on the innate-immune defense system in male zebrafish. Chemosphere. 2017;183:315-322 pubmed publisher
  73. Mohamed E, Cao Y, Rodriguez P. Endoplasmic reticulum stress regulates tumor growth and anti-tumor immunity: a promising opportunity for cancer immunotherapy. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2017;66:1069-1078 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulate that the inhibition of ER stress or the UPR-related elements could represent a significant approach to increase the efficacy of various forms of cancer immunotherapy. ..
  74. Kiewiet M, Dekkers R, Gros M, van Neerven R, Groeneveld A, De Vos P, et al. Toll-like receptor mediated activation is possibly involved in immunoregulating properties of cow's milk hydrolysates. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178191 pubmed publisher
    ..This knowledge contributes to a better understanding of the immune effects of hydrolysates and the design of infant formula, and nutrition in general, with specific immunoregulatory effects. ..
  75. Ramamurthy C, Godwin J, Borghaei H. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy: What Line of Therapy and How to Choose?. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2017;18:33 pubmed publisher
    ..At this time, this practice pattern for immunotherapy in the first- and second-line can be considered the standard of care, but new data are likely to impact the role of immunotherapy as monotherapy or in combination in the near future. ..
  76. Hecker M, Ott J, Sondermann C, Schaefer M, Obert M, Hecker A, et al. Immunomodulation by fish-oil containing lipid emulsions in murine acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care. 2014;18:R85 pubmed publisher
    ..Partial replacement of n-6 fatty acids with n-3 fatty acids may thus be of benefit for critically ill patients at risk for ARDS which require parenteral nutrition. ..
  77. Szydłowski M, Prochorec Sobieszek M, Szumera Ciećkiewicz A, Derezinska E, Hoser G, Wasilewska D, et al. Expression of PIM kinases in Reed-Sternberg cells fosters immune privilege and tumor cell survival in Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood. 2017;130:1418-1429 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of PIM kinases decreases RS cell viability and disrupts signaling circuits that link these cells with their niches. Thus, PIM kinases are promising therapeutic targets in cHL. ..
  78. Botta C, Misso G, Martino E, Pirtoli L, Cusi M, Tassone P, et al. The route to solve the interplay between inflammation, angiogenesis and anti-cancer immune response. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2299 pubmed publisher
  79. Rahiman S, Morgan M, Gray P, Shaw P, Cabot P. Inhibitory effects of dynorphin 3-14 on the lipopolysaccharide-induced toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathway. Peptides. 2017;90:48-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that DYN 3-14 is a potential TLR4 antagonist that alters cellular signaling in response to LPS and cytokine release, implicating a role for biotransformed endogenous opioid peptides in immunomodulation.
  80. Li H, Li C, Zhang H, Zhang L, Cheng R, Li M, et al. Effects of lidocaine on regulatory T cells in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;137:613-617.e5 pubmed publisher
  81. McMahan Z, Bingham C. Effects of biological and non-biological immunomodulatory therapies on the immunogenicity of vaccines in patients with rheumatic diseases. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:506 pubmed publisher
  82. Ginter E, Simko V, Panakova V. Antioxidants in health and disease. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2014;115:603-6 pubmed
    ..3, ref. 34). ..
  83. Wada N, Gronthos S, Bartold P. Immunomodulatory effects of stem cells. Periodontol 2000. 2013;63:198-216 pubmed publisher