common variable immunodeficiency

Summary

Summary: Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.

Top Publications

  1. Gobert D, Bussel J, Cunningham Rundles C, Galicier L, Dechartres A, Berezne A, et al. Efficacy and safety of rituximab in common variable immunodeficiency-associated immune cytopenias: a retrospective multicentre study on 33 patients. Br J Haematol. 2011;155:498-508 pubmed publisher
    Patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) are at high risk of developing immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and/or autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AHA)...
  2. Aghamohammadi A, Abolhassani H, Moazzami K, Parvaneh N, Rezaei N. Correlation between common variable immunodeficiency clinical phenotypes and parental consanguinity in children and adults. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2010;20:372-9 pubmed
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with a wide range of clinical manifestations and immunological findings, which could possibly form the basis for classification into different phenotypes.
  3. Mouillot G, Carmagnat M, Gerard L, Garnier J, Fieschi C, Vince N, et al. B-cell and T-cell phenotypes in CVID patients correlate with the clinical phenotype of the disease. J Clin Immunol. 2010;30:746-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by recurrent infections and defective immunoglobulin production.
  4. Chen K, Coonrod E, Kumanovics A, Franks Z, Durtschi J, Margraf R, et al. Germline mutations in NFKB2 implicate the noncanonical NF-?B pathway in the pathogenesis of common variable immunodeficiency. Am J Hum Genet. 2013;93:812-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by antibody deficiency, poor humoral response to antigens, and recurrent infections...
  5. Yu J, Knight A, Radigan L, Marron T, Zhang L, Sanchez Ramon S, et al. Toll-like receptor 7 and 9 defects in common variable immunodeficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124:349-56, 356.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, reduced numbers of peripheral blood isotype-switched memory B cells, and loss of plasma cells.
  6. Blancas Galicia L, Ramírez Vargas N, Espinosa Rosales F. [Common variable immunodeficiency. A clinical approach]. Rev Invest Clin. 2010;62:577-82 pubmed
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an immunodeficiency characterized by an impaired ability to produce antibodies associated to multiple clinical phenotypes. The incidence is around 1/50,000 new borns...
  7. Vlkova M, Fronkova E, Kanderová V, Janda A, Ruzickova S, Litzman J, et al. Characterization of lymphocyte subsets in patients with common variable immunodeficiency reveals subsets of naive human B cells marked by CD24 expression. J Immunol. 2010;185:6431-8 pubmed publisher
    ..cell subset and B cells defined as CD27(neg)CD21(neg)CD38(neg) are frequently found in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) syndrome...
  8. Haimila K, Einarsdottir E, de Kauwe A, Koskinen L, Pan Hammarstrom Q, Kaartinen T, et al. The shared CTLA4-ICOS risk locus in celiac disease, IgA deficiency and common variable immunodeficiency. Genes Immun. 2009;10:151-61 pubmed publisher
    IgA deficiency (IgAD) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) often co-occur in families, associating with chronic inflammatory diseases such as celiac disease (CD)...
  9. Rezaei N, Siadat S, Aghamohammadi A, Moin M, Pourpak Z, Norouzian D, et al. Serum bactericidal antibody response 1 year after meningococcal polysaccharide vaccination of patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:524-8 pubmed publisher
    Some patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) can generate an antibody response following vaccination with Neisseria meningitidis polysaccharide, but the duration of this protection is unknown...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Rezaei N, Amirzargar A, Shakiba Y, Mahmoudi M, Moradi B, Aghamohammadi A. Proinflammatory cytokine gene single nucleotide polymorphisms in common variable immunodeficiency. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;155:21-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of primary immunodeficiency diseases...
  2. Bayry J, Fournier E, Maddur M, Vani J, Wootla B, Siberil S, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin induces proliferation and immunoglobulin synthesis from B cells of patients with common variable immunodeficiency: a mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of IVIg in primary immunodeficiencies. J Autoimmun. 2011;36:9-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is associated with low serum immunoglobulin concentrations and an increased susceptibility to infections and autoimmune diseases...
  3. McCannel C, Pulido J. Diffuse placoid choroidopathy in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008;147:84-6 pubmed publisher
    Unilateral diffuse placoid choroidopathy can be seen in the setting of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). A 55-year-old woman with a 20-year history of CVID presented with multiple hypopigmented placoid lesions in the right eye...
  4. Wong G, Goldacker S, Winterhalter C, Grimbacher B, Chapel H, Lucas M, et al. Outcomes of splenectomy in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID): a survey of 45 patients. Clin Exp Immunol. 2013;172:63-72 pubmed publisher
    Splenectomy has been used in patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID), mainly in the context of refractory autoimmune cytopenia and suspected lymphoma, but there are understandable concerns about the potential of ..
  5. van de Ven A, de Jong P, Hoytema van Konijnenburg D, Kessels O, Boes M, Sanders E, et al. Airway and interstitial lung disease are distinct entities in paediatric common variable immunodeficiency. Clin Exp Immunol. 2011;165:235-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a common primary immune deficiency, caused by undefined defects in lymphocyte function, and is treated routinely by immunoglobulin substitution...
  6. Yu J, Zhang L, Radigan L, Sanchez Ramon S, Cunningham Rundles C. TLR-mediated B cell defects and IFN-? in common variable immunodeficiency. J Clin Immunol. 2012;32:50-60 pubmed publisher
    ..IFN-? also upregulated TLR7 and TLR9 mRNA expression comparable to normal levels in B cells of group 2 subjects, indicating that the loss of IFN-? could be a significant component of the B-cell defect for these subjects...
  7. Agarwal S, Cunningham Rundles C. Autoimmunity in common variable immunodeficiency. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2009;9:347-52 pubmed
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common clinically significant primary immune defect...
  8. Fulcher D, Avery D, Fewings N, Berglund L, Wong S, Riminton D, et al. Invariant natural killer (iNK) T cell deficiency in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;157:365-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a B cell immunodeficiency disorder characterized frequently by failure of memory B cell development and antibody secretion...
  9. Barbosa R, Silva S, Silva S, Melo A, Pedro E, Barbosa M, et al. Primary B-cell deficiencies reveal a link between human IL-17-producing CD4 T-cell homeostasis and B-cell differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22848 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorders (CVID), defined by defects in B-cell differentiation into plasma and memory B cells, are ..
  10. Chapel H, Cunningham Rundles C. Update in understanding common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVIDs) and the management of patients with these conditions. Br J Haematol. 2009;145:709-27 pubmed publisher
    The common variable immunodeficiency disorders are a mixed group of heterogeneous conditions linked by lack of immunoglobulin production and primary antibody failure...
  11. Kuntz M, Goldacker S, Blum H, Pircher H, Stampf S, Peter H, et al. Analysis of bulk and virus-specific CD8+ T cells reveals advanced differentiation of CD8+ T cells in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Clin Immunol. 2011;141:177-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous antibody deficiency syndrome with alterations in T cell regulation and function in a subgroup of patients...
  12. Salzer U, Unger S, Warnatz K. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID): exploring the multiple dimensions of a heterogeneous disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1250:41-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) represents a large heterogeneous group of antibody deficiency syndromes associated with a plethora of clinical features and as yet largely undefined molecular causes...
  13. Quinti I, Di Pietro C, Martini H, Pesce A, Lombardi F, Baumghartner M, et al. Health related quality of life in common variable immunodeficiency. Yonsei Med J. 2012;53:603-10 pubmed publisher
    ..To quantify the health related quality of life in primary immunodeficiency patients...
  14. Bateman E, Ayers L, Sadler R, Lucas M, Roberts C, Woods A, et al. T cell phenotypes in patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorders: associations with clinical phenotypes in comparison with other groups with recurrent infections. Clin Exp Immunol. 2012;170:202-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) are a group of heterogeneous conditions that have in common primary failure of B cell function, although numerous T cell abnormalities have been described, including reduced proliferative ..
  15. Ramyar A, Aghamohammadi A, Moazzami K, Rezaei N, Yeganeh M, Cheraghi T, et al. Presence of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in the patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2008;7:169-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and an increased susceptibility to recurrent infections as well as autoimmunity and malignancies...
  16. Aydogan M, Eifan A, Gocmen I, Ozdemir C, Bahceciler N, Barlan I. Clinical and immunologic features of pediatric patients with common variable immunodeficiency and respiratory complications. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2008;18:260-5 pubmed
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the term used to describe a heterogeneous group of B-cell deficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, impaired antibody production, and recurrent bacterial infections.
  17. Park M, Li J, Hagan J, Maddox D, Abraham R. Common variable immunodeficiency: a new look at an old disease. Lancet. 2008;372:489-502 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the primary immunodeficiency most commonly encountered in clinical practice, and ..
  18. van de Ven A, Compeer E, Bloem A, van de Corput L, van Gijn M, van Montfrans J, et al. Defective calcium signaling and disrupted CD20-B-cell receptor dissociation in patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorders. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129:755-761.e7 pubmed publisher
    B cells of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) disorders display impairment in production of immunoglobulin class-switched antibodies, which is possibly contributed to by defects in early B-cell activation...
  19. Poodt A, Driessen G, de Klein A, van Dongen J, van der Burg M, de Vries E. TACI mutations and disease susceptibility in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;156:35-9 pubmed publisher
    The most prevalent primary immunodeficiency is common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Mutations have been described in four genes, ICOS, CD19, BAFF-R and TNFRSF13B (encoding TACI), together associated with 10-15% of CVID cases...
  20. Kutukculer N, Gulez N. The outcome of patients with unclassified hypogammaglobulinemia in early childhood. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2009;20:693-8 pubmed publisher
    ..three partial IgA deficiency, seven IgG subclass deficiency, two selective IgM deficiency and two common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) were diagnosed by long-term monitoring of immunoglobulin levels. Five (13...
  21. Rezaei N, Aghamohammadi A, Kardar G, Nourizadeh M, Pourpak Z. T- helper 1 and 2 cytokine assay in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2008;18:449-53 pubmed
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by decreased immunoglobulin levels in serum and increased susceptibility to recurrent infections, autoimmunity, and malignancy...
  22. Venhoff N, Emmerich F, Neagu M, Salzer U, Koehn C, Driever S, et al. The role of HLA DQ2 and DQ8 in dissecting celiac-like disease in common variable immunodeficiency. J Clin Immunol. 2013;33:909-16 pubmed publisher
    Gastrointestinal manifestations are frequent in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), and some of the patients present with celiac-like features...
  23. Agarwal S, Smereka P, Harpaz N, Cunningham Rundles C, Mayer L. Characterization of immunologic defects in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) with intestinal disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011;17:251-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disorder commonly presenting with recurrent sinopulmonary infections...
  24. Eibel H, Salzer U, Warnatz K. Common variable immunodeficiency at the end of a prospering decade: towards novel gene defects and beyond. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;10:526-33 pubmed publisher
    Patients with a primary antibody deficiency of unknown cause are usually allotted the diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), thus creating a genetically, immunologically, and clinically highly heterogeneous study population,..
  25. Lucas M, Lee M, Lortan J, Lopez Granados E, Misbah S, Chapel H. Infection outcomes in patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorders: relationship to immunoglobulin therapy over 22 years. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:1354-1360.e4 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVIDs) are the most common forms of symptomatic primary antibody failure in adults and children...
  26. Dhalla F, Da Silva S, Lucas M, Travis S, Chapel H. Review of gastric cancer risk factors in patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorders, resulting in a proposal for a surveillance programme. Clin Exp Immunol. 2011;165:1-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVIDs) are the most frequent symptomatic primary immunodeficiencies in adults...
  27. Aghamohammadi A, Foroughi F, Rezaei N, Dianat S, Solgi G, Amirzargar A. Mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms in common variable immunodeficiency. Clin Exp Med. 2009;9:285-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and increased susceptibility to infections, autoimmunity and malignancies...
  28. Pereira A, Kokron C, Romagnolo B, Yagi C, Saldiva P, Lorenzi Filho G, et al. Analysis of the sputum and inflammatory alterations of the airways in patients with common variable immunodeficiency and bronchiectasis. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64:1155-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency is characterized by defective antibody production and recurrent pulmonary infections...
  29. Park J, Levinson A. Granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD) in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Clin Immunol. 2010;134:97-103 pubmed publisher
    Infectious complications of the lung occur quite frequently in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), a clinical syndrome that represents a primary immunodeficiency...
  30. Delvecchio M, De Bellis A, De Mattia D, Cavallo L, Martire B. Growth hormone deficiency and antipituitary antibodies in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency. J Endocrinol Invest. 2009;32:637-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and T-lymphocytes dysfunction. Autoimmune diseases are frequent. A 10...
  31. Horn J, Manguiat A, Berglund L, Knerr V, Tahami F, Grimbacher B, et al. Decrease in phenotypic regulatory T cells in subsets of patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;156:446-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduction in T(reg) cells in subsets of CVID patients may be relevant to their clinical manifestations, and may contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis of CVID complications...
  32. Yu G, Chiang D, Song S, Hoyte E, Huang J, Vanishsarn C, et al. Regulatory T cell dysfunction in subjects with common variable immunodeficiency complicated by autoimmune disease. Clin Immunol. 2009;131:240-53 pubmed publisher
    Approximately 25% of subjects with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) develop autoimmune disease...
  33. Oraei M, Aghamohammadi A, Rezaei N, Bidad K, Gheflati Z, Amirkhani A, et al. Naive CD4+ T cells and recent thymic emigrants in common variable immunodeficiency. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2012;22:160-7 pubmed
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders classified as predominantly antibody deficiencies...
  34. Resnick E, Moshier E, Godbold J, Cunningham Rundles C. Morbidity and mortality in common variable immune deficiency over 4 decades. Blood. 2012;119:1650-7 pubmed publisher
  35. Ardeniz O, Basoglu O, Gunsar F, Unsel M, Bayraktaroglu S, Mete N, et al. Clinical and immunological analysis of 23 adult patients with common variable immunodeficiency. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2010;20:222-36 pubmed
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, defective antibody production, and recurrent upper and lower airway tract infections.
  36. Biagi F, Bianchi P, Zilli A, Marchese A, Luinetti O, Lougaris V, et al. The significance of duodenal mucosal atrophy in patients with common variable immunodeficiency: a clinical and histopathologic study. Am J Clin Pathol. 2012;138:185-9 pubmed publisher
    Gastrointestinal manifestations and villous atrophy can be seen in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). In some patients, infectious agents may be responsible, whereas in others, celiac disease (CD) may be the cause...
  37. Salzer U, Hagena T, Webster D, Grimbacher B. Sequence analysis of BIRC4/XIAP in male patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008;147:147-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary antibody deficiency syndrome in humans, but it remains a diagnosis of exclusion in most cases. Several genetically defined primary immunodeficiencies mimic CVID...
  38. Quinti I, Soresina A, Guerra A, Rondelli R, Spadaro G, Agostini C, et al. Effectiveness of immunoglobulin replacement therapy on clinical outcome in patients with primary antibody deficiencies: results from a multicenter prospective cohort study. J Clin Immunol. 2011;31:315-22 pubmed publisher
  39. Khan S, Pereira J, Darbyshire P, Holding S, Dore P, Sewell W, et al. Do ribosomopathies explain some cases of common variable immunodeficiency?. Clin Exp Immunol. 2011;163:96-103 pubmed publisher
    The considerable clinical heterogeneity of patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) shares some similarity with bone-marrow failure disorders such as Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA) and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (..
  40. Rezaei N, Wing J, Aghamohammadi A, Carlring J, Lees A, Asgarian Omran H, et al. B-cell-T-cell activation and interaction in common variable immunodeficiency. Hum Immunol. 2010;71:355-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and normal or low numbers of B cells, which predispose patients to recurrent infections...
  41. Wood P. Primary antibody deficiency syndromes. Curr Opin Hematol. 2010;17:356-61 pubmed publisher
    ..a rare group of disorders presenting at any age, with complex polygenic disorders, most commonly the common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVIDs), predominating...
  42. Aghamohammadi A, Moin M, Kouhi A, Mohagheghi M, Shirazi A, Rezaei N, et al. Chromosomal radiosensitivity in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Immunobiology. 2008;213:447-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of primary immunodeficiency disorders. In addition to recurrent infections and autoimmunity, cancers are more prevalent in these patients than the normal population...
  43. Rezaei N, Aghamohammadi A, Mahmoudi M, Shakiba Y, Kardar G, Mahmoudi M, et al. Association of IL-4 and IL-10 gene promoter polymorphisms with common variable immunodeficiency. Immunobiology. 2010;215:81-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by severe reduction in serum IgG and IgA with normal or low number of B-cells...
  44. Huck K, Feyen O, Ghosh S, Beltz K, Bellert S, Niehues T. Memory B-cells in healthy and antibody-deficient children. Clin Immunol. 2009;131:50-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the reduction of memory B-cells is a useful additional marker for the detection of children with CVID hypogammaglobulinemia and may contribute to the early presentation...
  45. Rezaei N, Aghamohammadi A, Shakiba Y, Mahmoudi M, Jalali A, Moradi B, et al. Cytokine gene polymorphisms in common variable immunodeficiency. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2009;150:1-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and an increased susceptibility to recurrent infections, autoimmunity and cancers...
  46. Yong P, Salzer U, Grimbacher B. The role of costimulation in antibody deficiencies: ICOS and common variable immunodeficiency. Immunol Rev. 2009;229:101-13 pubmed publisher
    The identification of mutations in the inducible costimulator (ICOS) gene in nine patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) was a major breakthrough...
  47. Freiberger T, Grodecka L, Ravcukova B, Kurecová B, Postránecká V, Vlcek J, et al. Association of FcRn expression with lung abnormalities and IVIG catabolism in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Clin Immunol. 2010;136:419-25 pubmed publisher
    ..the catabolism of therapeutically administered intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) in 28 patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)...
  48. Park J, Resnick E, Cunningham Rundles C. Perspectives on common variable immune deficiency. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1246:41-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is considered to be a collection of genetic immune defects with complex inheritance patterns...
  49. Chase N, Verbsky J, Hintermeyer M, Waukau J, Tomita Mitchell A, Casper J, et al. Use of combination chemotherapy for treatment of granulomatous and lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD) in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). J Clin Immunol. 2013;33:30-9 pubmed publisher
    A subset of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) develops granulomatous and lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD), a restrictive lung disease associated with early mortality...
  50. Rezaei N, Aghamohammadi A, Read R. Response to polysaccharide vaccination amongst pediatric patients with common variable immunodeficiency correlates with clinical disease. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2008;7:231-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and increased susceptibility to recurrent infections, autoimmunity and malignancies...
  51. Cunningham Rundles C. The many faces of common variable immunodeficiency. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2012;2012:301-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a rare immune deficiency characterized by low levels of serum IgG, IgA, and/or IgM, with a loss of Ab production...
  52. Chua I, Quinti I, Grimbacher B. Lymphoma in common variable immunodeficiency: interplay between immune dysregulation, infection and genetics. Curr Opin Hematol. 2008;15:368-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Common variable immunodeficiency represents the largest group of primary immunodeficiency patients...
  53. Silva G, Fernandes K, Segundo G. Common variable immunodeficiency and isosporiasis: first report case. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2012;45:768-9 pubmed
    ..for further analysis of immunological status, laboratory investigations led to a diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)...