mhc class i genes


Summary: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.

Top Publications

  1. Deakin J, Siddle H, Cross J, Belov K, Graves J. Class I genes have split from the MHC in the tammar wallaby. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2007;116:205-11 pubmed
    ..It highlights the need for the inclusion of more than one marsupial species in comparative studies and raises questions regarding the functional significance of the clustering of MHC genes...
  2. Frater A, Brown H, Oxenius A, Gunthard H, Hirschel B, Robinson N, et al. Effective T-cell responses select human immunodeficiency virus mutants and slow disease progression. J Virol. 2007;81:6742-51 pubmed
  3. Ouyang D, Xu L, Dai Z, Shi H, Zhang G, Zheng Y, et al. Identification of major histocompatibility complex class I alleles in Chinese rhesus macaques. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2008;40:919-27 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the polymorphism of leading peptides and the natural killer receptor recognition motifs in alpha1 domain both implies that Mamu-A and Mamu-B molecules might play key roles in innate immune responses of natural killer cells. ..
  4. Kjøglum S, Larsen S, Bakke H, Grimholt U. How specific MHC class I and class II combinations affect disease resistance against infectious salmon anaemia in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006;21:431-41 pubmed
    ..The study confirmed the expectation of performance of individual MHC class I and class II A alleles, and also detected an effect of MHC class I and class II A in combinations. ..
  5. Otting N, Heijmans C, van der Wiel M, de Groot N, Doxiadis G, Bontrop R. A snapshot of the Mamu-B genes and their allelic repertoire in rhesus macaques of Chinese origin. Immunogenetics. 2008;60:507-14 pubmed publisher
  6. Narzi D, Winkler K, Saidowsky J, Misselwitz R, Ziegler A, Böckmann R, et al. Molecular determinants of major histocompatibility complex class I complex stability: shaping antigenic features through short and long range electrostatic interactions. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:23093-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutual electrostatic interactions of peptide and HLA molecule, including peptide- and subtype-dependent protonation of key residues, modulate complex stability and antigenic features of the respective HLA-B27 subtype. ..
  7. Miller H, Belov K, Daugherty C. Proceedings of the SMBE Tri-National Young Investigators' Workshop 2005. MHC Class I genes in the Tuatara (Sphenodon spp.): evolution of the MHC in an ancient reptilian order. Mol Biol Evol. 2006;23:949-56 pubmed
    ..However, the evolutionary relationships among sequences from different reptilian orders cannot be resolved, reflecting the antiquity of the major reptile lineages. ..
  8. Pratt B, O Connor D, Lafont B, Mankowski J, Fernandez C, Triastuti R, et al. MHC class I allele frequencies in pigtail macaques of diverse origin. Immunogenetics. 2006;58:995-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..This broad characterization of common MHC class I alleles in more than 100 pigtail macaques further develops this animal model for the study of virus-specific CD8(+) T cell responses...
  9. Sato A, Dongak R, Hao L, Takezaki N, Shintani S, Aoki T, et al. Mhc class I genes of the cichlid fish Oreochromis niloticus. Immunogenetics. 2006;58:917-28 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Brumme Z, Brumme C, Heckerman D, Korber B, Daniels M, Carlson J, et al. Evidence of differential HLA class I-mediated viral evolution in functional and accessory/regulatory genes of HIV-1. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e94 pubmed
    ..The design of preventative and therapeutic CTL-based vaccine approaches could incorporate information on predictable escape pathways. ..
  2. Jørgensen S, Syvertsen B, Lyng Syvertsen B, Lukacs M, Grimholt U, Gjøen T. Expression of MHC class I pathway genes in response to infectious salmon anaemia virus in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) cells. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006;21:548-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, unlike influenza and several other viruses ISAV does not seem to interfere with MHC and IFN expression. ..
  3. Gouin N, Wright A, Miska K, Parra Z, Samollow P, Baker M, et al. Modo-UG, a marsupial nonclassical MHC class I locus. Immunogenetics. 2006;58:396-406 pubmed publisher
    ..Modo-UG is the first MHC linked marsupial class I to be described that appears to clearly have nonclassical features...
  4. Nejentsev S, Howson J, Walker N, Szeszko J, Field S, Stevens H, et al. Localization of type 1 diabetes susceptibility to the MHC class I genes HLA-B and HLA-A. Nature. 2007;450:887-92 pubmed
    ..apply statistical methods-recursive partitioning and regression-to pinpoint disease susceptibility to the MHC class I genes HLA-B and HLA-A (risk ratios >1.5; P(combined) = 2.01 x 10(-19) and 2...
  5. Karl J, Wiseman R, Campbell K, Blasky A, Hughes A, Ferguson B, et al. Identification of MHC class I sequences in Chinese-origin rhesus macaques. Immunogenetics. 2008;60:37-46 pubmed
    ..The discovery of 27 novel MHC class I sequences in this analysis underscores the genetic diversity of Chinese rhesus macaques and contributes reagents that will be valuable for studying cellular immunology in this population. ..
  6. Dijkstra J, Kiryu I, Yoshiura Y, Kum novics A, Kohara M, Hayashi N, et al. Polymorphism of two very similar MHC class Ib loci in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Immunogenetics. 2006;58:152-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study is the first extensive report on MHC class Ib polymorphism assigned to locus in ectotherm species...
  7. Tanaka Matsuda M, Ando A, Rogel Gaillard C, Chardon P, Uenishi H. Difference in number of loci of swine leukocyte antigen classical class I genes among haplotypes. Genomics. 2009;93:261-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The process by which duplication of SLA classical class I genes was likely to have occurred was interpreted from an analysis of repetitive sequences adjacent to the duplicated class I genes. ..
  8. Lukacs M, Harstad H, Bakke H, Beetz Sargent M, McKinnel L, Lubieniecki K, et al. Comprehensive analysis of MHC class I genes from the U-, S-, and Z-lineages in Atlantic salmon. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:154 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally a BAC harbouring two MHC class I genes (UHA) was placed on linkage group 14, while a BAC containing the S-lineage locus SAA (previously known as ..
  9. Wang D, Zhong L, Wei Q, Gan X, He S. Evolution of MHC class I genes in two ancient fish, paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) and Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis). FEBS Lett. 2010;584:3331-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found clear evidence of recombination among class I genes of paddlefish and Chinese sturgeon. ..
  10. Kumar P, Bischof O, Purbey P, Notani D, Urlaub H, Dejean A, et al. Functional interaction between PML and SATB1 regulates chromatin-loop architecture and transcription of the MHC class I locus. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:45-56 pubmed
    ..SATB1 or PML dynamically alter chromatin architecture, thus affecting the expression profile of a subset of MHC class I genes. Our studies identify PML and SATB1 as a regulatory complex that governs transcription by orchestrating ..
  11. Pan H, Wan Q, Fang S. Molecular characterization of major histocompatibility complex class I genes from the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Immunogenetics. 2008;60:185-93 pubmed publisher
  12. Glaberman S, Caccone A. Species-specific evolution of class I MHC genes in iguanas (order: Squamata; subfamily: Iguaninae). Immunogenetics. 2008;60:371-82 pubmed publisher
    ..However, while less likely, the data are also compatible with a birth and death model of evolution...
  13. Peaper D, Cresswell P. Regulation of MHC class I assembly and peptide binding. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2008;24:343-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review what is known about the intersection of glycoprotein folding, oxidative reactions, and MHC class I peptide loading, emphasizing events that occur in the ER and within the MHC class I peptide loading complex. ..
  14. Vertuani S, Triulzi C, Roos A, Charo J, Norell H, Lemonnier F, et al. HER-2/neu mediated down-regulation of MHC class I antigen processing prevents CTL-mediated tumor recognition upon DNA vaccination in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2009;58:653-64 pubmed publisher
  15. Lukacs M, Harstad H, Grimholt U, Beetz Sargent M, Cooper G, Reid L, et al. Genomic organization of duplicated major histocompatibility complex class I regions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). BMC Genomics. 2007;8:251 pubmed
    ..The large differences in gene content and most likely function of the salmon and trout class IB region clearly argues that sequencing of salmon will not necessarily provide information relevant for trout and vice versa. ..
  16. Fellay J, Shianna K, Ge D, Colombo S, Ledergerber B, Weale M, et al. A whole-genome association study of major determinants for host control of HIV-1. Science. 2007;317:944-7 pubmed
    ..These findings emphasize the importance of studying human genetic variation as a guide to combating infectious agents. ..
  17. Bonhomme M, Doxiadis G, Heijmans C, Vervoort V, Otting N, Bontrop R, et al. Genomic plasticity of the immune-related Mhc class I B region in macaque species. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:514 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, evolutionary inferences based on the multiplicated MIB loci but also other markers close to B-genes appear to be promising for the study of B-region organization and evolution in primates. ..
  18. Brodin P, Lakshmikanth T, Johansson S, Kärre K, Höglund P. The strength of inhibitory input during education quantitatively tunes the functional responsiveness of individual natural killer cells. Blood. 2009;113:2434-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the capacity of an individual NK cell to respond to stimulation is quantitatively controlled by the extent of inhibitory signals that are received from MHC class I molecules during NK-cell education. ..
  19. Siddle H, Deakin J, Coggill P, Hart E, Cheng Y, Wong E, et al. MHC-linked and un-linked class I genes in the wallaby. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:310 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of non-classical orthologs between distantly related marsupial species is unusual for the rapidly evolving class I genes and may indicate an important marsupial specific function. ..
  20. Otting N, de Vos Rouweler A, Heijmans C, de Groot N, Doxiadis G, Bontrop R. MHC class I A region diversity and polymorphism in macaque species. Immunogenetics. 2007;59:367-75 pubmed
    ..The latter situation contrasts the observations of the major histocompatibility complex class II genes in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques, which share a high number of identical alleles (>30%) as defined by exon 2 sequencing. ..
  21. Meissner T, Li A, Biswas A, Lee K, Liu Y, Bayir E, et al. NLR family member NLRC5 is a transcriptional regulator of MHC class I genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13794-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify another member of the NLR protein family, NLRC5, as a transcriptional regulator of MHC class I genes. Similar to CIITA, NLRC5 is an IFN-gamma-inducible nuclear protein, and the expression of NLRC5 resulted in ..
  22. Shiina T, Ota M, Shimizu S, Katsuyama Y, Hashimoto N, Takasu M, et al. Rapid evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I genes in primates generates new disease alleles in humans via hitchhiking diversity. Genetics. 2006;173:1555-70 pubmed
    ..This is most likely reminiscent of the fact that these hsSNV and hv1SNV have been selected in adaptation to the constantly evolving microbial antigenic repertoire. ..
  23. Bontrop R. Comparative genetics of MHC polymorphisms in different primate species: duplications and deletions. Hum Immunol. 2006;67:388-97 pubmed
    ..The human HLA system represents the most thoroughly investigated MHC of any contemporary living primate species, and so it will serve as a reference. ..
  24. Brunn A, Schroder R, Deckert M. The inflammatory reaction pattern distinguishes primary dysferlinopathies from idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: an important role for the membrane attack complex. Acta Neuropathol. 2006;112:325-32 pubmed
    ..In particular, membrane attack complex deposits and a pro-inflammatory milieu in the absence of interleukin-10 expression may contribute to progressive muscle damage in dysferlinopathies. ..
  25. Gaudieri S, Rauch A, Park L, Freitas E, Herrmann S, Jeffrey G, et al. Evidence of viral adaptation to HLA class I-restricted immune pressure in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. J Virol. 2006;80:11094-104 pubmed
    ..This analysis of host-virus interaction reveals evidence of HCV adaptation to HLA class I-restricted immune pressure and identifies in vivo targets of cellular immune responses at the population level. ..
  26. Blasky A, Karl J, Wiseman R, Read D, O Connor D. Rapid high-resolution MHC class I genotyping of Chinese rhesus macaques by capillary reference strand-mediated conformational analysis. Immunogenetics. 2008;60:575-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Capillary RSCA genotyping has the potential to enable researchers to rapidly evaluate MHC class I genotypes in rhesus macaques and associate specific MHC sequences with disease susceptibility. ..
  27. Fortier M, Caron E, Hardy M, Voisin G, Lemieux S, Perreault C, et al. The MHC class I peptide repertoire is molded by the transcriptome. J Exp Med. 2008;205:595-610 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that high-throughput analysis and sequencing of MHC I-associated peptides yields unique insights into the genesis of the MIP repertoire in normal and neoplastic cells. ..
  28. Wallny H, Avila D, Hunt L, Powell T, Riegert P, Salomonsen J, et al. Peptide motifs of the single dominantly expressed class I molecule explain the striking MHC-determined response to Rous sarcoma virus in chickens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1434-9 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the concept of a "minimal essential MHC" for chickens, in strong contrast to typical mammals. ..
  29. Giuliani C, Saji M, Bucci I, Fiore G, Liberatore M, Singer D, et al. Transcriptional regulation of major histocompatibility complex class I gene by insulin and IGF-I in FRTL-5 thyroid cells. J Endocrinol. 2006;189:605-15 pubmed
    ..These observations may be important to understand how MHC class I gene transcription is regulated in the cells. ..
  30. Birch J, Murphy L, MacHugh N, Ellis S. Generation and maintenance of diversity in the cattle MHC class I region. Immunogenetics. 2006;58:670-9 pubmed
    ..Humans express three highly polymorphic classical MHC class I genes (HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C)...
  31. Shaw I, Powell T, Marston D, Baker K, van Hateren A, Riegert P, et al. Different evolutionary histories of the two classical class I genes BF1 and BF2 illustrate drift and selection within the stable MHC haplotypes of chickens. J Immunol. 2007;178:5744-52 pubmed
  32. Li H, Ou X, Xiong J, Wang T. HPV16E7 mediates HADC chromatin repression and downregulation of MHC class I genes in HPV16 tumorigenic cells through interaction with an MHC class I promoter. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;349:1315-21 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that the HPV16E7 protein is associated with the MHC class I promoter and mediates MHC class I downregulation by repressing chromatin activation. ..
  33. Dijkstra J, Katagiri T, Hosomichi K, Yanagiya K, Inoko H, Ototake M, et al. A third broad lineage of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I in teleost fish; MHC class II linkage and processed genes. Immunogenetics. 2007;59:305-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The L lineage consists of highly variable, nonclassical MHC class I genes, and has no apparent orthologues outside teleost fishes...
  34. Wiseman R, Wojcechowskyj J, Greene J, Blasky A, Gopon T, Soma T, et al. Simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 infection of major histocompatibility complex-identical cynomolgus macaques from Mauritius. J Virol. 2007;81:349-61 pubmed
    ..Our identification of relatively abundant SIV-susceptible, MHC-identical macaques will facilitate research into protective cellular immunity. ..
  35. Watanabe A, Shiina T, Shimizu S, Hosomichi K, Yanagiya K, Kita Y, et al. A BAC-based contig map of the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) major histocompatibility complex genomic region. Genomics. 2007;89:402-12 pubmed
    ..From these findings, we conclude that the BAC library and Mafa genomic map are useful tools for genome analysis and will have important applications for comparative genomics and identifying regions of consequence in medical research. ..
  36. Bhattacharya T, Daniels M, Heckerman D, Foley B, Frahm N, Kadie C, et al. Founder effects in the assessment of HIV polymorphisms and HLA allele associations. Science. 2007;315:1583-6 pubmed
    ..This approach has practical implications for understanding the impact of host immunity on pathogen evolution and for defining relevant variants for inclusion in vaccine antigens. ..
  37. Siddle H, Deakin J, Baker M, Miller R, Belov K. Isolation of major histocompatibility complex Class I genes from the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). Immunogenetics. 2006;58:487-93 pubmed
    ..We report the isolation and analysis of expressed MHC Class I genes from the tammar wallaby, a model marsupial used extensively for the study of mammalian reproduction, ..
  38. Lafont B, McGraw C, Stukes S, Buckler White A, Plishka R, Byrum R, et al. The locus encoding an oligomorphic family of MHC-A alleles (Mane-A*06/Mamu-A*05) is present at high frequency in several macaque species. Immunogenetics. 2007;59:211-23 pubmed publisher
  39. Ohtsuka M, Inoko H, Kulski J, Yoshimura S. Major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class Ib gene duplications, organization and expression patterns in mouse strain C57BL/6. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:178 pubmed publisher
  40. Shiina T, Dijkstra J, Shimizu S, Watanabe A, Yanagiya K, Kiryu I, et al. Interchromosomal duplication of major histocompatibility complex class I regions in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a species with a presumably recent tetraploid ancestry. Immunogenetics. 2005;56:878-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The interchromosomal duplication and the homology levels are supportive of the tetraploid model...
  41. Hao L, Nei M. Rapid expansion of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in primates and their coevolution with MHC Class I genes. Gene. 2005;347:149-59 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that KIR and MHC class I genes have coevolved as an interacting system...
  42. Huang C, Peng S, He L, Tsai Y, Boyd D, Hansen T, et al. Cancer immunotherapy using a DNA vaccine encoding a single-chain trimer of MHC class I linked to an HPV-16 E6 immunodominant CTL epitope. Gene Ther. 2005;12:1180-6 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that a DNA vaccine encoding a SCT can lead to stable enhanced MHC class I presentation of encoded antigenic peptide and may be useful for improving DNA vaccine potency to control tumors or infectious diseases. ..
  43. Smith M, Dale C, De Rose R, Stratov I, Fernandez C, Brooks A, et al. Analysis of pigtail macaque major histocompatibility complex class I molecules presenting immunodominant simian immunodeficiency virus epitopes. J Virol. 2005;79:684-95 pubmed
    ..nemestrina MHC class I allele restricting a functionally important immunodominant SIV Gag epitope establishes a basis for studying CD8+ T-cell responses against AIDS in an important, widely available nonhuman primate species...
  44. Carrington M, Wang S, Martin M, Gao X, Schiffman M, Cheng J, et al. Hierarchy of resistance to cervical neoplasia mediated by combinations of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor and human leukocyte antigen loci. J Exp Med. 2005;201:1069-75 pubmed
  45. Mozes E, Lovchik J, Zinger H, Singer D. MHC class I expression regulates susceptibility to spontaneous autoimmune disease in (NZBxNZW)F1 mice. Lupus. 2005;14:308-14 pubmed
    ..We speculate that MHC class I expression itself confers susceptibility to disease through presentation of self-peptides, while also selecting for a CD8+ suppressor T cell population that mitigates disease. ..
  46. Uda A, Tanabayashi K, Fujita O, Hotta A, Terao K, Yamada A. Identification of the MHC class I B locus in cynomolgus monkeys. Immunogenetics. 2005;57:189-97 pubmed
  47. Walker B, van Hateren A, Milne S, Beck S, Kaufman J. Chicken TAP genes differ from their human orthologues in locus organisation, size, sequence features and polymorphism. Immunogenetics. 2005;57:232-47 pubmed
    ..The close proximity of the TAP genes to the class I genes and the high level of polymorphism may allow co-evolution of the genes, allowing TAP molecules to transport peptides specifically for the class I molecules of that haplotype...
  48. Allen T, Altfeld M, Geer S, Kalife E, Moore C, O sullivan K, et al. Selective escape from CD8+ T-cell responses represents a major driving force of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequence diversity and reveals constraints on HIV-1 evolution. J Virol. 2005;79:13239-49 pubmed
    ..The stereotypic nature of acquired mutations provides support for biochemical constraints limiting HIV-1 evolution and for the impact of CD8 escape mutations on viral fitness. ..
  49. Loffredo J, Sidney J, Piaskowski S, Szymanski A, Furlott J, Rudersdorf R, et al. The high frequency Indian rhesus macaque MHC class I molecule, Mamu-B*01, does not appear to be involved in CD8+ T lymphocyte responses to SIVmac239. J Immunol. 2005;175:5986-97 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the high frequency MHC class I molecule, Mamu-B*01, is not involved in SIV-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte responses. ..
  50. Miltiadou D, Ballingall K, Ellis S, Russell G, McKeever D. Haplotype characterization of transcribed ovine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes. Immunogenetics. 2005;57:499-509 pubmed publisher
    ..The haplotypes were further characterized at the highly polymorphic Ovar-DRB1 locus, allowing selection of the progeny of the two founder rams for the establishment of an MHC-defined resource population...
  51. Nielsen M, Lundegaard C, Lund O, Kesmir C. The role of the proteasome in generating cytotoxic T-cell epitopes: insights obtained from improved predictions of proteasomal cleavage. Immunogenetics. 2005;57:33-41 pubmed
    ..e., the specificity of TAP has evolved to fit the specificity of the proteasome. This evolutionary relationship allows for a more efficient antigen presentation. ..
  52. Moon D, Veniamin S, Parks Dely J, Magor K. The MHC of the duck (Anas platyrhynchos) contains five differentially expressed class I genes. J Immunol. 2005;175:6702-12 pubmed
    ..The clone carried five MHC class I genes and the TAP genes in the following gene order: TAP1, TAP2, UAA, UBA, UCA, UDA, and UEA...
  53. Kiryu I, Dijkstra J, Sarder R, Fujiwara A, Yoshiura Y, Ototake M. New MHC class Ia domain lineages in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) which are shared with other fish species. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2005;18:243-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Although exon-shuffling events significantly contributed to salmonid MHC class Ia variation, analysis of 800 trout siblings did not detect such events within a single generation...