blood bactericidal activity


Summary: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.

Top Publications

  1. Nordstrom T, Blom A, Tan T, Forsgren A, Riesbeck K. Ionic binding of C3 to the human pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis is a unique mechanism for combating innate immunity. J Immunol. 2005;175:3628-36 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, among the large number of bacteria analyzed, only M. catarrhalis has this unique ability to interfere with the innate immune system of complement by binding C3. ..
  2. Bugla Płoskońska G, Rybka J, Futoma Kołoch B, Cisowska A, Gamian A, Doroszkiewicz W. Sialic acid-containing lipopolysaccharides of Salmonella O48 strains--potential role in camouflage and susceptibility to the bactericidal effect of normal human serum. Microb Ecol. 2010;59:601-13 pubmed publisher
    ..As the pathogenicity of most Salmonella serotypes remains undefined, research into the interactions between these bacterial cells and host organisms is indispensable. ..
  3. Poolman J, de Vleeschauwer I, Durant N, Devos N, Feron C, Lestrate P, et al. Measurement of functional anti-meningococcal serogroup a activity using strain 3125 as the target strain for serum bactericidal assay. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:1108-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, SBA results obtained using the MenA L10 3125 strain better reflected vaccine-induced immunity. ..
  4. Erwin A, Allen S, Ho D, Bonthuis P, Bonthius P, Jarisch J, et al. Role of lgtC in resistance of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae strain R2866 to human serum. Infect Immun. 2006;74:6226-35 pubmed
    ..This is the first description of the genetic basis of high-level serum resistance in NTHI, as well as the first description of LOS composition in an NTHI strain for which the complete genome sequence has been determined. ..
  5. Verma A, Hellwage J, Artiushin S, Zipfel P, Kraiczy P, Timoney J, et al. LfhA, a novel factor H-binding protein of Leptospira interrogans. Infect Immun. 2006;74:2659-66 pubmed
    ..interrogans during mammalian infection. LfhA may therefore contribute to the resistance of pathogenic leptospires to complement-mediated killing during leptospiremic phases of the disease. ..
  6. Plested J, Welsch J, Granoff D. Ex vivo model of meningococcal bacteremia using human blood for measuring vaccine-induced serum passive protective activity. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:785-91 pubmed publisher
  7. Bugla Płoskońska G, Cisowska A, Karpinska K, Jankowski S, Doroszkiewicz W. The mechanisms of activation of normal human serum complement by Escherichia coli strains with K1 surface antigen. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2006;51:627-32 pubmed
    ..Important role of alternative pathway activation in the bactericidal action of NHS against E. coli K1 strains independent of the classical and lectin pathways was not established. ..
  8. Meri T, Murgia R, Stefanel P, Meri S, Cinco M. Regulation of complement activation at the C3-level by serum resistant leptospires. Microb Pathog. 2005;39:139-47 pubmed
    ..Thus, binding of this major alternative complement pathway inhibitor is related to serum resistance in Leptospira spirochetes...
  9. Linge H, Collin M, Nordenfelt P, Morgelin M, Malmsten M, Egesten A. The human CXC chemokine granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2)/CXCL6 possesses membrane-disrupting properties and is antibacterial. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:2599-607 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, GCP/CXCL6, in addition to its chemotactic and angiogenic properties, is likely to contribute to direct antibacterial activity during localized infection. ..

More Information


  1. Attia A, Hansen E. A conserved tetranucleotide repeat is necessary for wild-type expression of the Moraxella catarrhalis UspA2 protein. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:7840-52 pubmed
    ..These data confirm that the presence of the AGAT repeats in the 5'-UTR of the uspA2 gene is necessary for both normal expression of the UspA2 protein and serum resistance. ..
  2. Diez Domingo J, Cantarino M, Torrentí J, Sansano M, Rosich A, Merino A, et al. A randomized, multicenter, open-label clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity of a meningococcal C vaccine booster dose administered to children aged 14 to 18 months. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:148-52 pubmed publisher
    ..A booster meningococcal C (MenC) vaccine dose is recommended after the first year of life. The objective of this study was to assess its immunogenicity and factors that modify the immunoresponse...
  3. Marchant C, Miller J, Marshall G, Blatter M, Aris E, Friedland L, et al. Randomized trial to assess immunogenicity and safety of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:48-52 pubmed publisher
    ..meningitidis serogroups C and Y. ..
  4. Maruvada R, Blom A, Prasadarao N. Effects of complement regulators bound to Escherichia coli K1 and Group B Streptococcus on the interaction with host cells. Immunology. 2008;124:265-76 pubmed
    ..coli, and Factor H, in the case of GBS. Taken together, these results suggest that E. coli and GBS utilize contrasting mechanisms of complement-mediated interactions with their target cells for successful establishment of disease. ..
  5. Vu D, Wong T, Granoff D. Cooperative serum bactericidal activity between human antibodies to meningococcal factor H binding protein and neisserial heparin binding antigen. Vaccine. 2011;29:1968-73 pubmed publisher
    ..For meningococcal vaccines that target relatively sparsely exposed antigens such fHbp or NHba, non-bactericidal antibodies against individual antigens can cooperate and elicit SBA. ..
  6. Potempa M, Potempa J, Okroj M, Popadiak K, Eick S, Nguyen K, et al. Binding of complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein contributes to serum resistance of Porphyromonas gingivalis. J Immunol. 2008;181:5537-44 pubmed
  7. Kugelberg E, Gollan B, Tang C. Mechanisms in Neisseria meningitidis for resistance against complement-mediated killing. Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 8:I34-9 pubmed
    ..Here we discuss the mechanisms of meningococcal resistance against complement-mediated killing and the influence of both bacterial and host genetic factors. ..
  8. Frasch C, Borrow R, Donnelly J. Bactericidal antibody is the immunologic surrogate of protection against meningococcal disease. Vaccine. 2009;27 Suppl 2:B112-6 pubmed publisher
    ..3) Meningococcal polysaccharide, polysaccharide-protein conjugates, and outer membrane vesicle vaccines all induce SBA shown to be effective in direct proportion to the percent of vaccinees with SBA activity. ..
  9. Herzberger P, Siegel C, Skerka C, Fingerle V, Schulte Spechtel U, van Dam A, et al. Human pathogenic Borrelia spielmanii sp. nov. resists complement-mediated killing by direct binding of immune regulators factor H and factor H-like protein 1. Infect Immun. 2007;75:4817-25 pubmed
    ..This is the first report describing an immune evasion mechanism utilized by B. spielmanii sp. nov., and it demonstrates the capture of human immune regulators to resist complement-mediated killing...
  10. Savoia D, Deplano C, Zucca M. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia infections in patients affected by cystic fibrosis: serum resistance and antibody response. Immunol Invest. 2008;37:19-27 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa was higher than that against B. cenocepacia. The contribution of these data to the assessment of the importance of the humoral immune response in CF pulmonary infections by Pseudomonas and Burkholderia is briefly discussed...
  11. Popadiak K, Potempa J, Riesbeck K, Blom A. Biphasic effect of gingipains from Porphyromonas gingivalis on the human complement system. J Immunol. 2007;178:7242-50 pubmed
    ..At later stages of infection the concentration of proteases is high enough to destroy complement factors and thus render the bacteria resistant to the bactericidal activity of complement. ..
  12. Yuste J, Sen A, Truedsson L, Jonsson G, Tay L, Hyams C, et al. Impaired opsonization with C3b and phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae in sera from subjects with defects in the classical complement pathway. Infect Immun. 2008;76:3761-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These data confirm that the classical pathway is vital for complement-mediated phagocytosis of S. pneumoniae and demonstrate why subjects with a C2 deficiency have a marked increase in susceptibility to S. pneumoniae infections. ..
  13. Black S, Klein N, Shah J, Bedell L, Karsten A, Dull P. Immunogenicity and tolerability of a quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine in children 2-10 years of age. Vaccine. 2010;28:657-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Both vaccines were well tolerated. In children 2-10 years of age, MenACWY-CRM induced a higher immune response than that of MPSV4, and was well tolerated. ..
  14. Gill C, Ram S, Welsch J, DeTora L, Anemona A. Correlation between serum bactericidal activity against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y measured using human versus rabbit serum as the complement source. Vaccine. 2011;30:29-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, results generated by rSBA did not accurately classify serostatus according to hSBA for serogroups A, W-135 and Y. ..
  15. Madico G, Welsch J, Lewis L, McNaughton A, Perlman D, Costello C, et al. The meningococcal vaccine candidate GNA1870 binds the complement regulatory protein factor H and enhances serum resistance. J Immunol. 2006;177:501-10 pubmed
    ..These data provide further support for inclusion of this molecule in a meningococcal vaccine. To reflect the critical function of this molecule, we suggest calling it fH-binding protein. ..
  16. Wooster D, Maruvada R, Blom A, Prasadarao N. Logarithmic phase Escherichia coli K1 efficiently avoids serum killing by promoting C4bp-mediated C3b and C4b degradation. Immunology. 2006;117:482-93 pubmed
    ..Thus, binding of C4bp appears to be responsible for survival of E. coli K1 in human serum...
  17. Beernink P, Shaughnessy J, Braga E, Liu Q, Rice P, Ram S, et al. A meningococcal factor H binding protein mutant that eliminates factor H binding enhances protective antibody responses to vaccination. J Immunol. 2011;186:3606-14 pubmed publisher
  18. Gill C, Baxter R, Anemona A, Ciavarro G, Dull P. Persistence of immune responses after a single dose of Novartis meningococcal serogroup A, C, W-135 and Y CRM-197 conjugate vaccine (Menveo®) or Menactra® among healthy adolescents. Hum Vaccin. 2010;6:881-7 pubmed
    ..The proportion of subjects with hSBA titers ?8 was significantly higher among recipients of MenACWY-CRM than MCV4 for serogroups A, W-135 and Y. ..
  19. Bermal N, Huang L, Dubey A, Jain H, Bavdekar A, Lin T, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y conjugate vaccine in adolescents and adults. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:239-47 pubmed
    ..The results of this study indicate that ACWY-TT could be used as a third conjugate vaccine in the protection of adolescents against meningococcal disease. ..
  20. Haralambous E, Dolly S, Hibberd M, Litt D, Udalova I, O Dwyer C, et al. Factor H, a regulator of complement activity, is a major determinant of meningococcal disease susceptibility in UK Caucasian patients. Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38:764-71 pubmed
  21. Matson K, Tieleman B, Klasing K. Capture stress and the bactericidal competence of blood and plasma in five species of tropical birds. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2006;79:556-64 pubmed
    ..One hour of acute stress reduced killing ability by up to 40%. This assay is expected to be useful in evolutionary and ecological studies dealing with physiological and immunological differences in birds. ..
  22. Brooks C, Vuppala S, Jett A, Alitalo A, Meri S, Akins D. Complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 imparts resistance to human serum in Borrelia burgdorferi. J Immunol. 2005;175:3299-308 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi. The combined data led us to conclude that CRASP-1 expression is necessary for B. burgdorferi to resist killing by human serum. ..
  23. Dieterich R, Hammerschmidt C, Richter D, Skerka C, Wallich R, Matuschka F, et al. Inadequate binding of immune regulator factor H is associated with sensitivity of Borrelia lusitaniae to human complement. Infect Immun. 2010;78:4467-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding suggests that a reduced binding capability of CFH is associated with an increased serum sensitivity of B. lusitaniae to human complement...
  24. Nolan T, Richmond P, Marshall H, McVernon J, Alexander K, Mesaros N, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of an investigational combined haemophilus influenzae type B-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:190-6 pubmed publisher
    ..HibMenCY-TT induced noninferior Hib and MenC responses compared with monovalent Hib and MenC conjugates with a comparable safety profile. Bactericidal antibodies against MenC/Y were induced after 2 doses of HibMenCY-TT. ..
  25. Baxter R, Baine Y, Ensor K, Bianco V, Friedland L, Miller J. Immunogenicity and safety of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy adolescents and young adults 10 to 25 years of age. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:e41-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The investigational MenACWY-TT vaccine was immunogenic in adolescents and young adults, with an acceptable safety profile. ..
  26. Koeberling O, Seubert A, Santos G, Colaprico A, Ugozzoli M, Donnelly J, et al. Immunogenicity of a meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine with attenuated endotoxin and over-expressed factor H binding protein in infant rhesus monkeys. Vaccine. 2011;29:4728-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the mutant NOMV vaccine elicited broadly protective serum antibodies in a non-human infant primate model that is more relevant for predicting human antibody responses than mice. ..
  27. Koeberling O, Delany I, Granoff D. A critical threshold of meningococcal factor H binding protein expression is required for increased breadth of protective antibodies elicited by native outer membrane vesicle vaccines. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:736-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a critical threshold of increased fHbp expression is required for NOMV vaccines to elicit broad serum bactericidal responses, and the antibodies conferring protection are directed primarily at fHbp. ..
  28. Borrow R, Carlone G, Rosenstein N, Blake M, Feavers I, Martin D, et al. Neisseria meningitidis group B correlates of protection and assay standardization--international meeting report Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 16-17 March 2005. Vaccine. 2006;24:5093-107 pubmed
  29. Jackson L, Baxter R, Reisinger K, Karsten A, Shah J, Bedell L, et al. Phase III comparison of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine with the licensed meningococcal ACWY conjugate vaccine in adolescents. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:e1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Neither vaccine was associated with a serious adverse event. MenACWY-CRM vaccine is well tolerated in adolescents and generates a stronger immune response than Menactra for all 4 serogroups. identifier: NCT00450437 . ..
  30. Kenedy M, Vuppala S, Siegel C, Kraiczy P, Akins D. CspA-mediated binding of human factor H inhibits complement deposition and confers serum resistance in Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2773-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The combined data lead us to conclude that the CspA-mediated binding of human FH confers serum resistance by directly inhibiting complement deposition on the surface of B. burgdorferi. ..
  31. Mittal R, Wang Y, Hunter C, Gonzalez Gomez I, Prasadarao N. Brain damage in newborn rat model of meningitis by Enterobacter sakazakii: a role for outer membrane protein A. Lab Invest. 2009;89:263-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that OmpA expression in ES is necessary for the colonization of the gastrointestinal tract and for subsequent survival in blood to cause meningitis. ..
  32. Memish Z, Dbaibo G, Montellano M, Verghese V, Jain H, Dubey A, et al. Immunogenicity of a single dose of tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y conjugate vaccine administered to 2- to 10-year-olds is noninferior to a licensed-ACWY polysaccharide vaccine with an acceptable safety profile. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:e56-62 pubmed publisher
    ..ACWY-TT was immunogenic in children between 2 to 10 years of age with a clinically acceptable safety profile that resembled licensed Men-PS. These data support a positive benefit/risk ratio for the ACWY-TT vaccine. ..
  33. Franco A, Kothary M, Gopinath G, Jarvis K, Grim C, Hu L, et al. Cpa, the outer membrane protease of Cronobacter sakazakii, activates plasminogen and mediates resistance to serum bactericidal activity. Infect Immun. 2011;79:1578-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly suggest that Cpa may be an important virulence factor involved in serum resistance, as well as in the spread and invasion of C. sakazakii. ..
  34. Schneider M, Exley R, Chan H, Feavers I, Kang Y, Sim R, et al. Functional significance of factor H binding to Neisseria meningitidis. J Immunol. 2006;176:7566-75 pubmed
    ..meningitidis to avoid complement-mediated killing in the presence of human serum. Therefore, the recruitment of fH provides another mechanism by which this important human pathogen evades host innate immunity. ..
  35. Podschun R, Pietsch S, Holler C, Ullmann U. Incidence of Klebsiella species in surface waters and their expression of virulence factors. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:3325-7 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae, unlike those of K. oxytoca and K. planticola, are as capable as clinical isolates of expressing putative virulence factors such as serum resistance and capsular polysaccharides, pili, and siderophores. ..
  36. Alitalo A, Meri T, Rämö L, Jokiranta T, Heikkilä T, Seppälä I, et al. Complement evasion by Borrelia burgdorferi: serum-resistant strains promote C3b inactivation. Infect Immun. 2001;69:3685-91 pubmed
    ..Thus, the serum-resistant B. burgdorferi s.l. strains can circumvent C attack by binding the C inhibitors factor H and FHL-1 to their surfaces and promoting factor I-mediated C3b degradation. ..
  37. Merchant M, Roche C, Thibodeaux D, Elsey R. Identification of alternative pathway serum complement activity in the blood of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;141:281-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the antibiotic properties of alligator serum are partially due to the presence of a complement-facilitated humoral immune response analogous to that described in mammalian systems...
  38. Sanchez S, Troncoso G, Criado M, Ferreiros C. In vitro induction of memory-driven responses against Neisseria meningitidis by priming with Neisseria lactamica. Vaccine. 2002;20:2957-63 pubmed
    ..lactamica and other species, hampering the natural mechanisms of acquisition of immunity to the meningococci, and leaving its ecological niche free for colonization by undesirable microorganisms. ..
  39. Bhide M, Travnicek M, Levkutova M, Curlik J, Revajova V, Levkut M. Sensitivity of Borrelia genospecies to serum complement from different animals and human: a host-pathogen relationship. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2005;43:165-72 pubmed
    ..In short, this study reviews Borrelia-host relationship and its relevance in reservoir competence nature of animals...
  40. Borrow R, Goldblatt D, Finn A, Southern J, Ashton L, Andrews N, et al. Immunogenicity of, and immunologic memory to, a reduced primary schedule of meningococcal C-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in infants in the United kingdom. Infect Immun. 2003;71:5549-55 pubmed
    ..This study provides the first evidence that the number of doses of MCC-TT used in infant immunization schedules could be decreased. ..
  41. Jarva H, Ram S, Vogel U, Blom A, Meri S. Binding of the complement inhibitor C4bp to serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis. J Immunol. 2005;174:6299-307 pubmed
    ..PorA-expressing strains were also more resistant to C lysis than PorA-negative strains in a serum bactericidal assay. Binding of C4bp thus helps Neisseria meningitidis to escape CP complement activation...
  42. Biedzka Sarek M, Venho R, Skurnik M. Role of YadA, Ail, and Lipopolysaccharide in Serum Resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica Serotype O:3. Infect Immun. 2005;73:2232-44 pubmed
    ..In normal serum, the bacteria were less resistant to C3b deposition. However, no direct correlation between the C3 deposition pattern and bacterial resistance was observed. ..
  43. Borrow R, Balmer P, Miller E. Meningococcal surrogates of protection--serum bactericidal antibody activity. Vaccine. 2005;23:2222-7 pubmed
    ..SBA activity as a correlate of protection for evaluating the immune response to meningococcal vaccines is described in this review...
  44. Nordstrom T, Blom A, Forsgren A, Riesbeck K. The emerging pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis interacts with complement inhibitor C4b binding protein through ubiquitous surface proteins A1 and A2. J Immunol. 2004;173:4598-606 pubmed
    ..catarrhalis retained its cofactor activity as determined by analysis of C4b degradation. Taken together, M. catarrhalis interferes with the classical complement activation pathway by binding C4BP to UspA1 and UspA2. ..
  45. Beninati C, Arseni S, Mancuso G, Magliani W, Conti S, Midiri A, et al. Protective immunization against group B meningococci using anti-idiotypic mimics of the capsular polysaccharide. J Immunol. 2004;172:2461-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we have produced anti-idiotypic scFvs that mimic a protective MenB CP epitope and may be useful in the development of an alternative group B meningococcal vaccine. ..
  46. Welsch J, Moe G, Rossi R, Adu Bobie J, Rappuoli R, Granoff D. Antibody to genome-derived neisserial antigen 2132, a Neisseria meningitidis candidate vaccine, confers protection against bacteremia in the absence of complement-mediated bactericidal activity. J Infect Dis. 2003;188:1730-40 pubmed publisher
    ..GNA2132 is thus a promising vaccine candidate for prevention of disease caused by N. meningitidis...
  47. Merchant M, Roche C, Elsey R, Prudhomme J. Antibacterial properties of serum from the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;136:505-13 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the antimicrobial properties of alligator serum may be due to an active serum complement system. ..
  48. Wallis R, Vinhas S, Johnson J, Ribeiro F, Palaci M, Peres R, et al. Whole blood bactericidal activity during treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:270-8 pubmed
    ..bactericidal activity against intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis in whole blood culture (whole blood bactericidal activity; WBA) during TB treatment...
  49. Prasadarao N, Blom A, Villoutreix B, Linsangan L. A novel interaction of outer membrane protein A with C4b binding protein mediates serum resistance of Escherichia coli K1. J Immunol. 2002;169:6352-60 pubmed
    ..A compelling observation in this study is that synthetic peptides corresponding to CCP3 sequences block the binding of C4bp to OmpA and also significantly enhance serum bactericidal activity. ..
  50. Palmer L, Cooper P, Ling M, Wright H, Huissoon A, Chapple I. Hypochlorous acid regulates neutrophil extracellular trap release in humans. Clin Exp Immunol. 2012;167:261-8 pubmed publisher
  51. Schott M, Grosskinsky S, Brenner C, Kraiczy P, Wallich R. Molecular characterization of the interaction of Borrelia parkeri and Borrelia turicatae with human complement regulators. Infect Immun. 2010;78:2199-208 pubmed publisher
    ..parkeri differs from B. turicatae in its ability to resist complement attack, and may help in understanding the pathological processes underlying tick-borne relapsing fever. ..
  52. Ciornei C, Sigurdardottir T, Schmidtchen A, Bodelsson M. Antimicrobial and chemoattractant activity, lipopolysaccharide neutralization, cytotoxicity, and inhibition by serum of analogs of human cathelicidin LL-37. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:2845-50 pubmed
    ..Such LL-37-derived peptides may thus be beneficial for the treatment of patients with sepsis. ..
  53. Friberg N, Carlson P, Kentala E, Mattila P, Kuusela P, Meri S, et al. Factor H binding as a complement evasion mechanism for an anaerobic pathogen, Fusobacterium necrophorum. J Immunol. 2008;181:8624-32 pubmed
    ..necrophorum subsp. funduliforme in the human host. Our data show, for the first time, that an anaerobic bacterium is able to bind the C inhibitor fH to evade C attack...