immunologic surveillance


Summary: The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.

Top Publications

  1. Yamaguchi T, Sakaguchi S. Regulatory T cells in immune surveillance and treatment of cancer. Semin Cancer Biol. 2006;16:115-23 pubmed
    ..A combination of depletion or attenuation of T(R) cells and concomitant stimulation of effector T cells, systemically or locally in tumors, may be a feasible immunotherapy for cancer. ..
  2. Smyth M, Swann J, Hayakawa Y. Innate tumor immune surveillance. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;590:103-11 pubmed
  3. Chang C, Ferrone S. Immune selective pressure and HLA class I antigen defects in malignant lesions. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2007;56:227-36 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we discuss the strategies to counteract tumor cell immune evasion. ..
  4. Hayakawa Y, Smyth M. NKG2D and cytotoxic effector function in tumor immune surveillance. Semin Immunol. 2006;18:176-85 pubmed
    ..The data begin to place the NKG2D pathway into the context of other recognition-effector systems used by NK cells. ..
  5. Wajant H. CD95L/FasL and TRAIL in tumour surveillance and cancer therapy. Cancer Treat Res. 2006;130:141-65 pubmed
    ..This chapter focuses on the relevance of CD95L/FasL and TRAIL for the tumour surveillance function of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T-cells and discuss current concepts of utilizing these ligands in tumour therapy. ..
  6. Hoenicke L, Zender L. Immune surveillance of senescent cells--biological significance in cancer- and non-cancer pathologies. Carcinogenesis. 2012;33:1123-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review article, we will discuss different examples how immune responses against senescent cells are involved to restrict disease progression in cancer- and non-cancer pathologies. ..
  7. Zitvogel L, Tesniere A, Kroemer G. Cancer despite immunosurveillance: immunoselection and immunosubversion. Nat Rev Immunol. 2006;6:715-27 pubmed
    ..The permanent success of treatments for cancer might depend on using immunogenic chemotherapy to re-establish antitumour immune responses. ..
  8. Barrett A, Savani B. Does chemotherapy modify the immune surveillance of hematological malignancies?. Leukemia. 2009;23:53-8 pubmed publisher
  9. Beatty G, Chiorean E, Fishman M, Saboury B, Teitelbaum U, Sun W, et al. CD40 agonists alter tumor stroma and show efficacy against pancreatic carcinoma in mice and humans. Science. 2011;331:1612-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, cancer immune surveillance does not necessarily depend on therapy-induced T cells; rather, our findings demonstrate a CD40-dependent mechanism for targeting tumor stroma in the treatment of cancer. ..

More Information


  1. Starck S, Ow Y, Jiang V, Tokuyama M, Rivera M, Qi X, et al. A distinct translation initiation mechanism generates cryptic peptides for immune surveillance. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3460 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, cryptic translation at non-AUG start codons can utilize a distinct initiation mechanism which could be differentially regulated to provide peptides for immune surveillance. ..
  2. Chan C, Housseau F. The 'kiss of death' by dendritic cells to cancer cells. Cell Death Differ. 2008;15:58-69 pubmed
    ..This review addresses the other face of DCs to directly deliver apoptotic signals to stressed cells, their role in tumor cell death, and its implication in the design of DC-based cancer immunotherapies. ..
  3. Schreiber T, Podack E. A critical analysis of the tumour immunosurveillance controversy for 3-MCA-induced sarcomas. Br J Cancer. 2009;101:381-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this mini review we provide a critical analysis of both sides of this controversy. ..
  4. Bindea G, Mlecnik B, Fridman W, Pages F, Galon J. Natural immunity to cancer in humans. Curr Opin Immunol. 2010;22:215-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent advances support the existence of immunosurveillance in human cancer. The major role of the intratumoral immune reaction could advance our understanding of tumor evolution and have important consequences in clinical practice. ..
  5. Zebedin E, Simma O, Schuster C, Putz E, Fajmann S, Warsch W, et al. Leukemic challenge unmasks a requirement for PI3Kdelta in NK cell-mediated tumor surveillance. Blood. 2008;112:4655-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This dual function must be taken into account when using PI3Kdelta inhibitors as antileukemic agents in clinical trials. ..
  6. Ambrosino E, Berzofsky J, Terabe M. Regulation of tumor immunity: the role of NKT cells. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2008;8:725-34 pubmed
    ..Recent studies suggest that NKT cells are a heterogeneous cell population with multiple subsets with distinct functions...
  7. Kim R, Emi M, Tanabe K. Cancer immunoediting from immune surveillance to immune escape. Immunology. 2007;121:1-14 pubmed
    ..In this review, the central roles of effector cells and cytokines in tumour immunity, and the escape mechanisms of tumour cells during tumour progression are discussed. ..
  8. Lob S, Konigsrainer A. Is IDO a key enzyme bridging the gap between tumor escape and tolerance induction?. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2008;393:995-1003 pubmed
    ..There is evidence that IDO achieves immune modulation in several animal models. However, in humans, this remains controversially discussed. ..
  9. Maki G, Hayes G, Naji A, Tyler T, Carosella E, Rouas Freiss N, et al. NK resistance of tumor cells from multiple myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients: implication of HLA-G. Leukemia. 2008;22:998-1006 pubmed publisher
  10. Schreiber R, Old L, Smyth M. Cancer immunoediting: integrating immunity's roles in cancer suppression and promotion. Science. 2011;331:1565-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we discuss a unifying conceptual framework called "cancer immunoediting," which integrates the immune system's dual host-protective and tumor-promoting roles. ..
  11. Gebhardt T, Whitney P, Zaid A, Mackay L, Brooks A, Heath W, et al. Different patterns of peripheral migration by memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Nature. 2011;477:216-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results identify a complexity in memory T-cell migration, illuminating previously unappreciated differences between the CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets. ..
  12. Schuster C, Berger A, Hoelzl M, Putz E, Frenzel A, Simma O, et al. The cooperating mutation or "second hit" determines the immunologic visibility toward MYC-induced murine lymphomas. Blood. 2011;118:4635-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide first evidence that the nature of the second hit affects tumor immunosurveillance in c-MYC-driven lymphomas and define a potential shortcoming of antitumor therapies targeting BCL-2. ..
  13. Kang T, Yevsa T, Woller N, Hoenicke L, Wuestefeld T, Dauch D, et al. Senescence surveillance of pre-malignant hepatocytes limits liver cancer development. Nature. 2011;479:547-51 pubmed publisher
  14. Prehn R, Prehn L. The flip side of immune surveillance: immune dependency. Immunol Rev. 2008;222:341-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This knowledge may help to explain some clinical observations concerning the relationships among tumor types and the organ distribution of metastases. ..
  15. Guerra N, Tan Y, Joncker N, Choy A, Gallardo F, Xiong N, et al. NKG2D-deficient mice are defective in tumor surveillance in models of spontaneous malignancy. Immunity. 2008;28:571-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide important genetic evidence for surveillance of primary tumors by an NK receptor. ..
  16. Swann J, Smyth M. Immune surveillance of tumors. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:1137-46 pubmed
    ..This work provides the basis for further study of natural immunity to cancer and for rational use of this information in the design of immunotherapies in combination with other conventional cancer treatments. ..
  17. van Hall T, Wolpert E, van Veelen P, Laban S, van der Veer M, Roseboom M, et al. Selective cytotoxic T-lymphocyte targeting of tumor immune escape variants. Nat Med. 2006;12:417-24 pubmed
    ..This explains why they act as immunogenic neoantigens. The newly discovered epitopes can be exploited for immune intervention against processing-deficient tumors through adoptive T-cell transfer or peptide vaccination. ..
  18. Uppaluri R, Dunn G, Lewis J. Focus on TILs: prognostic significance of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in head and neck cancers. Cancer Immun. 2008;8:16 pubmed
    ..Finally, with this perspective, we describe our current understanding of tumor infiltrating lymphocyte data for head and neck cancers...
  19. Brody J, Costantino C, Berger A, Sato T, Lisanti M, Yeo C, et al. Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in metastatic malignant melanoma recruits regulatory T cells to avoid immune detection and affects survival. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:1930-4 pubmed
    ..These data support the notion that metastatic MM cells select for expression of IDO to evade immunologic detection. Therefore, inhibition of IDO in MM patients may be a useful treatment strategy. ..
  20. Ricklin D, Hajishengallis G, Yang K, Lambris J. Complement: a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:785-97 pubmed publisher
  21. Hiraoka N, Yamazaki Itoh R, Ino Y, Mizuguchi Y, Yamada T, Hirohashi S, et al. CXCL17 and ICAM2 are associated with a potential anti-tumor immune response in early intraepithelial stages of human pancreatic carcinogenesis. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:310-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Immune surveillance occurs during the early intraepithelial stages of human pancreatic carcinogenesis and is mediated by expression of CXCL17 and ICAM2. ..
  22. Vesely M, Kershaw M, Schreiber R, Smyth M. Natural innate and adaptive immunity to cancer. Annu Rev Immunol. 2011;29:235-71 pubmed publisher
  23. Sagiv A, Biran A, Yon M, Simon J, Lowe S, Krizhanovsky V. Granule exocytosis mediates immune surveillance of senescent cells. Oncogene. 2013;32:1971-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus provide new insights into the immune surveillance of senescent cells and reveal how granule exocytosis has a protective role against liver fibrosis. ..
  24. Kunzmann V, Wilhelm M. Anti-lymphoma effect of gammadelta T cells. Leuk Lymphoma. 2005;46:671-80 pubmed
  25. Carding S, Egan P. Gammadelta T cells: functional plasticity and heterogeneity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2002;2:336-45 pubmed
  26. Girardi M, Oppenheim D, Steele C, Lewis J, Glusac E, Filler R, et al. Regulation of cutaneous malignancy by gammadelta T cells. Science. 2001;294:605-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, local T cells may use evolutionarily conserved proteins to negatively regulate malignancy. ..
  27. Street S, Trapani J, MacGregor D, Smyth M. Suppression of lymphoma and epithelial malignancies effected by interferon gamma. J Exp Med. 2002;196:129-34 pubmed
    ..A significant incidence of late onset adenocarcinoma observed in both IFN-gamma- and pfp-deficient mice indicated that some epithelial tissues were also subject to immunosurveillance. ..
  28. Dunn G, Bruce A, Ikeda H, Old L, Schreiber R. Cancer immunoediting: from immunosurveillance to tumor escape. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:991-8 pubmed
    ..In this review, we will summarize the historical and experimental basis of cancer immunoediting and discuss its dual roles in promoting host protection against cancer and facilitating tumor escape from immune destruction. ..
  29. Khong H, Restifo N. Natural selection of tumor variants in the generation of "tumor escape" phenotypes. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:999-1005 pubmed
    ..Tumor escape variants are likely to emerge after treatment with increasingly effective immunotherapies. ..
  30. Riteau B, Faure F, Menier C, Viel S, Carosella E, Amigorena S, et al. Exosomes bearing HLA-G are released by melanoma cells. Hum Immunol. 2003;64:1064-72 pubmed
    ..Thus, the presence of tolerogenic HLA-G molecules on melanoma-derived exosomes may provide a novel way for tumors to modulate host's immune response. ..
  31. Qin Z, Blankenstein T. A cancer immunosurveillance controversy. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:3-4; author reply 4-5 pubmed
  32. Blankenstein T, Qin Z. Chemical carcinogens as foreign bodies and some pitfalls regarding cancer immune surveillance. Adv Cancer Res. 2003;90:179-207 pubmed
  33. Terabe M, Berzofsky J. Immunoregulatory T cells in tumor immunity. Curr Opin Immunol. 2004;16:157-62 pubmed
  34. Takeda K, Cretney E, Hayakawa Y, Ota T, Akiba H, Ogasawara K, et al. TRAIL identifies immature natural killer cells in newborn mice and adult mouse liver. Blood. 2005;105:2082-9 pubmed
    ..This study is the first to describe the concomitant maturation of NK cell effector function with surface phenotype in vivo and implies an important defense role for NK cell TRAIL in the developing immune system. ..
  35. Crowe N, Smyth M, Godfrey D. A critical role for natural killer T cells in immunosurveillance of methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas. J Exp Med. 2002;196:119-27 pubmed
  36. Sinha P, Clements V, Ostrand Rosenberg S. Interleukin-13-regulated M2 macrophages in combination with myeloid suppressor cells block immune surveillance against metastasis. Cancer Res. 2005;65:11743-51 pubmed
  37. Yang L, Carbone D. Tumor-host immune interactions and dendritic cell dysfunction. Adv Cancer Res. 2004;92:13-27 pubmed
    ..Finally, we will discuss altered dendritic cell function and differentiation in some detail, as it is likely to be one of the most fundamental mechanisms by which tumors escape immune responses. ..
  38. Dunn G, Old L, Schreiber R. The immunobiology of cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting. Immunity. 2004;21:137-48 pubmed
    ..The full understanding of the immunobiology of cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting will hopefully stimulate development of more effective immunotherapeutic approaches to control and/or eliminate human cancers. ..
  39. Dunn G, Old L, Schreiber R. The three Es of cancer immunoediting. Annu Rev Immunol. 2004;22:329-60 pubmed
    ..quot; In this review, we summarize the history of the cancer immunosurveillance controversy and discuss its resolution and evolution into the three Es of cancer immunoediting--elimination, equilibrium, and escape. ..
  40. Raivich G. Like cops on the beat: the active role of resting microglia. Trends Neurosci. 2005;28:571-3 pubmed
    ..These moving branches show a rapid chemotactic response to tissue injury that depends on purine receptors and connexin hemichannels, and they appear to take cues from surrounding astrocytes both in the normal and the injured brain. ..
  41. Leslie J, Mayor R. Complement in animal development: unexpected roles of a highly conserved pathway. Semin Immunol. 2013;25:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..As we will see, the scope of the complement system's function is indeed much greater than we might have imagined only a few years ago. ..
  42. Klumkrathok K, Jumnainsong A, Leelayuwat C. Allelic MHC class I chain related B (MICB) molecules affect the binding to the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) unique long 16 (UL16) protein: implications for immune surveillance. J Microbiol. 2013;51:241-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding may imply that MICB*008 is a protective allele and involved in the immune surveillance of HCMV infected patients. ..
  43. Jenne C, Kubes P. Immune surveillance by the liver. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:996-1006 pubmed publisher
    ..It is this balance between activation and tolerance that characterizes the liver as a frontline immunological organ. ..
  44. Sellmyer M, Bronsart L, Imoto H, Contag C, Wandless T, Prescher J. Visualizing cellular interactions with a generalized proximity reporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:8567-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This proximity reporter will facilitate probing of numerous types of cell-cell interactions and will stimulate the development of similar techniques to detect rare events and pathological processes in live animals. ..
  45. Audemard Verger A, Rivière M, Durand A, Peranzoni E, Guichard V, Hamon P, et al. Macrophages Induce Long-Term Trapping of ?? T Cells with Innate-like Properties within Secondary Lymphoid Organs in the Steady State. J Immunol. 2017;199:1998-2007 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific in vivo cell depletion strategies have allowed us to demonstrate that macrophages are the main actors involved in this long-term retention of Ly-6C-CD44hi ?? T cells in SLOs. ..
  46. Pierpaoli W. Cancer and the endogenous "pineal clock": a means of early diagnosis and successful treatment as well as prevention of cancers. Curr Aging Sci. 2013;6:108-14 pubmed
    ..For the cyclic synthesis of malignancies that are metastasized, a means of xenogeneic bone marrow transplantation is proposed as an alternative therapeutic approach. ..
  47. Corthay A. CD4+ T cells cooperate with macrophages for specific elimination of MHC class II-negative cancer cells. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;590:195-208 pubmed
  48. Biragyn A, Longo D. Neoplastic "Black Ops": cancer's subversive tactics in overcoming host defenses. Semin Cancer Biol. 2012;22:50-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, cancer not only directly suppresses immune function, but also recruits components of the immune system to become traitors and protect the tumor from immune attack. ..
  49. Landsberg J, Gaffal E, Cron M, Kohlmeyer J, Renn M, Tüting T. Autochthonous primary and metastatic melanomas in Hgf-Cdk4 R24C mice evade T-cell-mediated immune surveillance. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2010;23:649-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that primary and metastatic melanomas developing spontaneously in Hgf-Cdk4(R24C) mice effectively evade cellular immune surveillance. ..
  50. Lin A, Schildknecht A, Nguyen L, Ohashi P. Dendritic cells integrate signals from the tumor microenvironment to modulate immunity and tumor growth. Immunol Lett. 2010;127:77-84 pubmed publisher
  51. Swann J, Uldrich A, van Dommelen S, Sharkey J, Murray W, Godfrey D, et al. Type I natural killer T cells suppress tumors caused by p53 loss in mice. Blood. 2009;113:6382-5 pubmed publisher
  52. Zheng W, Li Y, Lai R, Lu Y, Shen Z, Wang X. [Effects of neuraxial block and general anesthesia on tumor metastasis in rats]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2008;28:2218-20 pubmed
    ..05 or 0.01). Neuraxial block provides protection of the activity of immune surveillance and reduces tumor metastases in tumor-bearing rats compared with general anesthesia. ..
  53. Spisek R, Dhodapkar M. Immunoprevention of cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2006;20:735-50 pubmed
    ..These advances suggest a need to change the current emphasis for harnessing antitumor immunity from therapy to prevention of cancers. ..