Genomes and Genes
Summary: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
- Chang Z, Wang Y, Bian L, Liu Q, Long J. Enterovirus 71 antagonizes the antiviral activity of host STAT3 and IL-6R with partial dependence on virus-induced miR-124. J Gen Virol. 2017;: pubmed publisher..This suggests that controlling miR-124 and the downstream targets, IL-6R and STAT3, might benefit the antiviral treatment of EV71 infection...
- Ulland T, Ferguson P, Sutterwala F. Evasion of inflammasome activation by microbial pathogens. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:469-77 pubmed publisher..In this Review, we discuss these pathogen evasion strategies as well as the potential infectious complications of therapeutic blockade of IL-1 pathways. ..
- King B, Hershkowitz D, Eisenhauer P, Weir M, Ziegler C, Russo J, et al. A Map of the Arenavirus Nucleoprotein-Host Protein Interactome Reveals that JunÃn Virus Selectively Impairs the Antiviral Activity of Double-Stranded RNA-Activated Protein Kinase (PKR). J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher..In so doing, it shows further insight into the interplay between the virus and the host innate immune response and provides an important data set for the field. ..
- Albayati Z, Alyami A, Alomar S, Middleton D, Bonnett L, Aleem S, et al. The Influence of Cytomegalovirus on Expression of HLA-G and its Ligand KIR2DL4 by Human Peripheral Blood Leucocyte Subsets. Scand J Immunol. 2017;86:396-407 pubmed publisher..The results show that CMV influences HLA-G expression in healthy subjects and may contribute to viral immune evasion.
- Kennedy A, Wijeyewickrema L, Huglo A, Lin C, Pike R, Cowman A, et al. Recruitment of Human C1 Esterase Inhibitor Controls Complement Activation on Blood Stage Plasmodium falciparum Merozoites. J Immunol. 2017;198:4728-4737 pubmed publisher..This study characterizes an immune-evasion strategy used by malaria parasites and highlights the complex relationship between merozoites and the complement system. ..
- Peng Q, Lan X, Wang C, Ren Y, Yue N, Wang J, et al. Kobuvirus VP3 protein restricts the IFN-?-triggered signaling pathway by inhibiting STAT2-IRF9 and STAT2-STAT2 complex formation. Virology. 2017;507:161-169 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these data reveal a new mechanism for immune evasion of PKV.
- Bandyopadhyay U, Chadha A, Gupta P, Tiwari B, Bhattacharyya K, Popli S, et al. Suppression of Toll-like receptor 2-mediated proinflammatory responses by Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv3529c. J Leukoc Biol. 2017;102:1249-1259 pubmed publisher..The data presented show another strategy evolved by M. tuberculosis toward immune evasion that centers on incorporating sequences in proteins that are similar to crucial proteins in the innate immune ..
- Montespan C, Wiethoff C, Wodrich H. A Small Viral PPxY Peptide Motif To Control Antiviral Autophagy. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher..Our study revealed how adenoviruses exploit a capsid-associated small PPxY peptide motif to manipulate the autophagic machinery to prevent autophagic degradation and to promote endosomal escape and nuclear trafficking. ..
- Sorel O, Chen T, Myster F, Javaux J, Vanderplasschen A, Dewals B. Macavirus latency-associated protein evades immune detection through regulation of protein synthesis in cis depending upon its glycin/glutamate-rich domain. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006691 pubmed publisher..Altogether, we provide evidence that inhibition in cis of protein synthesis through GE is likely involved in long-term immune evasion of AlHV-1 latent persistence in the wildebeest natural host, but dispensable in MCF pathogenesis.
- Crawford R, Wangdi T, Spees A, Xavier M, Tsolis R, BAUMLER A. Loss of very-long O-antigen chains optimizes capsule-mediated immune evasion by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. MBio. 2013;4: pubmed publisher..We show that the resulting loss of very-long O-antigen chains was an important mechanism for maximizing immune evasion mediated by the Vi capsular polysaccharide...
- Liu P, Pian Y, Li X, Liu R, Xie W, Zhang C, et al. Streptococcus suis adenosine synthase functions as an effector in evasion of PMN-mediated innate immunit. J Infect Dis. 2014;210:35-45 pubmed..Taken together, these results indicate that Ssads play an important role in S. suis 2 escaping human innate immunity in the context of inhibiting PMN's activity by synthesis of adenosine. ..
- Kitagawa Y, Sakai M, Funayama M, Itoh M, Gotoh B. Human Metapneumovirus M2-2 Protein Acts as a Negative Regulator of Alpha Interferon Production by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher..This study explains in part why the M2-2 knockout recombinant HMPV is attenuated and further suggests that M2-2 is a potential target for HMPV therapy. ..
- Ye J, Chen Z, Li Y, Zhao Z, He W, Zohaib A, et al. Japanese Encephalitis Virus NS5 Inhibits Type I Interferon (IFN) Production by Blocking the Nuclear Translocation of IFN Regulatory Factor 3 and NF-ÎºB. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher..These findings reveal a novel strategy for JEV to escape the host innate immune response and provide new insights into the pathogenesis of JEV. ..
- Jacques R, Edholm E, Jazz S, Odalys T, Francisco D. Xenopus-FV3 host-pathogen interactions and immune evasion. Virology. 2017;511:309-319 pubmed publisher..We then further investigate FV3 genes involved in immune evasion. Focusing on FV3 knockout (KO) mutants defective for a putative viral caspase activation and recruitment ..
- Li M, Wang P, Zheng Z, Hu K, Zhang M, Guan X, et al. Japanese encephalitis virus counteracts BST2 restriction via its envelope protein E. Virology. 2017;510:67-75 pubmed publisher..Our results together indicate that the release of enveloped viruses whose budding take place in an intracellular compartment can be restricted by BST2. ..
- Zhang H, Ye H, Liu S, Deng C, Li X, Shi P, et al. West Nile Virus NS1 Antagonizes Interferon Beta Production by Targeting RIG-I and MDA5. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher..The novel findings may guide us to discover new therapeutic targets and develop effective vaccines for WNV infections. ..
- Herr A, Thorman A. Hiding in plain sight: immune evasion by the staphylococcal protein SdrE. Biochem J. 2017;474:1803-1806 pubmed publisher..These structures reveal a fascinating mechanism for immune evasion and provide a potential avenue for the development of novel antimicrobial agents to target SdrE.
- Sato Y, Koshizuka T, Ishibashi K, Hashimoto K, Ishioka K, Ikuta K, et al. Involvement of herpes simplex virus type 1 UL13 protein kinase in induction of SOCS genes, the negative regulators of cytokine signaling. Microbiol Immunol. 2017;61:159-167 pubmed publisher..Accumulation of activated Sp1 was detectable in the nuclei of HSV-1-infected cells before induction of SOCS3. Taken together, these results suggest that HSV-1 has a potent mechanism for escaping from the IFN system. ..
- Wolff F, Leisch M, Greil R, Risch A, Pleyer L. The double-edged sword of (re)expression of genes by hypomethylating agents: from viral mimicry to exploitation as priming agents for targeted immune checkpoint modulation. Cell Commun Signal. 2017;15:13 pubmed publisher..We also review new insights into the molecular mechanisms of action of transient, low-dose HMAs on various tumor types and discuss the potential of new treatment options and combinations. ..
- Singh V, Prakhar P, Rajmani R, Mahadik K, Borbora S, Balaji K. Histone Methyltransferase SET8 Epigenetically Reprograms Host Immune Responses to Assist Mycobacterial Survival. J Infect Dis. 2017;216:477-488 pubmed publisher..20 monomethylase (H4K20me1), is highly induced during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection that orchestrates immune evasion strategies through the induction of NQO1 and TRXR1 in vivo...
- Deschamps T, Kalamvoki M. Evasion of the STING DNA-Sensing Pathway by VP11/12 of Herpes Simplex Virus 1. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher..We conclude that UL46 counteracts the actions of STING during HSV-1 infection. ..
- Albanese M, Tagawa T, Buschle A, Hammerschmidt W. MicroRNAs of Epstein-Barr Virus Control Innate and Adaptive Antiviral Immunity. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher..Only recently were microRNAs of EBV identified to reduce immune recognition further. This Gem summarizes what we know about immunomodulatory microRNAs of herpesviruses. ..
- Hotter D, Krabbe T, Reith E, Gawanbacht A, Rahm N, Ayouba A, et al. Primate lentiviruses use at least three alternative strategies to suppress NF-?B-mediated immune activation. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006598 pubmed publisher..Our findings highlight the key role of NF-?B in antiviral immunity and demonstrate that primate lentiviruses follow distinct evolutionary paths to modulate NF-?B-dependent expression of viral and antiviral genes. ..
- Rathore U, Saha P, Kesavardhana S, Kumar A, Datta R, Devanarayanan S, et al. Glycosylation of the core of the HIV-1 envelope subunit protein gp120 is not required for native trimer formation or viral infectivity. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:10197-10219 pubmed publisher..that core gp120 glycans are not essential for folding, and hence their likely primary role is enabling immune evasion. We also show that our glycan removal approach is not strain restricted...
- Uwamahoro N, Verma Gaur J, Shen H, Qu Y, Lewis R, Lu J, et al. The pathogen Candida albicans hijacks pyroptosis for escape from macrophages. MBio. 2014;5:e00003-14 pubmed publisher..Our data provide a new model for how the interplay between fungal morphogenesis and activation of a host cell death pathway mediates macrophage killing by C. albicans hyphae. ..
- Brady G, Haas D, Farrell P, Pichlmair A, Bowie A. Molluscum Contagiosum Virus Protein MC005 Inhibits NF-ÎºB Activation by Targeting NEMO-Regulated IÎºB Kinase Activation. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher..Further, identification of the mechanism of inhibition of NF-ÎºB by MC005 confirms current models of the complex way in which NF-ÎºB is regulated and greatly expands our understanding of how MCV so effectively evades human immunity. ..
- McGowin C, Totten P. The Unique Microbiology and Molecular Pathogenesis of Mycoplasma genitalium. J Infect Dis. 2017;216:S382-S388 pubmed publisher..Collectively, the basic scientific discussions herein should provide a framework for understanding the clinical and epidemiological outcomes described in the accompanying articles in this supplemental issue. ..
- Lei J, Hilgenfeld R. RNA-virus proteases counteracting host innate immunity. FEBS Lett. 2017;591:3190-3210 pubmed publisher..In this review, we discuss the multiple strategies used by proteases of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses of the families Picornaviridae, Coronaviridae, and Flaviviridae, when counteracting host innate immune responses. ..
- Mousa A, Roche D, Terkawi M, Kameyama K, Kamyingkird K, Vudriko P, et al. Human babesiosis: Indication of a molecular mimicry between thrombospondin domains from a novel Babesia microti BmP53 protein and host platelets molecules. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185372 pubmed publisher..Molecular mimicry are used to help parasites to escape immune defenses, resulting in immune evasion or autoimmunity...
- Gorin A, Du Y, Liu F, Zhang T, Ng H, Hofmann C, et al. HIV-1 epitopes presented by MHC class I types associated with superior immune containment of viremia have highly constrained fitness landscapes. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006541 pubmed publisher..Overall, these findings indicate that these protective MHC-I types yield CTL targeting of highly constrained epitopes, and underscore the importance of blocking public escape pathways for CTL-based interventions against HIV-1. ..
- Hufnagel D, Depas W, Chapman M. The Biology of the Escherichia coli Extracellular Matrix. Microbiol Spectr. 2015;3: pubmed publisher..The pathways that govern E. coli biofilm formation, cellulose production, and curli biogenesis will be discussed in this article, which concludes with insights into the future of E. coli biofilm research and potential therapies. ..
- Schorey J, Harding C. Extracellular vesicles and infectious diseases: new complexity to an old story. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:1181-9 pubmed publisher..receptors to induce host defense and immunity, or that serve as regulators of host defense and mediators of immune evasion. These molecules may include proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates...
- Zhang Q, Ma J, Yoo D. Inhibition of NF-?B activity by the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus nonstructural protein 1 for innate immune evasion. Virology. 2017;510:111-126 pubmed publisher..Our study showed that PEDV inhibited NF-?B activity and nsp1 was a potent NF-?B antagonist for suppression of both IFN and early production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. ..
- Glasner A, Oiknine Djian E, Weisblum Y, Diab M, Panet A, Wolf D, et al. Zika Virus Escapes NK Cell Detection by Upregulating Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Molecules. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher..Countering MHC class I upregulation and boosting NK cell activity may be employed as prophylactic measures to combat Zika virus infection. ..
- He C, Zhou Y, Liu F, Liu H, Tan H, Jin S, et al. Bacterial Nucleotidyl Cyclase Inhibits the Host Innate Immune Response by Suppressing TAK1 Activation. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher..aeruginosa Taken together, our findings identify a previously unknown mechanism by which P. aeruginosa ExoY inhibits the host innate immune response. ..
- Rosen H. Emerging concepts in immunity to hepatitis C virus infection. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:4121-30 pubmed publisher..This Review covers what we currently understand of the temporal and spatial immunological changes within the human innate and adaptive host immune responses that ultimately determine the outcomes of HCV infection. ..
- Farré D, Martínez Vicente P, Engel P, Angulo A. Immunoglobulin superfamily members encoded by viruses and their multiple roles in immune evasion. Eur J Immunol. 2017;47:780-796 pubmed publisher..For large DNA viruses, these immune evasion mechanisms frequently rely on the expression of genes acquired from host genomes...
- Shin D, Lee J, Park J, Min J. Double Plant Homeodomain Fingers 2 (DPF2) Promotes the Immune Escape of Influenza Virus by Suppressing Beta Interferon Production. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher..Upon influenza virus infection, DPF2 dysregulated IFN-Î² induction and expression of cytokines/chemokines and antiviral proteins. This study provides evidence that influenza virus utilizes DPF2 to escape host innate immunity. ..
- Kamaladevi A, Balamurugan K. Role of PMK-1/p38 MAPK defense in Caenorhabditis elegans against Klebsiella pneumoniae infection during host-pathogen interaction. Pathog Dis. 2015;73: pubmed publisher..Conclusively, the surrendering of the host immune system appears to be attenuated by the toll-dependent p38 MAPK pathway regulation in C. elegans. ..
- Lu L, Li S, Wang Z, Du S, Chen D, Nie P, et al. Grass Carp Reovirus VP41 Targets Fish MITA To Abrogate the Interferon Response. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher..These findings reveal GCRV's strategy for evading the host IFN response for the first time. ..
- Seki S, Nomura T, Nishizawa M, Yamamoto H, Ishii H, Matsuoka S, et al. In vivo virulence of MHC-adapted AIDS virus serially-passaged through MHC-mismatched hosts. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006638 pubmed publisher..This study suggests that multiply-passaged HIVs could result in loss of HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in human populations and the in vivo pathogenic potential of these escaped viruses may be enhanced. ..
- Frey T, Lehmann M, Ryan C, Pizzorno M, Sutter G, Hersperger A. Ectromelia virus accumulates less double-stranded RNA compared to vaccinia virus in BS-C-1 cells. Virology. 2017;509:98-111 pubmed publisher..Historically, the study of transcription by orthopoxviruses has largely focused on VACV as a model. Our data suggest that there could be more to learn by studying other members of this genus. ..
- Hancz D, Westerlund E, Bastiat Sempe B, Sharma O, Valfridsson C, Meyer L, et al. Inhibition of Inflammasome-Dependent Interleukin 1Î² Production by Streptococcal NAD+-Glycohydrolase: Evidence for Extracellular Activity. MBio. 2017;8: pubmed publisher..This immune regulatory property of extracellular NADase adds another possible explanation to how increased secretion of NADase correlates with bacterial virulence. ..
- Khatiwada S, Delhon G, Nagendraprabhu P, Chaulagain S, Luo S, Diel D, et al. A parapoxviral virion protein inhibits NF-?B signaling early in infection. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006561 pubmed publisher..Notably, ORFV073 represents the first poxviral virion-associated NF-?B inhibitor described, highlighting the significance of viral inhibition of NF-?B signaling very early in infection. ..
- Rui Y, Su J, Wang H, Chang J, Wang S, Zheng W, et al. Disruption of MDA5-Mediated Innate Immune Responses by the 3C Proteins of Coxsackievirus A16, Coxsackievirus A6, and Enterovirus D68. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher..These findings indicate the potential merit of targeting the CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 3Cpro proteins as an antiviral strategy. ..
- Mukerji S, Misra V, Lorenz D, Cervantes Arslanian A, Lyons J, Chalkias S, et al. Temporal Patterns and Drug Resistance in CSF Viral Escape Among ART-Experienced HIV-1 Infected Adults. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;75:246-255 pubmed publisher..Classification based on preceding plasma HIV RNA levels provides a useful conceptual framework to identify causal factors and test therapeutics. ..
- Koyanagi N, Imai T, Shindo K, Sato A, Fujii W, Ichinohe T, et al. Herpes simplex virus-1 evasion of CD8+ T cell accumulation contributes to viral encephalitis. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:3784-3795 pubmed publisher..This previously uncharacterized strategy for HSV-1 evasion of CD8+ T cell accumulation in the CNS has important implications for understanding the pathogenesis and clinical treatment of HSV-1 encephalitis. ..
- Eto M. [New Treatment Options for Renal Cell Carcinoma - Efficacy and Safety of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2017;44:667-673 pubmed..Regarding safety, immune-related adverse events(irAEs)with a profile that may be different from those of conventional drugs, and in addition to fully understanding these features, we need to be familiar with how to manage irAEs. ..
- Meng L, Tong J, Wang H, Tao C, Wang Q, Niu C, et al. PPE38 Protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Inhibits Macrophage MHC Class I Expression and Dampens CD8+ T Cell Responses. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:68 pubmed publisher..Overall, this study shows a unique biological function of PPE38 protein to facilitate mycobacteria to escape host immunity, and provides hints for TB vaccine development. ..
- Kijak G, Sanders Buell E, Chenine A, Eller M, Goonetilleke N, Thomas R, et al. Rare HIV-1 transmitted/founder lineages identified by deep viral sequencing contribute to rapid shifts in dominant quasispecies during acute and early infection. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006510 pubmed publisher..Overall, our results demonstrate that early, deep, and frequent sampling is needed to investigate viral/host interaction during AHI, which could help identify prerequisites for prevention and cure of HIV-1 infection. ..
- Zou Z, Meng Z, Ma C, Liang D, Sun R, Lan K. Guanylate-Binding Protein 1 Inhibits Nuclear Delivery of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Virions by Disrupting Formation of Actin Filament. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher..In order to establish successful infection, KSHV has evolved numerous immune evasion strategies to bypass or hijack the host immune system...
- Wahlgren M, Goel S, Akhouri R. Variant surface antigens of Plasmodium falciparum and their roles in severe malaria. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2017;15:479-491 pubmed publisher..In this Review, we discuss the multigene families of surface variant polypeptides and highlight their roles in causing severe malaria. ..
- Zhang W, Chen S, Mahalingam S, Wang M, Cheng A. An updated review of avian-origin Tembusu virus: a newly emerging avian Flavivirus. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:2413-2420 pubmed publisher..This review describes the current understanding of the genome characteristics, host range, transmission, epidemiology, phylogenetic and immune evasion of avian-origin TMUV and the innate immune response of the host.
- Bolton D, McGinnis K, Finak G, Chattopadhyay P, Gottardo R, Roederer M. Combined single-cell quantitation of host and SIV genes and proteins ex vivo reveals host-pathogen interactions in individual cells. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006445 pubmed publisher..Thus, we demonstrate that combined quantitation of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation at the single-cell level informs in vivo mechanisms of viral replication and immune evasion.
- Qian S, Fan W, Liu T, Wu M, Zhang H, Cui X, et al. Seneca Valley Virus Suppresses Host Type I Interferon Production by Targeting Adaptor Proteins MAVS, TRIF, and TANK for Cleavage. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher..We also found that SVV is sensitive to IFN-Î². These findings increase our understanding of the interaction between SVV and host innate immunity. ..
- Cortés A, Sotillo J, Muñoz Antoli C, Molina Durán J, Esteban J, Toledo R. Antibody trapping: A novel mechanism of parasite immune evasion by the trematode Echinostoma caproni. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005773 pubmed publisher..This mechanism of immune evasion may aid to understand the limited effect that antibody responses have in helminth infections, and may ..
- Anthony C, York T, Bekker V, Matten D, Selhorst P, Ferreria R, et al. Cooperation between Strain-Specific and Broadly Neutralizing Responses Limited Viral Escape and Prolonged the Exposure of the Broadly Neutralizing Epitope. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher..Constrained bNAb escape, together with evidence of contemporaneous autologous virus neutralization, supports the proposal that prolonged exposure of the bNAb epitope enabled the maturation of the bNAb lineage. ..
- Aguirre S, Fernandez Sesma A. Collateral Damage during Dengue Virus Infection: Making Sense of DNA by cGAS. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher..In this review, we discuss how DENV modulates the innate immune DNA-sensing pathway, activated in the context of cellular damage during infection. ..
- Hwang S, Kim D, Jung J, Lee H. KSHV-encoded viral interferon regulatory factor 4 (vIRF4) interacts with IRF7 and inhibits interferon alpha production. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;486:700-705 pubmed publisher..Herein, we characterized novel immune evasion strategies of vIRF4 to inhibit the IRF7-mediated IFN-Î± production...
- Tijani M, Babalola O, Odaibo A, Anumudu C, Asinobi A, Morenikeji O, et al. Acquisition, maintenance and adaptation of invasion inhibitory antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum invasion ligands involved in immune evasion. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182187 pubmed publisher..This is an important finding in understanding natural immunity against malaria, which is essential for making an efficacious vaccine. ..
- Langley R, Ting Y, Clow F, Young P, Radcliff F, Choi J, et al. Staphylococcal enterotoxin-like X (SElX) is a unique superantigen with functional features of two major families of staphylococcal virulence factors. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006549 pubmed publisher..The former are immunomodulatory toxins that induce a V?-specific activation of T cells, while the latter are immune evasion molecules that interfere with a wide range of innate immune defences...
- Hooykaas M, van Gent M, Soppe J, Kruse E, Boer I, van Leenen D, et al. EBV MicroRNA BART16 Suppresses Type I IFN Signaling. J Immunol. 2017;198:4062-4073 pubmed publisher..By obstructing the type I IFN-induced antiviral response, miR-BART16 provides a means to facilitate the establishment of latent EBV infection and enhance viral replication. ..
- Go E, Ding H, Zhang S, Ringe R, Nicely N, Hua D, et al. Glycosylation Benchmark Profile for HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Production Based on Eleven Env Trimers. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher..The data presented here give vaccine developers a "glycosylation target" for their immunogens, and they show how protein production variables can impact Env glycosylation. ..
- Milillo M, Velásquez L, Trotta A, Delpino M, Marinho F, Balboa L, et al. B. abortus RNA is the component involved in the down-modulation of MHC-I expression on human monocytes via TLR8 and the EGFR pathway. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006527 pubmed publisher..Thus, bacteria can hide within infected cells and avoid the immunological surveillance of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. ..