passive cutaneous anaphylaxis


Summary: An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.

Top Publications

  1. Kanaoka Y, Maekawa A, Penrose J, Austen K, Lam B. Attenuated zymosan-induced peritoneal vascular permeability and IgE-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice lacking leukotriene C4 synthase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:22608-13 pubmed
    ..The zymosan-elicited intraperitoneal extravasation of plasma protein and the IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in the ear were significantly diminished in the LTC(4)S (-/-) mice...
  2. Inagaki N, Nagai H. Analysis of the mechanism for the development of allergic skin inflammation and the application for its treatment:mouse models for the development of remedies for human allergic dermatitis. J Pharmacol Sci. 2009;110:251-9 pubmed
    ..One of the simplest allergic cutaneous reaction models is passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Skin mast cells passively sensitized with antigen-specific IgE are activated upon antigen challenge ..
  3. Tatsumi T, Yamada T, Nagai H, Terasawa K, Tani T, Nunome S, et al. A Kampo formulation: Byakko-ka-ninjin-to (Bai-Hu-Jia-Ren-Sheng-Tang) inhibits IgE-mediated triphasic skin reaction in mice: the role of its constituents in expression of the efficacy. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001;24:284-90 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the effect of Byakko-ka-ninjin-to formulation on cutaneous inflammatory disease can differ from the sum of the effect of the individual constituents. ..
  4. Han S, Bae J, Park S, Kim Y, Park J, Kang Y. Resveratrol inhibits IgE-mediated basophilic mast cell degranulation and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. J Nutr. 2013;143:632-9 pubmed publisher investigated whether resveratrol suppressed immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergic responses and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rat RBL-2H3 mast cells and in BALB/c mice...
  5. Oh J, Choi W, Lee C, Park H. The ethyl acetate extract of Cordyceps militaris inhibits IgE-mediated allergic responses in mast cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;135:422-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-allergic potential of Cordyceps militaris was studied using passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in vivo...
  6. Pivniouk V, Martin T, Lu Kuo J, Katz H, Oettgen H, Geha R. SLP-76 deficiency impairs signaling via the high-affinity IgE receptor in mast cells. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:1737-43 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that SLP-76 plays an important role in FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling in mast cells. ..
  7. Han S, Bae E, Trinh H, Yang J, Youn U, Bae K, et al. Magnolol and honokiol: inhibitors against mouse passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction and scratching behaviors. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30:2201-3 pubmed
    ..Magnolol and honokiol potently inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions in mice induced by IgE-antigen complex as well as compound 48/80-induced scratching ..
  8. Zhu Y, Peng C, Xu J, Liu Y, Zhu Q, Liu J, et al. Participation of proteinase-activated receptor-2 in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis-induced scratching behavior and the inhibitory effect of tacrolimus. Biol Pharm Bull. 2009;32:1173-6 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we investigated the effects of several agents on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis-induced scratching behavior in ICR mice...
  9. Birmingham N, Payankaulam S, Thanesvorakul S, Stefura B, HayGlass K, Gangur V. An ELISA-based method for measurement of food-specific IgE antibody in mouse serum: an alternative to the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. J Immunol Methods. 2003;275:89-98 pubmed
    b>Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) assay has been a gold standard method to measure allergen-specific IgE antibody (ASIgE Ab) levels in allergy mouse models...

More Information


  1. Furuhashi Y, Imai S, Tezuka H, Fujita K. Recombinant Dirofilaria immitis-derived antigen can suppress passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2001;125:144-51 pubmed
    ..IgE levels were determined by ELISA. Homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reactions with anti-DNP-As IgE were examined 21 days after implantation...
  2. Zabel B, Nakae S, Zuniga L, Kim J, Ohyama T, Alt C, et al. Mast cell-expressed orphan receptor CCRL2 binds chemerin and is required for optimal induction of IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. J Exp Med. 2008;205:2207-20 pubmed publisher
    ..orphan serpentine receptor mCCRL2 is not required for expression of IgE-mediated mast cell-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis but can enhance the tissue swelling and leukocyte infiltrates associated with such reactions in mice...
  3. Kabu K, Yamasaki S, Kamimura D, Ito Y, Hasegawa A, Sato E, et al. Zinc is required for Fc epsilon RI-mediated mast cell activation. J Immunol. 2006;177:1296-305 pubmed
    ..These results revealed that Zn was involved in multiple steps of FcepsilonRI-induced MC activation and required for degranulation and cytokine production. ..
  4. Dombrowicz D, Flamand V, Brigman K, Koller B, Kinet J. Abolition of anaphylaxis by targeted disruption of the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor alpha chain gene. Cell. 1993;75:969-76 pubmed
    ..Therefore, interfering with its function should be an effective means of treating allergy, regardless of the allergen specificity. ..
  5. Takai T, Ono M, Hikida M, Ohmori H, Ravetch J. Augmented humoral and anaphylactic responses in Fc gamma RII-deficient mice. Nature. 1996;379:346-9 pubmed
    ..Exploiting this property offers new therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of allergic and autoimmune disorders. ..
  6. Bae E, Han M, Shin Y, Kim D. Inhibitory effects of Korean red ginseng and its genuine constituents ginsenosides Rg3, Rf, and Rh2 in mouse passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction and contact dermatitis models. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29:1862-7 pubmed Araliaceae) saponin fraction (KRGS) and its constituents ginsenosides Rg3, Rf, and Rh2 in mouse passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and contact dermatitis models were measured...
  7. Makino T, Furuta A, Fujii H, Nakagawa T, Wakushima H, Saito K, et al. Effect of oral treatment of Perilla frutescens and its constituents on type-I allergy in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001;24:1206-9 pubmed
    ..effect of orally administered perilla decoction and to identify the active constituents using mice ear-passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA)-reaction, which is one of the animal models for type I allergy...
  8. Yasuda M, Hasunuma Y, Adachi H, Sekine C, Sakanishi T, Hashimoto H, et al. Expression and function of fibronectin binding integrins on rat mast cells. Int Immunol. 1995;7:251-8 pubmed
    ..In vivo, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis induced by IgE anti-DNP and DNP-BSA was inhibited by concurrent s.c...
  9. Trinh H, Chae S, Joh E, Son K, Jeon S, Kim D. Tanshinones isolated from the rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza inhibit passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;132:344-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SM, family Labiatae), which contains tanshinones as main constituents, has been used as a cardiovascular and anti-inflammatory agent in Chinese medicine...
  10. Braga F, Mota I. Homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in mice and heterologous PCA induced in rats with mouse IgE. Immunology. 1976;30:655-69 pubmed
    ..This fact seems to indicate that the physiological mechanism operating in mouse mast cells are different from those operating in rat mast cells...
  11. Wen R, Jou S, Chen Y, Hoffmeyer A, Wang D. Phospholipase C gamma 2 is essential for specific functions of Fc epsilon R and Fc gamma R. J Immunol. 2002;169:6743-52 pubmed
    ..Moreover, PLCgamma2 plays a nonredundant role in Fc(gamma)R-mediated inflammatory skin reaction. ..
  12. Park S, Park E, Kim D. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis-inhibitory activity of flavanones from Citrus unshiu and Poncirus trifoliata. Planta Med. 2005;71:24-7 pubmed
    This study examined the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis-inhibitory activity of the flavanones isolated from the pericarp of Citrus unshiu (Family Rutaceae) and the fruit of Poncirus trifoliata (Family Rutaceae)...
  13. Hata D, Kawakami Y, Inagaki N, Lantz C, Kitamura T, Khan W, et al. Involvement of Bruton's tyrosine kinase in FcepsilonRI-dependent mast cell degranulation and cytokine production. J Exp Med. 1998;187:1235-47 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate an important role for Btk in the full expression of FcepsilonRI signal transduction in mast cells. ..
  14. Leung P, Lee Y, Tang C, Kung W, Chuang Y, Chiang B, et al. Induction of shrimp tropomyosin-specific hypersensitivity in mice. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008;147:305-14 pubmed publisher
    ..A passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay was also conducted...
  15. Lee B, Trung Trinh H, Bae E, Jung K, Kim D. Mangiferin inhibits passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction and pruritus in mice. Planta Med. 2009;75:1415-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Orally and intraperitoneally administered mangiferin potently inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction induced by IgE-antigen complex as well as pruritus induced by compound 48/80 in mice...
  16. Lee B, Trinh H, Jung K, Han S, Kim D. Inhibitory effects of steroidal timosaponins isolated from the rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides against passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction and pruritus. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2010;32:357-63 pubmed publisher
    ..the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides (AA, family Liliaceae), which was found to inhibit the mouse passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction induced by the antigen-immunoglobulin E (IgE) complex in preliminary experiments, main ..
  17. Dai Y, Niu Y, Cheng J, Leng S, Zheng Y. [Immunological mechanism in development of allergic dermatitis in guinea pig induced by trichloroethylene in vitro]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2005;23:129-31 pubmed
    ..The metabolites of TCE may act as effective immune hapten to stimulate the proliferation of hapten-specific lymphocytes in TCE-sensitized animals. ..
  18. Jeong H, Jung S, Kim K, Lim J, Park E, Hwang W, et al. Effect of allergina on mast cell-mediated allergic reactions. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2001;23:627-37 pubmed
    ..ALLERGINA (1 g/kg) also inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis by 84%. ALLERGINA dose-dependently inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells...
  19. Porszasz J, Varga F, Porszász K, Szolscányi J, Bartho L, Petöcz L, et al. Pharmacology of the new H1-receptor antagonist setastine hydrochloride. Arzneimittelforschung. 1990;40:1340-5 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that setastine HCl is a non-sedative highly active H1-antagonist. ..
  20. Yoon S, Je I, Cui X, Park H, Khang D, Park J, et al. Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Pogostemon cablin. Int J Mol Med. 2016;37:217-24 pubmed publisher
  21. Yamaguchi T, Tashiro K, Tanaka S, Katayama S, Ishida W, Fukuda K, et al. Two-step differentiation of mast cells from induced pluripotent stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. 2013;22:726-34 pubmed publisher
    ..iPSMCs can be used as an in vitro model of CTMCs to investigate their functions. ..
  22. Maciel M, Fusaro A, Oliveira C, Futata E, Duarte A, Sato M. IgA response in serum and gut secretion in sensitized mice fed with the dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2004;37:817-26 pubmed
  23. Ohmori K, Ishii H, Manabe H, Satoh H, Tamura T, Kase H. Antiinflammatory and antiallergic effects of a novel metabolite of Nocardiopsis sp. as a potent protein kinase C inhibitor from microbial origin. Arzneimittelforschung. 1988;38:809-14 pubmed
    ..administration of K-252a, ketotifen or oxatomide showed a dose-dependent inhibition on 48 h homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats and anaphylactic bronchoconstriction in passively sensitized guinea pigs. 2...
  24. Sawaguchi M, Tanaka S, Nakatani Y, Harada Y, Mukai K, Matsunaga Y, et al. Role of mast cells and basophils in IgE responses and in allergic airway hyperresponsiveness. J Immunol. 2012;188:1809-18 pubmed publisher
    ..DT-treated Mas-TRECK mice had impaired passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, IgE-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis, and IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation, whereas DT-..
  25. Kim H, Lee E, Lee J, Jung J, Kim J. Salviae radix root extract inhibits immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reaction. Gen Pharmacol. 1999;32:603-8 pubmed
    ..SRRAE inhibited by 72.7% passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) immunoglobulin E (IgE)...
  26. Hong M, Lee J, Jung H, Jin D, Go H, Kim J, et al. Sophora flavescens Aiton inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through inhibition of the NF kappaB/IkappaB signal pathway in human mast cell line (HMC-1). Toxicol In Vitro. 2009;23:251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..SFA (200mg/kg) inhibited the mast cell-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in vivo and the release of histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells by compound 48/80...
  27. Hazenbos W, Gessner J, Hofhuis F, Kuipers H, Meyer D, Heijnen I, et al. Impaired IgG-dependent anaphylaxis and Arthus reaction in Fc gamma RIII (CD16) deficient mice. Immunity. 1996;5:181-8 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, these mice lack IgG-mediated mast cell degranulation, are resistant to IgG-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, and exhibit an impaired Arthus reaction...
  28. Lee J, Kim J, Ko N, Mun S, Kim D, Kim J, et al. Mast cell-mediated allergic response is suppressed by Sophorae flos: inhibition of SRC-family kinase. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008;233:1271-9 pubmed publisher
    ..flos also suppressed the expression and secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-4 in the cells and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in mice. Sophorae flos inhibited the activating phosphorylation of Syk and LAT in mast cells...
  29. Jarrett E, Stewart D. Rat IgE production. I. Effect of dose of antigen on primary and secondary reaginic antibody responses. Immunology. 1974;27:365-81 pubmed
  30. Thomas W, Watkins M, Jouhal S, Asherson G. Induction and modification of anti-TNP reaginic and IgG antibody responses by reactive trinitrophenyl derivatives. Immunology. 1978;35:673-82 pubmed
    ..Both the IgE and IgG responses to picryl chloride are initiated in the lymph nodes and then develop in the spleen. IgE and IgG antibody production are both T-cell dependent but not influenced by adult thymectomy. ..
  31. Jin G, Hong H, Jin G, Li Y, Li G, Yan G. [Anthocyanidin inhibits immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response in mast cells]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2012;47:34-8 pubmed
    ..The experiments of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction (PCA) and colorimetry were used to determine the effect of anthocyanidin on degranulation of ..
  32. Nishida K, Hasegawa A, Nakae S, Oboki K, Saito H, Yamasaki S, et al. Zinc transporter Znt5/Slc30a5 is required for the mast cell-mediated delayed-type allergic reaction but not the immediate-type reaction. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1351-64 pubmed publisher hypersensitivity and mast cell-mediated delayed-type allergic response but not for immediate passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. In mast cells from Znt5(-/-) mice, Fc epsilon receptor I (Fc epsilonRI)-induced cytokine production ..
  33. Henderson D, Moran D, Wheeler A. Differential suppressive influence of intranasal application of rye grass pollen extract on IgE antibody production in the mouse. Clin Exp Immunol. 1985;59:343-50 pubmed
    ..Thus in mice antigen administered intranasally can influence the immune response in a qualitatively different manner to parenteral exposure. ..
  34. Byrne A, Barlow J, Walsh J. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of the individual stereoisomers of 3-[methyl(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthalenyl)amino]-1-indanone, a potent mast cell stabilising agent. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011;21:1191-4 pubmed publisher
    ..release induced by different degranulating agents from rodent mast cells and also in vivo against passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. The manner in which the stereoisomers prevented direct membrane activation was found to be highly ..
  35. Choi I, Moon P, Koo H, Myung N, Kim S, Lee J, et al. Observations of Forsythia koreana methanol extract on mast cell-mediated allergic reactions in experimental models. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2007;43:215-21 pubmed
    ..systemic anaphylaxis, ear swelling, and anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA)...
  36. Kim H, An N, Yi B, Chae H, Kim H, Moon S, et al. Inhibitory effect of mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions by sulfapyridine. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2000;22:253-66 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that sulfapyridine inhibits mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions in vivo and in vitro. ..
  37. Lasser E. The multipotential pseudoantigenicity of X-ray contrast media. Pseudoantigen excess may downregulate the release of hypotensive mediators. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2000;123:282-90 pubmed
    ..Two strains of rats were subjected to (a) passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) studies in the presence of various concentrations of CM, (b) blood pressure (BP) tracings ..
  38. Yuan M, Li J, Lv J, Mo X, Yang C, Chen X, et al. Polydatin (PD) inhibits IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice by stabilizing mast cells through modulating Ca²? mobilization. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;264:462-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In a mouse model of mast cell-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), in vivo PD administration suppressed mast cell degranulation and inhibited anaphylaxis...
  39. Chai O, Shon D, Han E, Kim H, Song C. Effects of Anemarrhena asphodeloides on IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis and mast cell activation. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2013;65:419-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In Korea, where it has been used as a traditional medicine, AAWE is known to have antioxidant and anticancer activity. However, its specific effect on mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions is still unknown...
  40. Nam S, Park Y, Kim H, Kim H, Lee D, Lee M, et al. Suppression of IgE-mediated mast cell activation and mouse anaphylaxis via inhibition of Syk activation by 8-formyl-7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, 4?8C. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;332:25-31 pubmed publisher
    ..4?8C also suppressed passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in mice (ED50=25.1mg/kg)...
  41. Thylur R, Kim Y, Kwon M, Oh H, Kwon H, Kim S, et al. Swiprosin-1 is expressed in mast cells and up-regulated through the protein kinase C beta I/eta pathway. J Cell Biochem. 2009;108:705-15 pubmed publisher
    ..and up-regulated in both in vitro cultured mast cells by phorbol ester and in vivo model tissues of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and atopic dermatitis...
  42. Herouet Guicheney C, Aldemir H, Bars R, de Barbeyrac D, Kennel P, Rouquie D, et al. Inter-laboratory comparisons of assessment of the allergenic potential of proteins in mice. J Appl Toxicol. 2009;29:141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The approach used a homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) assay that reflects IgE-dependent biological activity and is of sufficient sensitivity to detect ..
  43. Youssouf M, Kaiser P, Tahir M, Singh G, Singh S, Sharma V, et al. Anti-anaphylactic effect of Euphorbia hirta. Fitoterapia. 2007;78:535-9 pubmed
    ..At the same range of dose, EH-A001 inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rat and active paw anaphylaxis in mice...
  44. Shin Y, Bae E, Cai X, Lee J, Kim D. In vitro and in vivo antiallergic effect of the fructus of Evodia rutaecarpa and its constituents. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30:197-9 pubmed
    ..main constituents, evodiamine and rutaecarpine, and evaluated in vivo their inhibitory effects against passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction induced by IgE-antigen complex and scratching behaviors by compound 48/80...
  45. Kayasuga R, Sugimoto Y, Watanabe T, Kamei C. Participation of chemical mediators other than histamine in nasal allergy signs: a study using mice lacking histamine H(1) receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002;449:287-91 pubmed
  46. Sato M, Carvalho A, Silva A, Maciel M, Fusaro A, Duarte A. Oral tolerance induced to house dust mite extract in naive and sensitized mice: evaluation of immunoglobulin G anti-immunoglobulin E autoantibodies and IgG-IgE complexes. Immunology. 1998;95:193-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, we suggest that anti-IgE autoantibodies participate in the modulation of allergic response triggered by oral tolerance protocols. ..
  47. Shah M, Miyamoto Y, Yamada Y, Yamashita H, Tanaka H, Ezaki T, et al. Orally supplemented Lactobacillus acidophilus strain L-92 inhibits passive and active cutaneous anaphylaxis as well as 2,4-dinitroflurobenzene and mite fecal antigen induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice. Microbiol Immunol. 2010;54:523-33 pubmed publisher
    ..ICR mice were passively sensitized by anti-dinitrophenyl mouse monoclonal IgE for passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), and BALB/c mice were actively sensitized by ovalbumin for active cutaneous anaphylaxis (ACA)...
  48. Almqvist N, Lönnqvist A, Hultkrantz S, Rask C, Telemo E. Serum-derived exosomes from antigen-fed mice prevent allergic sensitization in a model of allergic asthma. Immunology. 2008;125:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that serum or isolated serum exosomes obtained from OVA-fed mice and administered intraperitoneally to naive recipient mice abrogated allergic sensitization in the recipients. ..
  49. Jeong H, Lee S, Moon P, Na H, Park R, Um J, et al. Alginic acid has anti-anaphylactic effects and inhibits inflammatory cytokine expression via suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Clin Exp Allergy. 2006;36:785-94 pubmed
    ..25-1 g/kg 1 h (P<0.01, n=6) and significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis by 54.8%. Alginic acid (0...
  50. Matsuda H, Tomohiro N, Hiraba K, Harima S, Ko S, Matsuo K, et al. Study on anti-Oketsu activity of rhubarb II. Anti-allergic effects of stilbene components from Rhei undulati Rhizoma (dried rhizome of Rheum undulatum cultivated in Korea). Biol Pharm Bull. 2001;24:264-7 pubmed
    ..RM-ext exhibited the inhibition on 48-h homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rats and an antigen-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells...
  51. Yilmaz H, Roe J, Morgan K. Isolation and preparation of antisera to ovine IgE. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1993;101:369-75 pubmed
    ..The presence of this protein in reaginic sheep serum, the molecular weight of its heavy chain, its heat lability and long-term skin-sensitizing ability are characteristic of IgE. ..
  52. Taira M, Kohno S, Yamamura H, Ohata K. Lack of involvement of leukotriene and platelet activating factor in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats. Agents Actions. 1988;24:189-95 pubmed
    Possible chemical mediators contributing to 48 hour passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rats were investigated...
  53. Hashimoto T, Kohno S, Ohata K, Yanagihara Y, Shida T. Effect of butyl 3-(1H-tetrazol-5-Yl) oxanilate (MTB) on immunological or non-immunological histamine and SRS(-A) release from guinea-pig, monkey and human lung tissue. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1987;44:447-53 pubmed
    ..From these results, MTB was a potent inhibitor of the anaphylactic release of the mediators, particularly SRS-A. It was suggested that the inhibitory mechanism of MTB is different from those of DSCG and N-5'. ..