sperm agglutination


Summary: Agglutination of spermatozoa by antibodies or autoantibodies.

Top Publications

  1. Yakirevich E, Naot Y. Cloning of a glucose phosphate isomerase/neuroleukin-like sperm antigen involved in sperm agglutination. Biol Reprod. 2000;62:1016-23 pubmed
    The mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) A36 produced by us and shown to induce extensive, "tangled" sperm agglutination was used to isolate cDNAs encoding its cognate antigen...
  2. Diekman A, Westbrook Case V, Naaby Hansen S, Klotz K, Flickinger C, Herr J. Biochemical characterization of sperm agglutination antigen-1, a human sperm surface antigen implicated in gamete interactions. Biol Reprod. 1997;57:1136-44 pubmed
    ..These results implicated the cognate S19 antigen, designated sperm agglutination antigen-1 (SAGA-1), in gamete interactions and identified SAGA-1 as an attractive candidate for ..
  3. Monga M, Roberts J. Spermagglutination by bacteria: receptor-specific interactions. J Androl. 1994;15:151-6 pubmed
    ..Understanding bacteria-spermatozoa interactions at the receptor-ligand level holds potential for treatment of infertility and development of spermagglutinating contraceptives. ..
  4. Vanage G, Gopalkrishnan K, Sheth A. Effect of antibodies to human seminal plasma inhibin on spermatogenesis and sperm agglutination in adult male rats. Mol Reprod Dev. 1990;25:227-36 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the majority (almost 90%) of the epididymal sperm were agglutinated. When these animals were mated with normal cycling females, significant reduction in fertility was observed. ..
  5. Kawakami E, Koga H, Hori T, Tsutsui T. Sperm granuloma and sperm agglutination in a dog with asthenozoospermia. J Vet Med Sci. 2003;65:409-12 pubmed
    ..Many lymphocytes were seen in the stroma around the sperm granuloma. Anti-sperm antibodies are presumed to be present in the semen and serum of the asthenozoospermic dog. ..
  6. Kaur S, Prabha V, Sarwal A. Receptor mediated agglutination of human spermatozoa by spermagglutinating factor isolated from Staphylococcus aureus. J Urol. 2010;184:2586-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that spermagglutinating factor isolated from S. aureus may bind specifically to sperm surface receptor sites before causing spermagglutination. ..
  7. Mettler L, Skrabei H. Isolation of a human spermatozoal hapten "II2.2' and its reaction with naturally occurring human sperm-immobilizing sera from infertile patients. J Reprod Immunol. 1979;1:173-83 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the hapten might easily be synthesized and could, after conjugation to an appropriate carrier, serve as a contraceptive vaccine. ..
  8. Sigman M. Laboratory testing in the evaluation of male infertility. A rational approach. World J Urol. 1993;11:96-101 pubmed
    ..Through the appropriate use of these and other tests, the urologist will be capable of better and more accurately counseling the infertile couple. ..
  9. Harayama H, Miyake M, Kato S. Immunolocalization of anti-agglutinin for spermatozoa in boars. Mol Reprod Dev. 1999;52:269-76 pubmed

More Information


  1. Feng H, Sandlow J, Zheng L. C-kit receptor and its possible function in human spermatozoa. Mol Reprod Dev. 2005;70:103-10 pubmed
    ..Antibody against the c-kit receptor significantly inhibited the acrosome reaction and increased sperm agglutination, but did not significantly inhibit sperm motility...
  2. Ulcova Gallova Z, Mraz L, Plánicková E, Macků F, Ulc I. Local hydrocortisone treatment of sperm-agglutinating antibodies in infertile women. Int J Fertil. 1988;33:421-5 pubmed
    ..No side effects of treatment were observed. Hydrocortisone for local immunosuppression may become a new method of therapy in cervical immunological infertility. ..
  3. Shaha C, Sheshadri T, Talwar G, Suri A. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody against a 24KD antigen from rat testis important for fertility regulation. Hybridoma. 1989;8:647-60 pubmed
    ..On Western blots from two dimensional gels, HS-D5 identified multiple spots at the region of 24KD. The mechanism of action of the antibody seemed to be at the level of interaction of the oocyte and spermatozoa. ..
  4. Wang Y, Zhang N, Zhang X, Miao S, Zong S, Koide S, et al. Experimental immunological infertility effect of anti-GAPDH-2 antibodies on the fertility of female mice. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:2020-7 pubmed publisher
    ..immunoabsorbent assay, Western blot and indirect immunostaining assays, standard fertility assay, and sperm agglutination assay. Antibodies against the full-length GAPDH-2 were raised...
  5. Audibert F, Hedon B, Arnal F, Humeau C, Badoc E, Virenque V, et al. Results of IVF attempts in patients with unexplained infertility. Hum Reprod. 1989;4:766-71 pubmed
    ..This rate of failed fertilization was significantly lower (9%) in tubal patients. The oestrogen response profiles were similar in both groups, analyzed according to the stimulation protocols.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  6. Check J, Bollendorf A. Effect of antisperm antibodies on postcoital results and effect of intrauterine insemination on pregnancy outcome. Arch Androl. 1992;28:25-31 pubmed
  7. Fusi F, Bronson R, Hong Y, Ghebrehiwet B. Complement component C1q and its receptor are involved in the interaction of human sperm with zona-free hamster eggs. Mol Reprod Dev. 1991;29:180-8 pubmed
    ..07. The addition of C1q to the medium resulted in sperm agglutination, which varied between sperm donors...
  8. Banerjee S, Dungdung S, Das K, Majumder G. Synchronous modulation of cell surface lectin and its receptor in a homologous cell population: a novel mechanism of cellular regulation. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:2299-308 pubmed
  9. Castle P, Whaley K, Hoen T, Moench T, Cone R. Contraceptive effect of sperm-agglutinating monoclonal antibodies in rabbits. Biol Reprod. 1997;56:153-9 pubmed
    ..The contraceptive efficacy of the MARS mAbs in the rabbit suggests that human sperm-agglutinating mAbs may be effective agents for vaginal contraception in humans. ..
  10. Archibong A, Lee C, Wolf D. Functional characterization of the primate sperm acrosomal antigen (PSA-63). J Androl. 1995;16:318-26 pubmed
    ..4 +/- 2) compared with matched hemizona controls (monkey, 117 +/- 29; human, 20.4 +/- 3). Furthermore, rhesus monkey sperm-zona binding was reduced by 84% in the presence of rabbit anti-GST-63 antibodies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  11. Jin Y, Bannai S, Dacheux F, Dacheux J, Okamura N. Direct evidence for the secretion of lactoferrin and its binding to sperm in the porcine epididymis. Mol Reprod Dev. 1997;47:490-6 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest new physiological functions of lactoferrin on the sperm maturation in the epididymis. ..
  12. Lähteenmäki A. In-vitro fertilization in the presence of antisperm antibodies detected by the mixed antiglobulin reaction (MAR) and the tray agglutination test (TAT). Hum Reprod. 1993;8:84-8 pubmed
    ..In assisted reproduction the sperm preparation techniques may reduce the inhibiting effects of antibodies bound to the spermatozoa, and when there are several oocytes to be inseminated, the chance of fertilization rises. ..
  13. Harayama H, Miyake M, Shidara O, Iwamoto E, Kato S. Effects of calcium and bicarbonate on head-to-head agglutination in ejaculated boar spermatozoa. Reprod Fertil Dev. 1998;10:445-50 pubmed
    ..The possible relationship between agglutinability and the fertilizing ability of boar spermatozoa is also discussed. ..
  14. Pattinson H, Mortimer D, Curtis E, Leader A, Taylor P. Treatment of spermagglutination with proteolytic enzymes. I. Sperm motility, vitality, longevity and successful disagglutination. Hum Reprod. 1990;5:167-73 pubmed
    ..Although further investigation is required, enzymatic disagglutination may be beneficial for the treatment of immunologically mediated spermagglutination. ..
  15. Ulcova Gallova Z, Mraz L, Plánicková E, Macků F, Ulc I. Three years experience with local hydrocortisone treatment in women with immunological cause of infertility. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1990;112:867-72; discussion 872-3 pubmed
    ..During the local hydrocortisone immunosuppression no side effects were registered. Hydrocortisone treatment seems to be a very perspective method in regulation of cervical immunological cause of infertility...
  16. Ulcova Gallova Z, Kotál L, Macků F, Zavazal V. [Sperm agglutination antibodies studied in infertile couples at the Women's Clinic in Plzen 1980-1988]. Cesk Gynekol. 1990;55:327-32 pubmed
    ..Using the microagglutination test, they examined sera of 3501 sterile women; in 273 (6.8%) they found sperm agglutination up to 1:16, above titre 1:32 in 12 (0.4%) of the patients...
  17. Shibahara H, Koriyama J. Methods for direct and indirect antisperm antibody testing. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;927:51-60 pubmed
    ..In males, an immunobead test or a mixed antiglobulin reaction test, which detects ASA directly on the sperm surface, is a screening test because of the nonspecific reaction. ..
  18. Agarwal A. Treatment of immunological infertility by sperm washing and intrauterine insemination. Arch Androl. 1992;29:207-13 pubmed
    ..The high level of antibody attachment seen in our study appears to represent true immunological infertility and therefore is more likely to respond to therapy that reduces antibody attachment and bypasses cervical mucus. ..
  19. Fusi F, Bernocchi N, Ferrari A, Bronson R. Is vitronectin the velcro that binds the gametes together?. Mol Hum Reprod. 1996;2:859-66 pubmed
    ..2 nM to 1 microM, but only in the presence of calcium ions. We propose that vitronectin released during the sperm acrosome reaction is recognized by both gametes and plays a role in their adhesion. ..
  20. Vanage G, Mehta P, Moodbidri S, Iyer K. Effect of immunization with synthetic peptide corresponding to region 1-17 of human seminal plasma inhibin on fertility of male rats. Arch Androl. 2000;44:11-21 pubmed
    ..The histology of the testes and other reproductive organs revealed that these organs remained unaltered. The N-terminal 1-17 amino acid peptide of hSPI may hold promise as an immunogen for male immunocontraception. ..
  21. Purvis K, Egdetveit I. Use of particle filters for increased practicability in sperm processing: application to the indirect immunobead test. Fertil Steril. 1993;59:1135-7 pubmed
    ..The same filters have a variety of applications and can be used whenever sperm have to be washed or incubated before biochemical tests including acrosome binding studies and flow cytometry. ..
  22. Funahashi H, Day B. Effects of follicular fluid at fertilization in vitro on sperm penetration in pig oocytes. J Reprod Fertil. 1993;99:97-103 pubmed
    ..1 +/- 4.9% to 7.2 +/- 1.3 and 15.7 +/- 15.4%, respectively). At the end of prefertilization incubation, sperm agglutination was observed and the degree depended on PFF concentration...
  23. Kunathikom S, Worasatit C, Toongsuwan S. Relationship between the direct mixed antiglobulin reaction (MAR) test and spontaneous sperm agglutination in men from infertile couples. J Med Assoc Thai. 1995;78:89-93 pubmed
    To determine the relationship between the direct MAR test and spontaneous sperm agglutination in men from infertile couples, semen samples from 160 men were studied...
  24. Francavilla F, Santucci R, Romano R, Francavilla S, Casasanta L, Properzi G. A direct immunofluorescence test for the detection of sperm surface bound antibodies. Comparison with sperm agglutination test, indirect IF test and MAR test. Andrologia. 1988;20:477-83 pubmed
    ..3%. IgA were always found in association with sustained SA activity in seminal plasma. In these cases the IgG-MAR test might not result strongly positive, in spite of the high titre of SA activity in semen. ..
  25. Ikadai H, Fujita H, Ajisawa C, Imamichi T. Sperm retention cysts in the efferent duct and testicular atrophy of TE inbred rats. J Reprod Fertil. 1987;81:635-41 pubmed
    ..In 3 out of 5 normal rats united by parabiosis with TE males for 25-27 days, cysts occurred in the efferent duct. ..
  26. Björndahl L, Kvist U. Sequence of ejaculation affects the spermatozoon as a carrier and its message. Reprod Biomed Online. 2003;7:440-8 pubmed
    ..Possible future implications of these unphysiological conditions are discussed in relation to assisted reproduction and sperm research. ..
  27. Fu J, Wang Y, Fok K, Yang D, Qiu Y, Chan H, et al. Anti-ACTL7a antibodies: a cause of infertility. Fertil Steril. 2012;97:1226-33.e1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the active immunization of mice with ACTL7a resulted in significant reductions in fertility. ..
  28. Husáková P, Ulcova Gallova Z, Bibkova K, Micanova Z. [Local sperm antibodies and general levels of immunoglobulins in ovulatory cervical mucus]. Ceska Gynekol. 2010;75:334-7 pubmed
    ..No local sperm antibodies were determined with 3 patients. We proved the hypothesis, that the levels of spermagglutinating antibodies do not correlate with findings of total sIgA and IgG in OCM with our patients. ..
  29. Maroto Martin L, Muñoz E, De Cupere F, Van Driessche E, Echemendia Blanco D, Rodríguez J, et al. Bacterial contamination of boar semen affects the litter size. Anim Reprod Sci. 2010;120:95-104 pubmed publisher
    ..coli and sperm agglutination, and a negative correlation between sperm agglutination and litter size...
  30. Hassoun S, Drouet M, Le Sellin J, Bonneau J, Sabbah A. [Immunological causes of male infertility]. Allerg Immunol (Paris). 1991;23:121-5 pubmed
    ..This is before the existence of: Spontaneous agglutination in ejaculation, Oligospermatosis, Indeterminate cause sterility, Immobilisation of the spermatozoa in the cervical secretion, Failure of repetition. ..
  31. Meinertz H. Indirect mixed antiglobulin reaction (MAR) as a screening procedure for antisperm antibodies. I. Methodological studies. Am J Reprod Immunol Microbiol. 1987;14:129-34 pubmed
    ..These experiments led to a standardization of the indirect MAR, making it sensitive, easy to read, and allowing the reactions for IgG and IgA to be compared on an approximately equimolecular basis. ..
  32. Harayama H, Kato S, Hammerstedt R. Electrophoretic characterization of boar epididymal antiagglutinin. Biol Reprod. 1996;55:325-32 pubmed
  33. Hershlag A, Paine T, Scholl G, Rosenfeld D, Mandel F, Zhu J, et al. Acrobeads test as a predictor of fertilization in vitro. Am J Reprod Immunol. 1997;37:291-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the routine use of this test to screen patients prior to an IVF cycle in order to select appropriate treatment (i.e., ICSI) cannot be recommended. ..
  34. Wang Y, Ben K, Cao X. [The characteristics of monoclonal antibodies and their antigens associated with human sperm acrosome reaction. II. Effects of the monoclonal antibodies on sperm function, sperm antigen localization and immunoblotting]. Shi Yan Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 1993;26:79-87 pubmed
    By using microassay, the strong human sperm agglutination were caused by 9 of 23 monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) obtained by immunization with fresh human acrosome-reacted (AR) sperm, which was induced by ionophore A 23187, but no one of ..
  35. Serrano H, Garcia Suarez M. Sperm aggregation by water extracts from two Bursera species. Arch Androl. 2001;46:15-20 pubmed
    ..The most frequent sperm agglutination response was that involving the heads...
  36. Shaha C, Suri A, Talwar G. Induction of infertility in female rats after active immunization with 24 kD antigens from rat testes. Int J Androl. 1990;13:17-25 pubmed
    ..Both groups of animals showed significant antibody titres as detected by indirect immunofluorescence and by sperm agglutination tests. In both groups over 80% of the animals remained infertile, compared to 13% of the controls...
  37. Riedel H, Wellnitz K, Steinberg R, Mettler L. [Modification of the penetration rate of human spermatozoa in the zona pellucida free hamster oocyte system by the use of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to human sperm]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1989;111:1425-37 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the agglutination or immobilization of spermatozoa may not be held responsible for the reduced penetration rates after addition of monoclonal antibodies, as opposed to the findings with polyclonal antibodies. ..
  38. Chen Y, Zhang D, Xin N, Xiong Y, Chen P, Li B, et al. Construction of sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase DNA vaccine and experimental study of its immunocontraceptive effect on mice. Sci China C Life Sci. 2008;51:308-16 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sperm agglutination analysis indicated that both the antisera from immunized mice and the reproductive tract secretions of ..
  39. Lwaleed B, Goyal A, Delves G, Gossai S, Greenfield R, Cooper A. Seminal factor VII and factor VIIa: supporting evidence for the presence of an active tissue factor-dependent coagulation pathway in human semen. Int J Androl. 2007;30:543-9 pubmed
    ..This finding reinforces the concept of an active clotting system in human semen, by establishing the missing link in the activation of a TF-dependent pathway. ..
  40. Veeramachaneni D, Moeller C, Sawyer H. Sperm morphology in stallions: ultrastructure as a functional and diagnostic tool. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2006;22:683-92 pubmed
    ..Compared with a battery of sperm function assays used in human andrology clinics, this relatively less expensive and simple technique is an efficient functional and diagnostic tool. ..
  41. Sun Z, Bao Y. TCM treatment of male immune infertility--a report of 100 cases. J Tradit Chin Med. 2006;26:36-8 pubmed
    ..01). 3) The sperm agglutination rate in the two groups decreased, but more significantly in the treatment group after treatment...
  42. Harper M, Woodard D, Norris C. Spermicidal effect of antagonists of platelet-activating factor. Fertil Steril. 1989;51:890-5 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that these compounds act by an action on the sperm membrane rather than by direct PAF antagonism on spermatozoa. ..
  43. Kaur S, Prabha V. Receptor mediated amelioration of the detrimental effects of sperm agglutinating factor on sperm parameters. Andrology. 2013;1:624-31 pubmed publisher
  44. Chinh T, Phi P, Thuy N. Sperm auto - antibodies and anti-nuclear antigen antibodies in chronic dioxin - exposed veterans. Chemosphere. 1996;32:525-30 pubmed
    ..The site of antibody binding on spermatozoon is predominantly head - head, rarely head - neck or tail - tail. ..
  45. Kaur K, Prabha V. Impairment by sperm agglutinating factor isolated from Escherichia coli: receptor specific interactions. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:548497 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, factor responsible for sperm agglutination (SAF) was isolated and purified, and, using SAF as a tool, corresponding SAF binding receptor from human ..
  46. Curtis G, Kahl V, Ryan W. Serum sperm agglutinating antibody formation in vasectomized men treated with dexamethasone. Andrologia. 1987;19:597-601 pubmed
    ..This species difference in sperm antigen presentation following vasectomy in man compared to monkeys may affect subsequent atherosclerosis development and explain why no cardiovascular disease is found in man following vasectomy. ..
  47. Harayama H, Miyake M, Kato S. Role of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and serum albumin in head-to-head agglutination of boar spermatozoa. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2000;12:307-18 pubmed
    ..study was to investigate the effects of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and serum albumin on sperm agglutination and to discuss a possible mechanism for sperm agglutination...
  48. Menge A, Beitner O. Interrelationships among semen characteristics, antisperm antibodies, and cervical mucus penetration assays in infertile human couples. Fertil Steril. 1989;51:486-92 pubmed
    ..In women, cervical mucus penetration was adversely affected by the presence in the serum of sperm agglutinating antibodies and of immobilizing activity in the cervical mucus. ..
  49. Leahy T, Rickard J, Aitken R, De Graaf S. D-penicillamine prevents ram sperm agglutination by reducing the disulphide bonds of a copper-binding sperm protein. Reproduction. 2016;151:491-500 pubmed publisher
    ..and disassociation of ram spermatozoa, we investigated the mechanism of action of PEN in perturbing sperm agglutination. PEN acts as a chelator of heavy metals, an antioxidant and a reducing agent...
  50. Gruberova J, Biková S, Ulcova Gallova Z, Reischig J, Rokyta Z. [Ovulatory mucus and its pH, arborization and spermagglutination antibodies in women with fertility disorders]. Ceska Gynekol. 2006;71:36-40 pubmed
    ..We studied pH of ovulatory mucus, sperm penetration through capillary filled with ovulatory mucus in one hour and presence of local spermagglutinating antibodies...
  51. Cibulka J, Ulcova Gallova Z, Babcová K, Krauz V, Balvin M, Bibkova K, et al. [Electrophoretic analysis (SDS PAGE) of ovulatory cervical mucus in patients with fertility failure and after unsuccessful IVF]. Ceska Gynekol. 2005;70:331-5 pubmed
    ..47%); 6 ASA positive patiens (31.58%) were not detected by SDS-PAGE. Analysis of 94 OCM by SDS-PAGE showed several significant correlates, but their specifications will be based on further immunoblot research. ..
  52. Verma S, Mohapatra B, Jagadish N, Selvi R, Roy P, Rana R, et al. Molecular cloning, expression of testicular transcript abundant in germ cells and immunobiological effects of the recombinant protein. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2004;52:164-73 pubmed
    ..An immunoinfertile woman serum showing head-head sperm agglutination and acrosomal localization, reacted with human sperm protein of apparent molecular weight of 48 kDa on ..
  53. Barna J, Boldizsár H. Motility and agglutination of fowl spermatozoa in media of different amino acid content and pH value in vitro. Acta Vet Hung. 1996;44:221-32 pubmed