Summary: In the late Middle Ages barbers who also let blood, sold unguents, pulled teeth, applied cups, and gave enemas. They generally had the right to practice surgery. They began to acquire importance about 1100, when the monks, who required the barber's services for the tonsure, also had recourse to them for blood-letting, a practice required by ecclesiastic law. By the 18th century barbers continued to practice minor surgery and dentistry and many famous surgeons acquired their skill in the shops of barbers. (From Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed, pp402, 568, 658)
- The licensing of medical practitioners in Tudor England: legislation enacted by Henry VIIIJ T Hughes
Vesalius 12:4-11. 2006..Whilst some legal aspects of medicine remained unclear, no further legislation of any significance was undertaken in England until the Medical Act of 1858...
- On the uniqueness of surgeryJosef E Fischer
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Am J Surg 189:259-63. 2005..On the other hand, barber surgeons were relatively unskilled and unrewarded, at a much lower class in society, and laid hands on the patient by ..
- [Surgical treatment of diseases in the oral cavity and jaws]Ake Nordenram
Odontologiska institutionen, Karolinska Institutet
Sven Med Tidskr 9:155-62. 2005....
- [First professor of medicine in Maastricht: Pelerin]Harry Hillen
Universiteit Maastricht, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht, The Netherlands
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 154:A1525. 2010..From 1738 onwards Pelerin gave public anatomy lectures for doctores medicinae, barber surgeons and quite probably for students of the Illustrious School of Maastricht...
- [Space and medical market: Johann Friedrich Glaser's practice in Suhl]Ruth Schilling
Institut für Geschichte der Medizin Charité zu Berlin, Ziegelstrasse 10, D 10117 Berlin
Gesnerus 69:36-53. 2012..of Glaser's influence as a practitioner with the spheres of influence where his relatives (executioners and barber surgeons) lived shows how narrowly both were connected...
- [The lithotomist Johannes Palm from Ulm and his family: at the peak of the art of lithotomy]P Kraus
Institut für Geschichte, Theorie und Ethik der Medizin, Universitat Ulm, Deutschland
Urologe A 52:79-86. 2013In addition to the local barber surgeons, operations in Ulm were also carried out by travelling lithotomists, or wound physicians, who moved from town to town...
- The barber-surgeons of yesteryearStanley M Aronson
Med Health R I 85:263-4. 2002
- The future of surgery: autonomy or employment?Amy Liepert
University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA
Bull Am Coll Surg 96:33-8. 2011..Physicians, including the historical barber surgeons, often remained focused only on medical practice and patient care...
- Master John of Arderne (1307-1380): a founder of modern surgeryJohn Pearn
Sometime Surgeon General, Australian Defence Force, Office of The Preceptor, School of Medicine Univ of Qld, c Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Royal Children s Hospital, Herston, Queensland, Australia
ANZ J Surg 82:46-51. 2012..His best-known work, the Practica (De Arte Phisicali et de Cirurgia), formed the basis of practical surgical teaching in the medical schools of medieval Europe...
- [A village fair. Beware of the travelling quack doctor]J N Hans Keeman
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 156:A5305. 2012..An iconological description reveals the hidden meaning of the imagery portrayed in a 17th-century genre painting...
- Wilhelm Fabry's 1614 report on a giant condyloma of the penisF J Marx
Institute for the History of Medicine and Medical Ethics, University of Cologne, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 20, D 50931 Cologne, Germany
Br J Dermatol 166:247-51. 2012..Thus, Fabry's is the first clinical report; the histological classification, however, belongs to Buschke and Löwenstein. From now on the disease should be designated with the eponym giant condyloma of Fabry-Buschke-Löwenstein or GCFBL...
- The ethics of dental practice in London in the sixteenth century. 2. Sir Thomas More's 'Ordinances' for the Barber-Surgeons, 1530M Bishop
Bulls Mill House, Hertford, UK
Br Dent J 213:77-80. 2012..Sir Thomas More's Ordinances can tell us much about London dental practice in the sixteenth century, providing an overview of training, development and practice within a healthcare service much like our own...
- A botanical group in Lahore, 1864H J Noltie
Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh
Arch Nat Hist 38:267-77. 2011..The photographer is confirmed as Samuel Bourne, and information is provided on the Scottish individuals to whom Cleghorn sent copies of the photography...
- ["A recollection": the arrangement of Ambroise Pare's Oeuvres]Evelyne Berriot-Salvadore
Etud Fr 38:81-92. 2002
- Paré and prosthetics: the early history of artificial limbsAlan J Thurston
Department of Orthopaedic and Hand Surgery, Wellington School of Medicine, Wellington, New Zealand
ANZ J Surg 77:1114-9. 2007..What began as a modified crutch with a wooden or leather cup and progressed through many metamorphoses has now developed into a highly sophisticated prosthetic limb made of space-age materials...
- A picture of dentistry at Charing Cross in the 1730s given by Hogarth's painting and print of Night. Professional governance, identity and possible mercury intoxication as an occupational hazard for his barber tooth-drawerM G H Bishop
Queen Anne House, Hertford, Herts, UK
Br Dent J 203:265-9. 2007..Night (Fig. 1), the fourth painting in the group, is as important to the historical record of dentistry as J. M. W. Turner's painting and sketches of The dentist reproving his son's prodigality, described previously in the Journal...
- [Urinary lithiasis: history and ethics]P Jichlinski
Service d Urologie, CHUV, 1011 Lausanne
Rev Med Suisse 2:2800-3. 2006....
- The charlatan's trial: an Italian surgeon in the court of King Philip II, 1576-1577William Eamon
Department of History, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM
Cronos 8:3-30. 2005
- [Pehr af Bjerkén 1765-1818. Chief baber-surgeon at the Serafimer hospital. Physician to the king]Torgil Hallböök
Sven Med Tidskr 9:69-82. 2005..Some hundred years later in 1912 a monument to the memory of Pehr af Bjerkén was erected at Dala by the Swedish Society of Medicine in connection with a commemoration...
- [History of haemostasis in surgery]Gennaro Rispoli
U O Chirurgia Osp Ascalesi ASL 1, Napoli, I
Med Secoli 17:811-21. 2005..Often their original intuitions anticipated scientific discoveries. Ancient haemostatic instruments and the way to use them represent the heritage of old and famous surgeons; some of these procedures are still used in operating rooms...
- Inception of cadaver dissection and its relevance in present day scenario of medical educationGayatri Rath
Department of Anatomy, Verdhaman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi 110024
J Indian Med Assoc 104:331-3. 2006..Dissection helps in developing a spatial and tactile appreciation for the fabric of the human body that cannot be achieved by prosection or computerised learning aids alone...
- Medicine in Pomerania and Pomezania during their conquest by the Teutonic KnightsMariusz M Zydowo
Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
J Nephrol 19:S22-9. 2006..A probable nephrological case (urolithiasis) in a High-Master of the Order is reported. Finally, information is presented about the guild of barber -- surgeons functioning in the town of Gdańsk, independently of the Teutonic Order...
- Cervantes: father of Don Quixote and son of a dentistAntonio Del Valle
Department of Clinical Dentistry, Rey Juan Carlos University of Madrid, Spain
J Dent Res 85:701-4. 2006....
- [Between barber's and hospital: the role of barber-surgeons in Osijek in the period from 1687 to 1746]Bruno Atalic
Katedra za obiteljsku medicinu, povijest medicine i medicinsku etiku, Medicinski fakultet, Sveuciliste Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku
Lijec Vjesn 129:367-70. 2007..The data presented in this paper demonstrate the very beginnings of medical practitioners in Osijek and are therefore important in understanding of the further development and the organization of health on this territory...
- Serjeant-Surgeons, the Barber-Surgeons' Company and the NavyBarry Jackson
J R Nav Med Serv 93:101-8. 2007
- Barber-surgeonsBarry Jackson
J Med Biogr 16:65. 2008
- [Reform of public health in Central Europe during the 18th century]Károly Kapronczay
Semmelweis Museum, Library and Archives for the History of Medicine, Budapest, Hungary
Orvostort Kozl 56:43-60. 2010..While re-organization of public health in all these countries was initiated and directed by the government and shaped according to western models, it was strongly influenced by local possibilities, culture and history...
- [Ambroise Paré (1510-90)--and features of the history of surgery]Svend Norn
Dan Medicinhist Arbog 38:46-62. 2010..Paré became the founder of modern surgery, a restorative process that heals the body with minimal suffering...
- A Tudor medical group portraitDuncan P Thomas
J Med Biogr 19:17-20. 2011..This seems to be the earliest depiction of a group of eminent medical men with the King; the Holbein painting is unique in this respect...
- [Origin of three symbols in medicine and surgery]Lorenzo de la Garza-Villaseñor
Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Secretaria de Salud, Mexico, Mexico
Cir Cir 78:369-76. 2010..Humans use many ways to communicate with fellow humans. Symbols have been one of these ways. Shamans probably used these in the beginning and adopted other distinctive symbols as they were introduced...
- [Historical notes on the management of infection during the development of surgery]Enrique Laval R
Programa de Estudios Médicos Humanísticos, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Chile
Rev Chilena Infectol 27:228-32. 2010..The control of the latter had to consider antisepsis, asepsis and finally the appearance of antimicrobial substances, sulfonamides and antibiotics that allowed surgeons to approach and solve major problems of the specialty...
- From bloodletting to apheresis in JapanToshio Mazda
Japanese Red Cross Central Blood Institute, 2 1 67, Tatsumi, Koto ku, Tokyo 135 8521, Japan
Transfus Apher Sci 42:27-31. 2010..An understanding of those transitions can be gained from the story of the introduction of Western medicine to Japan and the events that have led to the practice of apheresis there today...
- [Dental aspects of general symptoms in the 18th century]Judit Forrai
Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Közegészségtani Intézet, Orvostörténeti Munkacsoport, Budapest
Orv Hetil 150:979-83. 2009..Syphilis was present in the everyday life throughout centuries, and assumed to cause different stigmas in the oral cavity. Today we consider theses stigmas as the toxic signs of mercury treatment...
- Oncologic conceptions of Ambroise Paré (1509-1590), father of surgeryM Karamanou
Department of History of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
J BUON 14:149-55. 2009..He exercised vast influence on several fields of medicine and surgery through his writings. This article presents and criticizes Paré's conceptions on oncology...
- Honor, brotherhood, and the corporate ethos of London's Barber-Surgeons' Company, 1570-1640Celeste Chamberland
Department of History, Art History, and Philosophy, Roosevelt University, 430 S Michigan Ave, Chicago, Illinois 60605, USA
J Hist Med Allied Sci 64:300-32. 2009....
- [Lectures, hospital practice, and a popular audience in relation to the popularization of medical thought during the 1830ies: the Magdeburg physician August Ferdinand Brüggemann]Philipp Osten
Institut fur Geschichte der Medizin, Ruprecht Karls Universitat Heidelberg
Wurzbg Medizinhist Mitt 27:240-72. 2008..Instead he taught former barber surgeons at a small medical academy to make them fit for the requirements of a more modern medical care...
- Illness without doctors: medieval systems of healthcare in ScotlandW J MacLennan
Geriatric Medicine Unit, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, UK
J R Coll Physicians Edinb 32:59-67. 2002
- [From barber to surgeon- the process of professionalization]Lars Himmelmann
Sven Med Tidskr 11:69-87. 2007..The examination requirements increased gradually during the century alongside with the increased knowledge in surgical science. The improved training was an important part of the barber-surgeons professionalization...
- Thomas Vicary, barber-surgeonDuncan P Thomas
The Old Barn, North Green, Kirtlington, Oxford, UK
J Med Biogr 14:84-9. 2006....
- Hemotherapy: from bloodletting magic to transfusion medicinePaul J Schmidt
Transfusion 46:166-8. 2006
- Origins of surgery in British Colonial AmericaLuis H Toledo-Pereyra
Borgess Research Institute, Michigan State University, Kalamazoo Center for Medical Studies, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA
J Invest Surg 16:3-6. 2003
- The life and work of the German physician Johannes Scultetus (1595-1645)Anke H Scultetus
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Surgery, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
J Am Coll Surg 196:130-9. 2003
- [From a barber to a present-day surgeon. The history of surgery since XV till XIX century]E Wieckowska
Zakładu Humanistycznych Nauk Lekarskich Akademii Medycznej we Wrocławiu
Wiad Lek 54:472-8. 2001..This field of medicine has always been rational...
- [Not Available]A Carlino
Istituto Universitario Europeo, Firenze
Physis Riv Int Stor Sci 31:731-69. 1994..Through fugitive sheets, anatomical knowledge partially lost its strictly scientific connotations and was adapted to a multiplicity of often quite unexpected uses...
- [Physicians and medicine in 16th century New Spain]A de Micheli-Serra
Departamento de Farmacologia, Juan Badiano No 1, Col Seccion XVI, C P 14080, Mexico, D F
Gac Med Mex 137:257-64. 2001..When the first chair of medicine was established in the Royal University of México (1578), the number of medical publications increased until, in 1598, appeared the first medical thesis printed in America...
- Art macabre: resurrectionists and anatomistsR Magee
ANZ J Surg 71:377-80. 2001..of anatomy in England and Scotland from the 16th to the 19th centuries was carried out by the Companies of Barber Surgeons and also there were a number of private schools...
- [Rise of the wound surgeon to academic surgeon: myth or historical fact?]D Gross
Institut fur Geschichte der Medizin, Julius Maximilians Universitat Wurzburg
Zentralbl Chir 125:691-7. 2000In contrast to modern academic surgery, in 19th century German medical care was mainly taken by non-academic barber surgeons. Only after the foundation of the German Reich (1871) the practice of surgery was made conditional on a full ..
- William Cheselden: anatomist, surgeon, and medical illustratorM A Sanders
Law Office of Mark A Sanders, Bannockburn, Illinois, USA
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 24:2282-9. 1999..In 1746, Cheselden, who helped design the first Surgeons' Hall, served as the Company's Master...
- Frère Jacques Beaulieu: from rogue lithotomist to nursery rhyme characterJ P Ganem
Division of Urology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
J Urol 161:1067-9. 1999..We discuss the history of Frère Jacques Beaulieu, a celebrated 17th century French lithotomist, and question the relationship of his name to a well-known nursery rhyme character...
- [Who were the healers in medieval Trondheim?]K Pape
Institutt for samfunnsmedisinske fag Norges teknisk naturvitenskapelige universitet, Trondheim
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 118:4671-5. 1998..The "professional" wound healers evolved from the needs of the military, later to merge with the early barber surgeons. Traces of scientific traditions, the Salerno school and early European university medicine can be found in ..
- Leonardo Fioravanti (1517-1588): a barber-surgeon who influenced the development of reconstructive surgeryP Santoni-Rugiu
Plastic Surgery Service, San Rossone Hospital, Pisa, Italy
Plast Reconstr Surg 99:570-5. 1997....
- [From barber-surgeons' guild to medical association. A 400th anniversary]H Sandvik
Seksjon for allmennmedisin, Institutt for samfunnsmedisinske fag, Universitetet i Bergen
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 116:3614-7. 1996..This paper describes the barber-surgeons' education and work, including their conflicts with other craftsmen and doctors. During the 18th century the barber-surgeons' education was improved, and eventually was given full academic status...
- [Professional heritage and social origin of the Württemberg barber surgeons of the 19th century]D Gross
Institut fur Geschichte der Medizin, Universitat Wurzburg
Sudhoffs Arch 80:38-55. 1996In nineteenth-century Württemberg, barber surgeons (Wundärzte) were subdivided into various grades...
- [Was Klaus von Mantrei the teacher of Hans von Gersdorff?]R Vollmuth
Institut fur Geschichte der Medizin, Wurzburg
Sudhoffs Arch 80:109-17. 1996..That cannot be fully proved yet, but a number of coinciding characteristics between the two and some further indications, that are explained, seem so significant, that the thesis can hardly be doubted...
- [Demise of the wound physician vocation exemplified by the political representative Arnold Schlegel (1850-1924)]D Gross
Institut fur Geschichte der Medizin, Universitat Wurzburg
Gesnerus 53:67-86. 1996..The aim of the study is to illuminate the life of Arnold Schlegel and, in view of his policy, to illustrate the trying circumstances of contemporary barber surgery...
- [Exclusion of wound physicians from health care in Germany 1871/72]D Gross
Institut fur Geschichte der Medizin, Universitat Wurzburg
Fortschr Med 114:109-12. 1996..The fact is that in this point, too, barber-surgeons - at least for the most part - had but little success, clearly put them on the losing side in political conflict of professional interests...
- [Physicians and surgeons during the inquisition in new Spain]Alfredo de Micheli-Serra
Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia Ignacio Chavez, Juan Badiano No 1, Col Seccion XVI, Tlalpan C P 14080, Mexico, D F
Gac Med Mex 139:77-81. 2003..It should be a gesture of justice to build a memorial in the ancient Inquisition Palace to honor this Public Health's worthy physician...
- [Johann Gregor Gutturff: the life and work of a plague barber on the 17th century]Elke Schlenkrich
Med Ges Gesch 21:23-62. 2002..Last but not least, this study attests to the existence of numerous unevaluated archival materials, which can be systematically analysed to create new avenues of historical description (historiography) and epidemiology...
- Transfusion Medicine History Illustrated. The hemotherapy of the barber surgeonPaul J Schmidt
Transfusion Medicine Academic Center, Florida Blood Services, P O Box 22500, St Petersburg, Florida, 33742, USA
Transfusion 46:165. 2006
- The folly of dogmatic authorityStanley M Aronson
Med Health R I 88:177. 2005
- Georg Händel (1622-97): the barber-surgeon father of George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)Aileen K Adams
British Society for the History of Medicine, Cambridge, UK
J Med Biogr 13:142-9. 2005..This is shown in the success achieved by all his children, most of whom followed their father into medicine, while George Frideric became the most famous of them all, being regarded by posterity as one of the greatest composers...
- "Respectful image": revenge of the barber surgeonCharles E Bagwell
Department of Surgery at the Medical College of Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA
Ann Surg 241:872-8; discussion 878. 2005..This Guild of Barbers and Surgeons, forerunner of the Royal College of Surgeons, established a regulatory agency for training and certification of surgical practice, which set the stage for legitimizing surgery as a profession...
- From trephination to tailored resection: neurosurgery in Germany before World War IIMichael Buchfelder
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Gottingen Medical School, Gottingen, Germany
Neurosurgery 56:605-13; discussion 605-13. 2005Evidence exists that trephination was performed in Germany as early as the Stone Age. Late medieval barber surgeons further developed instruments and techniques for this procedure...
- [Historical survey and legal analysis of the concept of medical malpractice]Sótonyi Gergely
Orv Hetil 146:86-90. 2005
- Johan van Riebeeck (1619-77)Neil McIntyre
J Med Biogr 13:10. 2005
- Dental writings in a medical self-help book of 1650Malvin E Ring
J Hist Dent 52:125-9. 2004..We derive an interesting picture of what dental treatment was like in the mid-seventeenth century...
- Dutch surgery in JapanThomas M van Gulik
Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
World J Surg 29:10-7. 2005..Among them, Philipp Franz von Siebold was an exceptional scholar who also had a great impact in making Japanese culture known to the Western world...
- [History of the barber-surgery in Rzeszów]Lesław Portas
Wojewódzki Szpital Specjalistyczny
Arch Hist Filoz Med 66:119-33. 2003..Two tables give the numbers and names of Christian and Jewish surgeons in particular years. Figures bring the shape of original documents...
- Medicine in Egypt at the time of Napoleon BonaparteThomas G Russell
Department of Anaesthetics, Ipswich Hospital, Ipswich IP4 5PD
BMJ 327:1461-4. 2003
- [Dentistry in the 17th century]Roger Joris
Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 113:1323-4. 2003
- [Health care in Varazdin in the 17th century]Gustav Piasek
Institut za medicinska istrazivanja i medicinu rada, Zagreb
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 55:25-34. 2004..There are well preserved monuments in memory of those events in the town--a votive chapel and a votive column...
- Philip Barrough, Elizabethan physician with the first English book on medicineGerald Shklar
Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Hist Dent 52:55-9. 2004..This paper attempts to place Barrough in his proper place in the history of medicine, and to emphasize his overall knowledge of medicine as well as his concern about diseases of the mouth and teeth...
- [From the history of surgical instruments: 3. The dressing forceps (16th century)]M Sachs
Klinik für Allgemeinchirurgie, Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main
Zentralbl Chir 120:908-11. 1995..At that time, it mostly found use as a foreign body removing forceps. The dressing forceps can be traced back until today in German or English surgery instrument-books in nearly unchanged shape...
- The first medical book in Yiddish: its dental writingsMalvin E Ring
School of Dental Medicine, State University of New York, Buffalo, USA
Alpha Omegan 96:25-9. 2003
- [Surgeons, midwives and physicians in Senta in the 18th and 19th centuries]M Curcic
Zdravstveni centar Dr Gere Istvan, 24400 Senta, Zlatne Grede 20
Med Pregl 53:621-9. 2000..In 1872 a law was passed according to which only doctors of medicine with university degrees were allowed to practice medicine, and so junior physicians gradually disappeared...