weight lifting


Summary: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.

Top Publications

  1. Olsen S, Aagaard P, Kadi F, Tufekovic G, Verney J, Olesen J, et al. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training. J Physiol. 2006;573:525-34 pubmed
  2. Iqbal A, Haider M, Stadlhuber R, Karu A, Corkill S, Filipi C. A study of intragastric and intravesicular pressure changes during rest, coughing, weight lifting, retching, and vomiting. Surg Endosc. 2008;22:2571-5 pubmed publisher
    ..All pressure changes were significant from baseline except for weight lifting. The highest intragastric pressure was 290 mmHg, seen during vomiting...
  3. Schmitz K, Ahmed R, Troxel A, Cheville A, Lewis Grant L, Smith R, et al. Weight lifting for women at risk for breast cancer-related lymphedema: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2010;304:2699-705 pubmed publisher
    ..lymphedema advise against upper body exercise, preventing them from obtaining established health benefits of weight lifting. To evaluate lymphedema onset after a 1-year weight lifting intervention vs no exercise (control) among ..
  4. Oates B, Glover E, West D, Fry J, Tarnopolsky M, Phillips S. Low-volume resistance exercise attenuates the decline in strength and muscle mass associated with immobilization. Muscle Nerve. 2010;42:539-46 pubmed publisher
    ..01). A minimal volume (140 contractions in 14 days) of resistive exercise is an effective countermeasure against immobilization-induced atrophy of the quadriceps femoris but is only partially effective for the triceps surae. ..
  5. de Souza T, Fleck S, Simão R, Dubas J, Pereira B, de Brito Pacheco E, et al. Comparison between constant and decreasing rest intervals: influence on maximal strength and hypertrophy. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:1843-50 pubmed publisher
  6. West D, Phillips S. Associations of exercise-induced hormone profiles and gains in strength and hypertrophy in a large cohort after weight training. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112:2693-702 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that the acute exercise-induced systemic hormonal responses of cortisol and GH are weakly correlated with resistance training-induced changes in fibre CSA and LBM (cortisol only), but not with changes in strength. ..
  7. Mitchell C, Churchward Venne T, West D, Burd N, Breen L, Baker S, et al. Resistance exercise load does not determine training-mediated hypertrophic gains in young men. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012;113:71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In accordance with our previous acute measurements of muscle protein synthetic rates a lower load lifted to failure resulted in similar hypertrophy as a heavy load lifted to failure. ..
  8. Ohira T, Schmitz K, Ahmed R, Yee D. Effects of weight training on quality of life in recent breast cancer survivors: the Weight Training for Breast Cancer Survivors (WTBS) study. Cancer. 2006;106:2076-83 pubmed
    ..23; P <.05) and psychosocial global score (r = 0.24; P <.05). Twice-weekly weight training for recent breast cancer survivors may result in improved QOL, in part via changes in body composition and strength. ..
  9. Tang J, Moore D, Kujbida G, Tarnopolsky M, Phillips S. Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;107:987-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences may be related to how quickly the proteins are digested (i.e., fast vs. slow) or possibly to small differences in leucine content of each protein. ..

More Information


  1. Lindström M, Thornell L. New multiple labelling method for improved satellite cell identification in human muscle: application to a cohort of power-lifters and sedentary men. Histochem Cell Biol. 2009;132:141-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our multiple marker method is more reliable for SC identification and quantification and can be used to evaluate other markers of muscle progenitor cells. ..
  2. Vitali A, Steinbok P. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma following weight lifting. Can J Neurol Sci. 2008;35:262-4 pubmed
  3. Perez Gomez J, Olmedillas H, Delgado Guerra S, Ara I, Vicente Rodriguez G, Ortiz R, et al. Effects of weight lifting training combined with plyometric exercises on physical fitness, body composition, and knee extension velocity during kicking in football. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008;33:501-10 pubmed publisher
    The effects of a training program consisting of weight lifting combined with plyometric exercises on kicking performance, myosin heavy-chain composition (vastus lateralis), physical fitness, and body composition (using dual-energy X-ray ..
  4. Hatzaras I, Tranquilli M, Coady M, Barrett P, Bible J, Elefteriades J. Weight lifting and aortic dissection: more evidence for a connection. Cardiology. 2007;107:103-6 pubmed
    ..on a small number of patients in whom acute aortic dissection appeared to be causally related to intense weight lifting. If additional cases could be identified, the phenomenon of weight lifting induced aortic dissection would be ..
  5. Jenmalm P, Schmitz C, Forssberg H, Ehrsson H. Lighter or heavier than predicted: neural correlates of corrective mechanisms during erroneously programmed lifts. J Neurosci. 2006;26:9015-21 pubmed
    ..These findings show how the parietal cortex, cerebellum, and motor cortex are involved in the signaling of the discrepancy between predicated and actual sensory feedback and the associated corrective mechanisms. ..
  6. Bolgla L, Shaffer S, Malone T. Vastus medialis activation during knee extension exercises: evidence for exercise prescription. J Sport Rehabil. 2008;17:1-10 pubmed
    ..SLR performance can be an important indicator for exercise progression. These results provide foundational knowledge to assist clinicians with exercise prescription. ..
  7. Vieira G, Oliveira H, de Andrade D, Bottaro M, Ritch R. Intraocular pressure variation during weight lifting. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006;124:1251-4 pubmed
    To evaluate the effect of weight lifting on intraocular pressure (IOP)...
  8. Wilkinson S, Tarnopolsky M, Grant E, Correia C, Phillips S. Hypertrophy with unilateral resistance exercise occurs without increases in endogenous anabolic hormone concentration. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;98:546-55 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, unilateral training induced local muscle hypertrophy only in the exercised limb, which occurred in the absence of changes in systemic hormones that ostensibly play a role in muscle hypertrophy. ..
  9. Cribb P, Williams A, Carey M, Hayes A. The effect of whey isolate and resistance training on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006;16:494-509 pubmed
    ..When the strength changes were expressed relative to body weight, the WI group still achieved significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in strength compared to the C group. ..
  10. Wysoczanski M, Rachko M, Bergmann S. Acute myocardial infarction in a young man using anabolic steroids. Angiology. 2008;59:376-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of MI in a young 31-year-old bodybuilder. Because of the serious cardiovascular complications of anabolic steroids, physicians should be aware of their abuse and consequences. ..
  11. Schmitz K, Ahmed R, Troxel A, Cheville A, Smith R, Lewis Grant L, et al. Weight lifting in women with breast-cancer-related lymphedema. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:664-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Weight lifting has generally been proscribed for women with breast-cancer-related lymphedema, preventing them from obtaining the well-established health benefits of weight lifting, including increases in bone density...
  12. Hartman J, Tang J, Wilkinson S, Tarnopolsky M, Lawrence R, Fullerton A, et al. Consumption of fat-free fluid milk after resistance exercise promotes greater lean mass accretion than does consumption of soy or carbohydrate in young, novice, male weightlifters. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:373-81 pubmed
    ..05). We conclude that chronic postexercise consumption of milk promotes greater hypertrophy during the early stages of resistance training in novice weightlifters when compared with isoenergetic soy or carbohydrate consumption. ..
  13. Crewther B, Cronin J, Keogh J, Cook C. The salivary testosterone and cortisol response to three loading schemes. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22:250-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the acute hormonal responses to resistance exercise contribute to protein metabolism, then load volume may be the most important workout variable activating the endocrine system and stimulating muscle growth. ..
  14. Spiering B, Kraemer W, Anderson J, Armstrong L, Nindl B, Volek J, et al. Effects of elevated circulating hormones on resistance exercise-induced Akt signaling. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:1039-48 pubmed publisher
    ..p70 S6K Thr 389 phosphorylation was attenuated during the HHC trial despite dramatically greater (>2.5-fold) circulating GH concentrations; this was potentially due to cortisol-induced inhibition of p70 S6K Thr 389 phosphorylation. ..
  15. Carr B, Webster M, Boyd J, Hudson G, Scheett T. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves hypertrophy-type resistance exercise performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113:743-52 pubmed publisher
    ..92 ± 2.08, placebo: 15.55 ± 2.50 mM, P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate ergogenic efficacy for NaHCO(3) during HRE and warrant further investigation into chronic training applications. ..
  16. Scott C. The effect of time-under-tension and weight lifting cadence on aerobic, anaerobic, and recovery energy expenditures: 3 submaximal sets. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012;37:252-6 pubmed publisher
    We examined the aerobic and anaerobic energy expenditures of weight lifting (bench press); submaximal work was kept constant among protocols. Ten male subjects (age, 23.2 ± 3.1 years; height, 177.3 ± 5.3 cm; weight, 82.1 ± 11...
  17. Swinton P, Stewart A, Agouris I, Keogh J, LLOYD R. A biomechanical analysis of straight and hexagonal barbell deadlifts using submaximal loads. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:2000-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The enhanced mechanical stimulus obtained with the hexagonal barbell suggests that in general the HBD is a more effective exercise than the SBD. ..
  18. Gee T, Olsen P, Berger N, Golby J, Thompson K. Strength and conditioning practices in rowing. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:668-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This research represents the only published survey to date on the S&C practices in rowing within Great Britain. ..
  19. Kaltsatou A, Kouidi E, Fotiou D, Deligiannis P. The use of pupillometry in the assessment of cardiac autonomic function in elite different type trained athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111:2079-87 pubmed publisher
    ..HRV parameters were significantly correlated with pupillometric parameters during exercise. Our results indicated that any kind of exercise training and mainly endurance one affects autonomic regulation of pupillary light reflex. ..
  20. Schiffer T, Knicker A, Montanarella M, Strüder H. Mechanical and physiological effects of varying pole weights during Nordic walking compared to walking. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111:1121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Since there are no benefits concerning physiological and biomechanical parameters we do not recommend the use of heavier NW poles. ..
  21. Phillips S. The science of muscle hypertrophy: making dietary protein count. Proc Nutr Soc. 2011;70:100-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the combined evidence suggests a strategic advantage of practising early post-exercise consumption of whey protein or dairy-based protein to promote muscle protein synthesis, net muscle protein accretion and ultimately hypertrophy...
  22. Mäestu J, Eliakim A, Jürimäe J, Valter I, Jurimae T. Anabolic and catabolic hormones and energy balance of the male bodybuilders during the preparation for the competition. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:1074-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Other nutritional strategies might be needed to prevent possible catabolic effect during preparation of bodybuilders to competition. ..
  23. Marras W, Lavender S, Ferguson S, Splittstoesser R, Yang G. Quantitative dynamic measures of physical exposure predict low back functional impairment. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:914-23 pubmed publisher
    ..4%). This study suggests that with proper quantification of job exposure and spine function, it is possible to identify which dynamic physical exposures are associated with reduced spine function and increases in LBP. ..
  24. García López D, Izquierdo M, Rodriguez S, González Calvo G, Sainz N, Abadía O, et al. Interset stretching does not influence the kinematic profile of consecutive bench-press sets. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:1361-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, if maintenance of a high absolute velocity over consecutive sets is important for training-related adaptations, static stretching should be avoided or replaced by ballistic stretching. ..
  25. Cleather D, Bull A. Lower-extremity musculoskeletal geometry affects the calculation of patellofemoral forces in vertical jumping and weightlifting. Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2010;224:1073-83 pubmed
  26. Suchomel T, Lake J, Comfort P. Load Absorption Force-Time Characteristics Following the Second Pull of Weightlifting Derivatives. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31:1644-1652 pubmed publisher
    ..The JS and HHP may be used as effective training stimuli for load absorption during impact tasks such as jumping...
  27. Badza V, Jovancević V, Fratrić F, Roglić G, Sudarov N. Possibilities of thermovision application in sport and sport rehabilitation. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2012;69:904-7 pubmed
    ..Thanks to this the athlete had no harmful consequences. Thermovision is fast and efficient in detecting different kind of injuries, so its increased use in the future can be expected. ..
  28. Storey A, Smith H. Unique aspects of competitive weightlifting: performance, training and physiology. Sports Med. 2012;42:769-90 pubmed publisher
    ..e. ?17 years of age) and older (i.e. ?35 years of age) weightlifters of both sexes is required. ..
  29. Seitz A, Uhl T. Reliability and minimal detectable change in scapulothoracic neuromuscular activity. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2012;22:968-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Small changes in scapular neuromuscular mean activity (>11.7% MVIC) can be interpreted as meaningful change, while change in muscle onset timing in light of specific processing parameters used in this study is more variable. ..
  30. Murray S, Rieger E, Hildebrandt T, Karlov L, Russell J, Boon E, et al. A comparison of eating, exercise, shape, and weight related symptomatology in males with muscle dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa. Body Image. 2012;9:193-200 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings provide moderate support for the notion that muscle dysmorphia may be nosologically similar to anorexia nervosa. ..
  31. Tsaklis P, Grooten W, Franzén E. Effects of weight-shift training on balance control and weight distribution in chronic stroke: a pilot study. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2012;19:23-31 pubmed publisher
    ..A weight-shift training program improved balance control but not weight distribution in a group of chronic stroke subjects. Larger, randomized, and controlled studies are necessary. ..
  32. Oller A, Province L, Curless B. Staphylococcus aureus recovery from environmental and human locations in 2 collegiate athletic teams. J Athl Train. 2010;45:222-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Intact strengthening and conditioning equipment, proper hygiene, and proper disinfection methods lowered both environmental and human S aureus recovery at 1 university. ..
  33. Mostofsky E, Laier E, Levitan E, Rosamond W, Schlaug G, Mittleman M. Physical activity and onset of acute ischemic stroke: the stroke onset study. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;173:330-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2, 3.3) with each bout of physical activity, as compared with a 6.8-fold risk (95% CI: 2.5, 18.8) among more sedentary subjects (P for homogeneity = 0.03). ..
  34. Ng T, Sowman P, Brock J, Johnson B. Premovement brain activity in a bimanual load-lifting task. Exp Brain Res. 2011;208:189-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The experimental paradigm will also be useful in the study of motor function in patients with developmental or degenerative disorders. ..
  35. Marshall P, Robbins D, Wrightson A, Siegler J. Acute neuromuscular and fatigue responses to the rest-pause method. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15:153-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). As a result of the increased EMG during exercise and no greater post-exercise fatigue, it was concluded that the rest-pause method may be an efficacious training method for resistance-trained individuals. ..
  36. McPherson K, McCarthy P, McCreary D, McMillan S. Psychometric evaluation of the Drive for Muscularity Scale in a community-based sample of Scottish men participating in an organized sporting event. Body Image. 2010;7:368-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide support for the DMS as a measure of the drive for muscularity in men. It is recommended that, in future, careful consideration is given to the distinction between muscularity attitudes and behavior. ..
  37. Rodrigues B, Dantas E, de Salles B, Miranda H, Koch A, Willardson J, et al. Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase responses after upper-body resistance exercise with different rest intervals. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:1657-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, when considered relative to the volume load completed, 1-minute rest intervals during resistance exercise may invoke greater muscle damage. ..
  38. Esformes J, Keenan M, Moody J, Bampouras T. Effect of different types of conditioning contraction on upper body postactivation potentiation. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:143-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Isometric contractions appear to be the only conditioning contractions increasing upper body power output after long resting periods. ..
  39. Hansen K, Cronin J, Pickering S, Douglas L. Do force-time and power-time measures in a loaded jump squat differentiate between speed performance and playing level in elite and elite junior rugby union players?. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:2382-91 pubmed publisher
    ..For player development to transition elite junior players to elite status, adding lean mass is likely to be most beneficial. ..
  40. Garcia Ramos A, Jaric S, Padial P, Feriche B. Force-Velocity Relationship of Upper Body Muscles: Traditional Versus Ballistic Bench Press. J Appl Biomech. 2016;32:178-85 pubmed publisher
    ..48) and P0 (ES: 0.65-0.72) for the ballistic BP. The F0 strongly correlated with BP 1RM (r: 0.915-0.938). The force-velocity relationship is useful to assess the upper body maximal capabilities to generate force, velocity, and power. ..
  41. Molloy J, Aberle C, Escobar E. Triceps tendon tear in a middle-aged weightlifter. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2013;43:848 pubmed publisher
  42. Sawyer J, Wood R, Davidson P, Collins S, Matthews T, Gregory S, et al. Effects of a short-term carbohydrate-restricted diet on strength and power performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27:2255-62 pubmed publisher
    ..A CRD may be an alternative method for short-term weight loss without compromising strength and power outputs. The use of a 7-day CRD could replace weight loss methods employing severe dehydration before competition. ..
  43. Hackett D, Johnson N, Chow C. Respiratory muscle adaptations: a comparison between bodybuilders and endurance athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2013;53:139-45 pubmed
    ..When compared to EA, BB exhibited significantly greater respiratory muscle strength. The maximal load lifted for bench press predicted expiratory muscle strength gain. Lung function measures did not differ between the groups. ..
  44. Moolyk A, Carey J, Chiu L. Characteristics of lower extremity work during the impact phase of jumping and weightlifting. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27:3225-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Weightlifting tasks, particularly the clean, may be important exercises to develop the muscular strength required for impact actions due to their large knee extensor net joint moments. ..
  45. Dufour J, Marras W, Knapik G. An EMG-assisted model calibration technique that does not require MVCs. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2013;23:608-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, this technique will be valuable for evaluating symptomatic LBP patients, which may provide significant insight into the underlying nature of the LBP disorder. ..
  46. Michaelides M, Parpa K, Henry L, Thompson G, Brown B. Assessment of physical fitness aspects and their relationship to firefighters' job abilities. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:956-65 pubmed publisher
  47. Mann J, Thyfault J, Ivey P, Sayers S. The effect of autoregulatory progressive resistance exercise vs. linear periodization on strength improvement in college athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:1718-23 pubmed publisher
    ..8, p = 0.02) compared with the LP group over the 6-week training period. Our findings indicate that the APRE was more effective than the LP means of programming in increasing the bench press and squat over a period of 6 weeks. ..
  48. Le Panse B, Labsy Z, Baillot A, Vibarel Rebot N, Parage G, Albrings D, et al. Changes in steroid hormones during an international powerlifting competition. Steroids. 2012;77:1339-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are necessary to examine the changes in oestradiol and progesterone in women and their potential impact on performance during international powerlifting competition. ..
  49. Vingren J, Buddhadev H, Hill D. Smith machine counterbalance system affects measures of maximal bench press throw performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:1951-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A counterbalance weight system should not be used when measuring performance in explosive resistance exercises with an accelerometer. ..
  50. Mann J, Stoner J, Mayhew J. NFL-225 test to predict 1RM bench press in NCAA Division I football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26:2623-31 pubmed
    ..5 kg of their actual 1RM. The new NFL-225 test seems to be a reasonable predictor of 1RM bench press in Division I players but should be further assessed on players from other high-level programs. ..
  51. Garcia A, González Galarzo M, Ronda E, Ballester F, Estarlich M, Guxens M, et al. Prevalence of exposure to occupational risks during pregnancy in Spain. Int J Public Health. 2012;57:817-26 pubmed
    ..Industrial workers showed the highest prevalence of exposure to chemical and physical pollutants. Our data suggest that working conditions of pregnant women may need increased control in Spain. ..
  52. Peters M, Dickfeld T. Catecholamine-dependent wide QRS complex tachycardia in a 71-year-old male 'super athlete'. Europace. 2011;13:1201-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Presented herein is a 71-year-old man with atrial flutter with 1:1 atrioventricular (AV) conduction triggered by high-intensity exercise as well as administration of isoproterenol, suggesting that arrhythmia is autonomically mediated. ..
  53. Akkus H. Kinematic analysis of the snatch lift with elite female weightlifters during the 2010 World Weightlifting Championship. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26:897-905 pubmed publisher