track and field


Summary: Sports performed on a track, field, or arena and including running events and other competitions, such as the pole vault, shot put, etc.

Top Publications

  1. Alonso J, Edouard P, Fischetto G, Adams B, Depiesse F, Mountjoy M. Determination of future prevention strategies in elite track and field: analysis of Daegu 2011 IAAF Championships injuries and illnesses surveillance. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46:505-14 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses during international Athletics Championships, by improving the medical surveillance coverage, in order to determine future prevention strategies...
  2. Jacobsson J, Timpka T, Kowalski J, Nilsson S, Ekberg J, Renstrom P. Prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in Swedish elite track and field athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40:163-9 pubmed publisher
    Little is known of injury patterns in track and field (athletics). Injury prevalence has been proposed as the most appropriate measure of the injury rate in sports where athletes are at risk for overuse problems.
  3. Hoshikawa Y, Muramatsu M, Iida T, Ii N, Nakajima Y, Kanehisa H. Sex differences in the cross-sectional areas of psoas major and thigh muscles in high school track and field athletes and nonathletes. J Physiol Anthropol. 2011;30:47-53 pubmed the cross-sectional areas of the psoas major, quadriceps femoris, hamstrings, and adductors in high school track and field athletes and nonathletes...
  4. Gonzalez Badillo J, Marques M. Relationship between kinematic factors and countermovement jump height in trained track and field athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:3443-7 pubmed publisher was to determine the relationship between kinematic factors of CMJ height in a large sample of trained track and field athletes...
  5. Kettunen J, Kujala U, Kaprio J, Sarna S. Health of master track and field athletes: a 16-year follow-up study. Clin J Sport Med. 2006;16:142-8 pubmed
    ..Finland. All male Finnish master athletes (N=102, mean age 58.3 years) who in 1985 participated in track and field athletic World Veterans Games...
  6. Nattiv A, Kennedy G, Barrack M, Abdelkerim A, Goolsby M, Arends J, et al. Correlation of MRI grading of bone stress injuries with clinical risk factors and return to play: a 5-year prospective study in collegiate track and field athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41:1930-41 pubmed publisher
    Bone stress injuries are common in track and field athletes. Knowledge of risk factors and correlation of these to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grading could be helpful in determining recovery time...
  7. Malliaropoulos N, Ntessalen M, Papacostas E, Longo U, Maffulli N. Reinjury after acute lateral ankle sprains in elite track and field athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37:1755-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 1. From 1996 to 2004, the authors managed 202 elite Greek track and field athletes for an acute lateral ankle sprain. Sprains were classified into 4 degrees (I, II, IIIA, and IIIB)...
  8. Tscholl P, Alonso J, Dollé G, Junge A, Dvorak J. The use of drugs and nutritional supplements in top-level track and field athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38:133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..the use of prescribed medication and nutritional supplements in female and male junior, youth, and adult track and field athletes depending on their sports discipline. Descriptive epidemiology study...
  9. Young B, Weir P, Starkes J, Medic N. Does lifelong training temper age-related decline in sport performance? Interpreting differences between cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Exp Aging Res. 2008;34:27-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Discussion focuses on methodological considerations for advancing future research that contrasts CS and longitudinal samples, and the importance of encouraging sport involvement opportunities to aging individuals. ..

More Information


  1. Bentzur K, Kravitz L, Lockner D. Evaluation of the BOD POD for estimating percent body fat in collegiate track and field female athletes: a comparison of four methods. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22:1985-91 pubmed publisher
    This investigation examined the accuracy of the BOD POD on a group of Division I collegiate track and field female athletes (N = 30). Hydrostatic weighing (HW) was used as the gold standard method...
  2. Welch J, Rosen C. Older women track and field athletes have enhanced calcaneal stiffness. Osteoporos Int. 2005;16:871-8 pubmed
    ..One hundred and thirty-nine women 40-88 years old, all competitors in a USA National Masters Track and Field Championships, volunteered for the study. Masters refers to competitors > or =40 years old...
  3. Schweizer C, Saugy M, Kamber M. Doping test reveals high concentrations of salbutamol in a Swiss track and field athlete. Clin J Sport Med. 2004;14:312-5 pubmed
    ..We report a case of a track and field athlete who tested well above this limit during a competition...
  4. Malliaropoulos N, Papacostas E, Kiritsi O, Papalada A, Gougoulias N, Maffulli N. Posterior thigh muscle injuries in elite track and field athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38:1813-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Posterior thigh muscle injuries in athletes are common, and prediction of recovery time would be of value...
  5. Baker A, Tang Y. Aging performance for masters records in athletics, swimming, rowing, cycling, triathlon, and weightlifting. Exp Aging Res. 2010;36:453-77 pubmed publisher
    ..There may be real physiological differences for these strength events, or there may be other explanations such as training or competitive considerations or smaller numbers participating. ..
  6. Sottas P, Robinson N, Fischetto G, Dollé G, Alonso J, Saugy M. Prevalence of blood doping in samples collected from elite track and field athletes. Clin Chem. 2011;57:762-9 pubmed publisher
    ..When applied at the individual level, the same biomarkers, as formalized in the Athlete Biological Passport paradigm, can be used in analysis of the observed different physiological characteristics and behavioral heterogeneities. ..
  7. Medic N, Young B, Starkes J, Weir P, Grove J. Gender, age, and sport differences in relative age effects among US Masters swimming and track and field athletes. J Sports Sci. 2009;27:1535-44 pubmed publisher
    ..we examined how these three variables influenced possible relative age effects among Masters swimmers and track and field athletes...
  8. Longo U, Rittweger J, Garau G, Radonic B, Gutwasser C, Gilliver S, et al. No influence of age, gender, weight, height, and impact profile in achilles tendinopathy in masters track and field athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37:1400-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In Masters track and field athletes, there is no influence of age, gender, weight, height, and impact profile in developing Achilles ..
  9. Papadimitriou I, Papadopoulos C, Kouvatsi A, Triantaphyllidis C. The ACE I/D polymorphism in elite Greek track and field athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2009;49:459-63 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to examine genetic differences among 101 elite Greek track and field athletes and a representative random control group of 181 Greek individuals, by analyzing the I/D polymorphism in exon 16 of the ACE gene...
  10. Winchester J, Nelson A, Landin D, Young M, Schexnayder I. Static stretching impairs sprint performance in collegiate track and field athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22:13-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05), and for the entire 40 m with a time of 5.6 +/- 0.4 versus 5.7 +/- 0.4 seconds (P < or = .05). The results of this study suggest that performing a SS protocol following a DW will inhibit sprint performance in collegiate athletes. ..
  11. Papalada A, Malliaropoulos N, Tsitas K, Kiritsi O, Padhiar N, Del Buono A, et al. Ultrasound as a primary evaluation tool of bone stress injuries in elite track and field athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40:915-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. One hundred thirteen elite track and field athletes (mean age, 20...
  12. Malliaropoulos N, Isinkaye T, Tsitas K, Maffulli N. Reinjury after acute posterior thigh muscle injuries in elite track and field athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:304-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 1. Between 1999 and 2007, the authors managed 165 elite track and field athletes with acute, first-time unilateral hamstring muscle strains...
  13. O Connor H, Olds T, Maughan R. Physique and performance for track and field events. J Sports Sci. 2007;25 Suppl 1:S49-60 pubmed
    ..Careful assessment of the risks and benefits of various approaches to weight and fat loss is required before they are recommended to athletes. ..
  14. Baker A, Tang Y, Turner M. Percentage decline in masters superathlete track and field performance with aging. Exp Aging Res. 2003;29:47-65 pubmed
    Masters athletic records in track and field events, published in September 1999, were analyzed to evaluate the percentage decline in maximum physiological performance with increasing age...
  15. Wright V, Perricelli B. Age-related rates of decline in performance among elite senior athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36:443-50 pubmed
    ..Age-related changes in physical performance were determined from mean winning performance times in track and field events. These were plotted against age and task for men and women...
  16. Edouard P, Pruvost J, Edouard J, Morin J. Causes of dropouts in decathlon. A pilot study. Phys Ther Sport. 2010;11:133-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Knowing the frequency and causes of dropouts in combined events seems relevant and helpful to develop strategies of injury prevention and to better define/understand the necessary qualities for decathletes...
  17. Rebella G, Edwards J, Greene J, Husen M, Brousseau D. A prospective study of injury patterns in high school pole vaulters. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36:913-20 pubmed publisher
    The pole vault is a track and field event that has witnessed a large increase in participants during the past 5 years. Currently there are no prospective studies that have evaluated injury patterns in pole vaulters...
  18. Olsson C, Jonsson B, Nyberg L. Internal imagery training in active high jumpers. Scand J Psychol. 2008;49:133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..No other differences were found. The results suggest that internal imagery training may be used to improve a component of a complex motor skill. Possible explanations and future recommendations are discussed. ..
  19. Nieper A. Nutritional supplement practices in UK junior national track and field athletes. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:645-9 pubmed
    The nutritional supplementation practices of 32 national track and field athletes competing at the 2004 World Junior Championships were studied using an anonymous questionnaire...
  20. Derevenco P, Albu M, Duma E. Forecasting of top athletic performance. Rom J Physiol. 2002;39-40:57-62 pubmed
    ..aim of this study was to attempt a prediction of world records (WR) for the next ten years in five athletic track and field and events. Our prediction has been produced by means of computer--aided mathematical models...
  21. McMillan K, Helgerud J, Macdonald R, Hoff J. Physiological adaptations to soccer specific endurance training in professional youth soccer players. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:273-7 pubmed
  22. Hastie P, Calderón A, Rolim R, Guarino A. The development of skill and knowledge during a sport education season of track and field athletics. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2013;84:336-44 pubmed instruction on students' skill and technical performance, as well as content knowledge in 3 track and field events...
  23. Lucia A, Olivan J, Gomez Gallego F, Santiago C, Montil M, Foster C. Citius and longius (faster and longer) with no alpha-actinin-3 in skeletal muscles?. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41:616-7 pubmed
    ..26 m) whose genotype for the ACTN3 gene is 577XX (ACTN3 deficient). These data suggest that there might be notable exceptions to the concept that ACTN3 is the "gene for speed". ..
  24. Connor J, Woolf J, Mazanov J. Would they dope? Revisiting the Goldman dilemma. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47:697-700 pubmed publisher
    ..This research evaluated the dilemma with contemporary elite athletes. Participants at an elite-level track and field meet in North America were segregated into an interview or online response...
  25. Piacentini M, Comotto S, Guerriero A, Bonato M, Vernillo G, La Torre A. Does the junior IAAF athletic world championship represent a springboard for the success in the throwing events? A retrospective study. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2014;54:410-6 pubmed
  26. Edouard P, Depiesse F, Hertert P, Branco P, Alonso J. Injuries and illnesses during the 2011 Paris European Athletics Indoor Championships. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013;23:e213-8 pubmed publisher
  27. Herrington L, Munro A, Comfort P. A preliminary study into the effect of jumping-landing training and strength training on frontal plane projection angle. Man Ther. 2015;20:680-5 pubmed publisher
  28. Roe M, Blake C, Gissane C, Collins K. Injury Scheme Claims in Gaelic Games: A Review of 2007-2014. J Athl Train. 2016;51:303-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Injury-claim data should be integrated into current elite injury-surveillance databases to monitor the cost effectiveness of current programs. ..
  29. Wilson G, Raglin J. Optimal and predicted anxiety in 9-12-year-old track and field athletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1997;7:253-8 pubmed
    ..of individual zone of optimal functioning (IZOF) theory in young athletes, state anxiety was assessed in 40 track and field athletes (20 male and 20 female) from 9 to 12 years of age...
  30. Terzis G, Kyriazis T, Karampatsos G, Georgiadis G. Muscle strength, body composition, and performance of an elite shot-putter. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2012;7:394-6 pubmed
    ..The results of this case study suggest that elite rotational shot-put performance may not be directly correlated with lean body mass. Instead, it seems that it is closely related with measures of muscle strength. ..
  31. Guan H, Liu T, Jiang J, Tao D, Zhang J, Niu H, et al. Classifying MCI Subtypes in Community-Dwelling Elderly Using Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal MRI-Based Biomarkers. Front Aging Neurosci. 2017;9:309 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we observed the dynamics of classification of several MRI biomarkers. Learning the dynamics of atrophy may aid in the development of better biomarkers, as it may track the progression of cognitive impairment...
  32. Murphy J, Gissane C, Blake C. Injury in elite county-level hurling: a prospective study. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46:138-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Injury incidence from match-play in particular is high compared with other sports. These findings have relevance for clinicians and coaches. ..
  33. Maraj B, Allard F, Elliott D. The effect of nonregulatory stimuli on the triple jump approach run. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1998;69:129-35 pubmed
    ..g., Lee, Lishman, & Thomson, 1982), but that the situation under which the jump is performed may have a significant effect on the performance parameters that emerge in executing this type of motor skill. ..
  34. Wang S, Chen S. Dependence of release variables in the shot put. J Biomech. 2002;35:299, 301 pubmed
  35. Van Damme R, Wilson R, Vanhooydonck B, Aerts P. Performance constraints in decathletes. Nature. 2002;415:755-6 pubmed
    ..These trade-offs may have imposed important constraints on the evolution of physical performance in humans and other vertebrates. ..
  36. Chester N, Wojek N. Caffeine consumption amongst British athletes following changes to the 2004 WADA prohibited list. Int J Sports Med. 2008;29:524-8 pubmed
    ..A convenience sample of track and field athletes (n = 193) and cyclists (n = 287) completed a postal or Web-based questionnaire...
  37. Veligekas P, Mylonas K, Zervas Y. Goal orientation and beliefs about the causes of success among Greek track and field athletes. Percept Mot Skills. 2007;105:927-38 pubmed
    ..of Success Questionnaire and the Beliefs about the Causes of Sport Success Questionnaire in a sample of Greek track and field athletes, (b) to explore goal orientation and beliefs about the causes of success in the same sample of track ..
  38. Coh M, Stuhec S, Supej M. Comparative biomechanical analysis of the rotational shot put technique. Coll Antropol. 2008;32:249-56 pubmed
  39. Zagorac N, Retelj E, Katic R. Successful pole vault influenced by certain kinematical parameters. Coll Antropol. 2008;32:1133-9 pubmed
  40. Liu G, Nguang S, Zhang Y. Pole vault performance for anthropometric variability via a dynamical optimal control model. J Biomech. 2011;44:436-41 pubmed publisher
  41. Bowman T, Palmieri Smith R. Proximal humeral epiphyseal plate fracture in a collegiate track and field decathlete: a case study. J Sport Rehabil. 2008;17:76-83 pubmed
    ..If an accurate diagnosis is made, an appropriate conservative rehabilitation program can be implemented to safely return an athlete to participation without permanent deformity following a type I Salter-Harris fracture. ..
  42. Schade F, Arampatzis A. Influence of pole plant time on the performance of a special jump and plant exercise in the pole vault. J Biomech. 2012;45:1625-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Although a late pole plant decreases the loss of energy by the vaulter during the take-off, this is counterbalanced by a decrease in the energy stored in the pole at take-off. ..
  43. Bouhlel E, Chelly M, Tabka Z, Shephard R. Relationships between maximal anaerobic power of the arms and legs and javelin performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2007;47:141-6 pubmed
    ..Fmax-L and Vmax-L were related to muscle volume and to javelin performance, respectively. Force-velocity testing may have value in regulating conditioning and rehabilitation in sports involving throwing. ..
  44. Berger N, Jones A. Pulmonary O2 uptake on-kinetics in sprint- and endurance-trained athletes. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2007;32:383-93 pubmed
    ..It appears that indices of aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance differentially influence the fundamental and slow components of the oxygen uptake kinetics. ..
  45. Livesay G, Reda D, Nauman E. Peak torque and rotational stiffness developed at the shoe-surface interface: the effect of shoe type and playing surface. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34:415-22 pubmed
    ..An improved understanding of shoe-surface interactions remains a critical need to improve the design of shoe-surface combinations with the goal of meeting player needs while minimizing injury potential. ..
  46. Laing A, Lenehan B, Ali A, Prasad C. Isolated dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint in a long jumper. Br J Sports Med. 2003;37:366-7 pubmed
    ..This is a case report in a rare horizontal type joint variant, following a long jump injury. The diagnostic approach when this injury is suspected is described. ..
  47. Eynon N, Birk R, Meckel Y, Lucia A, Nemet D, Eliakim A. Physiological variables and mitochondrial-related genotypes of an athlete who excels in both short and long-distance running. Mitochondrion. 2011;11:774-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we suggest that the case athlete is favoured by polygenic profile that is more suitable for mitochondrial biogenesis, regardless of his good phenotypic accomplishments in short-term running events. ..
  48. Panteli F, Smirniotou A, Theodorou A. Performance environment and nested task constraints influence long jump approach run: a preliminary study. J Sports Sci. 2016;34:1116-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Practising long jump run-up accuracy at a setting not containing the informational elements of the performance environment fails to develop the key elements of the skill. ..
  49. Li C, Yang Z. Evaluation of supplementing active peptide's effect on recovering skeletal muscle micro-injury after track and field exercises. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2017;30:253-256 pubmed
    To explore the effect of supplementing active peptide on recovering skeletal muscle injury after track and field exercises...
  50. Aaboud M, Aad G, Abbott B, Abdallah J, Abdinov O, Abeloos B, et al. Performance of the ATLAS track reconstruction algorithms in dense environments in LHC Run 2. Eur Phys J C Part Fields. 2017;77:673 pubmed publisher
  51. Okkonen O, HAkkinen K. Biomechanical comparison between sprint start, sled pulling, and selected squat-type exercises. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27:2662-73 pubmed publisher
    ..9 ± 3.9 years; 100-m record = 11.35 ± 0.29 seconds; track and field training years = 11.8 ± 3.1 years) volunteered as subjects...
  52. Pendergraph B, Ko B, Zamora J, Bass E. Medical coverage for track and field events. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2005;4:150-3 pubmed
    Providing medical coverage at a track and field event is similar to other spectator events, but there are some important differences...
  53. Luebbers P, Fry A. The Kansas Squat Test Modality Comparison: Free Weights vs. Smith Machine. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30:2186-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-three track and field athletes participated (mean ± SD; weight, 69.7 ± 10.6 kg; age, 20.1 ± 1.1 years) in this study...