Summary: A sport involving mountain climbing techniques.

Top Publications

  1. Bloch K, Turk A, Maggiorini M, Hess T, Merz T, Bosch M, et al. Effect of ascent protocol on acute mountain sickness and success at Muztagh Ata, 7546 m. High Alt Med Biol. 2009;10:25-32 pubmed
    ..the hypothesis that minor differences in ascent protocol influence acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms and mountaineering success in climbers to Muztagh Ata (7546 m), Western China...
  2. Bahaeloo Horeh S, Assari S. Students experience self-esteem improvement during mountaineering. Wilderness Environ Med. 2008;19:181-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We, therefore, sought to assess the effect of mountaineering on self-esteem and its correlates in university students...
  3. Gertsch J, Lipman G, Holck P, Merritt A, Mulcahy A, Fisher R, et al. Prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled comparison of acetazolamide versus ibuprofen for prophylaxis against high altitude headache: the Headache Evaluation at Altitude Trial (HEAT). Wilderness Environ Med. 2010;21:236-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Toward this end, we initiated a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in the Nepal Himalaya designed to compare the effectiveness of ibuprofen and acetazolamide for the prevention of HAH...
  4. Weinbruch S, Nordby K. Fatal accidents among elite mountaineers: A historical perspective from the European Alps. High Alt Med Biol. 2010;11:147-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The high risks should be communicated and should motivate risk-reduction efforts for this highly exposed subgroup of mountaineers. ..
  5. Modesti P, Rapi S, Paniccia R, Bilo G, Revera M, Agostoni P, et al. Index measured at an intermediate altitude to predict impending acute mountain sickness. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:1811-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to develop a predictive index, measured at an intermediate altitude, to predict the onset of AMS at a higher altitude...
  6. Engbert K, Weber M. The effects of therapeutic climbing in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:842-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding demonstrates that therapeutic climbing is equivalent and partly superior to standard exercise therapy for patients with chronic low back pain. ..
  7. Windsor J, Firth P, Grocott M, Rodway G, Montgomery H. Mountain mortality: a review of deaths that occur during recreational activities in the mountains. Postgrad Med J. 2009;85:316-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This review describes the mortality rates of those who undertake recreational activities in the mountains and examines the aetiology that lies behind them. ..
  8. Basnyat B, Hargrove J, Holck P, Srivastav S, Alekh K, Ghimire L, et al. Acetazolamide fails to decrease pulmonary artery pressure at high altitude in partially acclimatized humans. High Alt Med Biol. 2008;9:209-16 pubmed publisher
  9. Dunin Bell O, Boyle S. Secondary prevention of HAPE in a Mount Everest summiteer. High Alt Med Biol. 2009;10:293-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides clinical evidence that medication can be used to increase the safety margin for HAPE-susceptible individuals traveling to extremely high altitudes. ..

More Information


  1. Mazzoni E, Purves P, Southward J, Rhodes R, Temple V. Effect of indoor wall climbing on self-efficacy and self-perceptions of children with special needs. Adapt Phys Activ Q. 2009;26:259-73 pubmed
    ..05). These results suggest that it is likely that many experiences that enhance self-efficacy may be needed to improve self-perceptions. ..
  2. Sutherland A, Morris D, Owen C, Bron A, Roach R. Optic nerve sheath diameter, intracranial pressure and acute mountain sickness on Mount Everest: a longitudinal cohort study. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42:183-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the linkage between ONSD and ICP, these results strongly suggest that intracranial pressure plays an important role in the pathophysiology of AMS. ..
  3. Bosch M, Barthelmes D, Merz T, Truffer F, Knecht P, Petrig B, et al. Intraocular pressure during a very high altitude climb. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:1609-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Reports on intraocular pressure (IOP) changes at high altitudes have provided inconsistent and even conflicting..
  4. Ho T, Kao W, Lee S, Lin P, Chen J, Liu J. High-altitude retinopathy after climbing Mount Aconcagua in a group of experienced climbers. Retina. 2011;31:1650-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Visual disturbances after high-altitude exposure were first reported in 1969. Manifestations may include retinal hemorrhage, papilledema, and vitreous hemorrhage...
  5. Van Patot M, Leadbetter G, Keyes L, Maakestad K, Olson S, Hackett P. Prophylactic low-dose acetazolamide reduces the incidence and severity of acute mountain sickness. High Alt Med Biol. 2008;9:289-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Low-dose acetazolamide administered prior to ascent and on day 1 at 4300 m effectively reduced the incidence and severity of AMS in a high-risk setting. ..
  6. Bosch M, Barthelmes D, Merz T, Knecht P, Truffer F, Bloch K, et al. New insights into changes in corneal thickness in healthy mountaineers during a very-high-altitude climb to Mount Muztagh Ata. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:184-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the effect of very high altitude and different ascent profiles on central corneal thickness (CCT)...
  7. Basnyat B, Holck P, Pun M, Halverson S, Szawarski P, Gertsch J, et al. Spironolactone does not prevent acute mountain sickness: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial by SPACE Trial Group (spironolactone and acetazolamide trial in the prevention of acute mountain sickness group). Wilderness Environ Med. 2011;22:15-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of spironolactone in the prevention of AMS...
  8. Bosch M, Barthelmes D, Merz T, Bloch K, Turk A, Hefti U, et al. High incidence of optic disc swelling at very high altitudes. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:644-50 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Optic disc swelling occurs frequently in high-altitude climbers and is correlated with peripheral oxygen saturation and symptoms of acute mountain sickness. It is most likely the result of hypoxia-induced brain volume increase. ..
  9. Grocott M, Martin D, Levett D, McMorrow R, Windsor J, Montgomery H. Arterial blood gases and oxygen content in climbers on Mount Everest. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:140-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The elevated alveolar-arterial oxygen difference that is seen in subjects who are in conditions of extreme hypoxia may represent a degree of subclinical high-altitude pulmonary edema or a functional limitation in pulmonary diffusion. ..
  10. McIntosh S, Campbell A, Dow J, Grissom C. Mountaineering fatalities on Denali. High Alt Med Biol. 2008;9:89-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Since Denali is located within a national park, the National Park Service (NPS) manages mountaineering activities and attempts to maintain a balance of an adventurous experience while promoting safety...
  11. Willmann G, Ivanov I, Fischer M, Lahiri S, Pokharel R, Werner A, et al. Effects on colour discrimination during long term exposure to high altitudes on Mt Everest. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94:1393-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased tritan discrimination is partly reversible upon physiological adaptation to high altitude and completely normalised upon return to low altitude. ..
  12. Firth P, Zheng H, Windsor J, Sutherland A, Imray C, Moore G, et al. Mortality on Mount Everest, 1921-2006: descriptive study. BMJ. 2008;337:a2654 pubmed publisher
    ..Profound fatigue and late times in reaching the summit are early features associated with subsequent death. ..
  13. Di Rienzo M, Meriggi P, Rizzo F, Castiglioni P, Lombardi C, Ferratini M, et al. Textile technology for the vital signs monitoring in telemedicine and extreme environments. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed. 2010;14:711-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The signal quality was adequate in 111 out of 115 recordings and 90% of the subjects found the vest comfortable. ..
  14. Velikonja O, Curić K, Ozura A, Jazbec S. Influence of sports climbing and yoga on spasticity, cognitive function, mood and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2010;112:597-601 pubmed publisher
    ..5% (p=0.015), while yoga had no effect. We found no significant impact of SC and yoga on mood. Yoga and SC might improve some of the MS symptoms and should be considered in the future as possible complementary treatments. ..
  15. Wiseman C, Freer L, Hung E. Physical and medical characteristics of successful and unsuccessful summiteers of Mount Everest in 2003. Wilderness Environ Med. 2006;17:103-8 pubmed
    ..Several other factors were found to be marginally correlated with chance of success, but the power of the study was limited by a low postsummit attempt questionnaire return rate (34%). ..
  16. van Osta A, Moraine J, Melot C, Mairbäurl H, Maggiorini M, Naeije R. Effects of high altitude exposure on cerebral hemodynamics in normal subjects. Stroke. 2005;36:557-60 pubmed
    ..Neither tadalafil nor dexamethasone had any significant effect on Vmca or ARI. High altitude hypoxia is associated with impairment in the regulation of the cerebral circulation that might play a role in AMS pathogenesis. ..
  17. Zafren K, Durrer B, Herry J, Brugger H. Lightning injuries: prevention and on-site treatment in mountains and remote areas. Official guidelines of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine and the Medical Commission of the International Mountaineering and Climbing Federa. Resuscitation. 2005;65:369-72 pubmed
    ..Respiratory arrest may be prolonged, but the prognosis can be excellent if breathing is supported. Standard Advanced Life Support (ALS), if necessary, should be given at the scene...
  18. Gertsch J, Basnyat B, Johnson E, Onopa J, Holck P. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled comparison of ginkgo biloba and acetazolamide for prevention of acute mountain sickness among Himalayan trekkers: the prevention of high altitude illness trial (PHAIT). BMJ. 2004;328:797 pubmed
    ..95, 1.30 to 6.70). When compared with placebo, ginkgo is not effective at preventing acute mountain sickness. Acetazolamide 250 mg twice daily afforded robust protection against symptoms of acute mountain sickness. ..
  19. Gertsch J, Seto T, Mor J, Onopa J. Ginkgo biloba for the prevention of severe acute mountain sickness (AMS) starting one day before rapid ascent. High Alt Med Biol. 2002;3:29-37 pubmed
    ..Twenty-one of 26 (81%) subjects developed AMS overall. This is the first study to demonstrate that 1 day of pretreatment with ginkgo 60 mg TID may significantly reduce the severity of AMS prior to rapid ascent from sea level to 4205 m. ..
  20. Moore K, Vizzard N, Coleman C, McMahon J, Hayes R, Thompson C. Extreme altitude mountaineering and Type 1 diabetes; the Diabetes Federation of Ireland Kilimanjaro Expedition. Diabet Med. 2001;18:749-55 pubmed
    To examine the effects of extreme altitude mountaineering on glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetes, and to establish whether diabetes predisposes to acute mountain sickness (AMS)...
  21. Hoppeler H, Vogt M. Muscle tissue adaptations to hypoxia. J Exp Biol. 2001;204:3133-9 pubmed
    ..g. during typical mountaineering expeditions to the Himalayas...
  22. Huey R, Salisbury R, Wang J, Mao M. Effects of age and gender on success and death of mountaineers on Mount Everest. Biol Lett. 2007;3:498-500 pubmed
    ..On Mount Everest, phenotypic selection appears blind to gender but favours young mountaineers. ..
  23. Lischke V, Byhahn C, Westphal K, Kessler P. Mountaineering accidents in the European Alps: have the numbers increased in recent years?. Wilderness Environ Med. 2001;12:74-80 pubmed
    ..In the future, data concerning mountain accidents in the European Alps should be monitored according to standard definitions and stored by the International Commission for Alpine Rescue. ..
  24. Bailey D, Davies B. Acute mountain sickness; prophylactic benefits of antioxidant vitamin supplementation at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 2001;2:21-9 pubmed
  25. Sutton J, Reeves J, Groves B, Wagner P, Alexander J, Hultgren H, et al. Oxygen transport and cardiovascular function at extreme altitude: lessons from Operation Everest II. Int J Sports Med. 1992;13 Suppl 1:S13-8 pubmed
    ..4) Oxygen extraction--maximal with PvO2 14.8 +/- 1 mmHg. With increasing altitude maximal blood and muscle lactate progressively declined although at any submaximal intensity blood and muscle lactate was higher at higher altitudes. ..
  26. Hillenbrand P, Pahari A, Soon Y, Subedi D, Bajracharya R, Gurung P, et al. Prevention of acute mountain sickness by acetazolamide in Nepali porters: a double-blind controlled trial. Wilderness Environ Med. 2006;17:87-93 pubmed
    ..A good trekking schedule and adequate acclimatization remain the most effective preventive measures. This study identified lowland porters as a high-risk group for developing AMS. ..
  27. Monasterio M. Accident and fatality characteristics in a population of mountain climbers in New Zealand. N Z Med J. 2005;118:U1249 pubmed
    ..At 4-year follow-up, results were available on 46 (94%) climbers. There were nine further accidents and four deaths from climbing misadventure. Mountain climbing is associated with a high risk of serious injury and mortality. ..
  28. Okumura A, Fuse H, Kawauchi Y, Mizuno I, Akashi T. Changes in male reproductive function after high altitude mountaineering. High Alt Med Biol. 2003;4:349-53 pubmed
    ..The tests were completely normal after 2 yr. We suggest that a high altitude sojourn may induce reversible spermatogenic and Leydig cell dysfunction. ..
  29. Pugh L. Physiological and medical aspects of the Himalayan Scientific and Mountaineering Expedition, 1960-61. 1962. Wilderness Environ Med. 2002;13:57 pubmed
  30. Westerterp K. Limits to sustainable human metabolic rate. J Exp Biol. 2001;204:3183-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, trained subjects climbing Mount Everest reached PAL values of 2.0-2.7, well below the observed upper limit at sea level. ..
  31. Huey R, Eguskitza X. Limits to human performance: elevated risks on high mountains. J Exp Biol. 2001;204:3115-9 pubmed
    ..Although these patterns are based on non-experimental and uncontrolled data, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that increasing altitude is associated with decreased success and with increased risk of death. ..
  32. Angood P, Satava R, Doarn C, Merrell R. Telemedicine at the top of the world: the 1998 and 1999 Everest extreme expeditions. Telemed J E Health. 2000;6:315-25 pubmed
  33. Lee W, Chen S, Wu M, Hou C, Lai Y, Laio Y, et al. The role of dehydroepiandrosterone levels on physiologic acclimatization to chronic mountaineering activity. High Alt Med Biol. 2006;7:228-36 pubmed
    ..The present study investigated the effect of a 25-day mountaineering activity on glucose tolerance and its relation to serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and ..
  34. Pavlidis M, Stupp T, Georgalas I, Georgiadou E, Moschos M, Thanos S. Multifocal electroretinography changes in the macula at high altitude: a report of three cases. Ophthalmologica. 2005;219:404-12 pubmed
    ..For this reason, this population should avoid prolonged and unnecessary high-altitude exposure without proper acclimatization. ..
  35. Proffitt F. Physiology. Science in the 'death zone'. Science. 2005;308:1541-2 pubmed
  36. Heitkamp H, Worner C, Horstmann T. [Sport climbing with adolescents: effect on spine stabilising muscle strength]. Sportverletz Sportschaden. 2005;19:28-32 pubmed
    ..Sport climbing in adolescence leads to increased muscle strength of the spine muscles and to an increased muscular balance; thus, for prevention of back pain climbing courses may be introduced in high schools. ..
  37. Hotta J, Hanaoka M, Droma Y, Katsuyama Y, Ota M, Kobayashi T. Polymorphisms of renin-angiotensin system genes with high-altitude pulmonary edema in Japanese subjects. Chest. 2004;126:825-30 pubmed
    ..Investigating the associations of the polymorphisms in the genes of RAS with HAPE is to elucidate the genetic background underlying this disease...
  38. Jansen G, Kagenaar D, Basnyat B, Odoom J. Basilar artery blood flow velocity and the ventilatory response to acute hypoxia in mountaineers. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2002;133:65-74 pubmed
    ..The conflicting effects of hypoxia and hypocapnia on both medullary blood flow and ventilatory drive thus balance out, giving climbers a greater drive and higher Sa(O(2)), despite lower PET(CO(2)) and lower brain stem blood flow. ..
  39. Malcolm M. Mountaineering fatalities in Mt Cook National Park. N Z Med J. 2001;114:78-80 pubmed
    To estimate the risk of death associated with mountaineering in the Mt Cook National Park (MCNP), and to describe some characteristics of the fatal events...
  40. Nicholson A, Smith P, Stone B, Bradwell A, Coote J. Altitude insomnia: studies during an expedition to the Himalayas. Sleep. 1988;11:354-61 pubmed
    ..Studies are now needed to exclude any possibility of respiratory impairment at altitude before a firm recommendation can be made regarding the routine use of this hypnotic. ..
  41. Grocott M, Richardson A, Montgomery H, Mythen M. Caudwell Xtreme Everest: a field study of human adaptation to hypoxia. Crit Care. 2007;11:151 pubmed
    ..The goal of CXE is to further our understanding of human adaptation to cellular hypoxia, a fundamental mechanism of injury in critical illness, with the aim of improving the care of critically ill patients. ..
  42. Basnyat B, Gertsch J, Holck P, Johnson E, Luks A, Donham B, et al. Acetazolamide 125 mg BD is not significantly different from 375 mg BD in the prevention of acute mountain sickness: the prophylactic acetazolamide dosage comparison for efficacy (PACE) trial. High Alt Med Biol. 2006;7:17-27 pubmed
    ..02). We conclude that 125 mg bd of acetazolamide is not significantly different from 375 mg bd in the prevention of AMS; 125 mg bd should be considered the preferred dosage when indicated for persons ascending to altitudes above 2500 m. ..
  43. Wu T, Li S, Ward M. Tibetans at extreme altitude. Wilderness Environ Med. 2005;16:47-54 pubmed
    ..These differences appear to represent genetic adaptations and are obviously significant for humans at extreme altitude. This paper reviews what is known about the physiologic responses of Tibetans at extreme altitudes. ..
  44. Peters P. Mountain sports and total hip arthroplasty: a case report and review of mountaineering with total hip arthroplasty. Wilderness Environ Med. 2003;14:106-11 pubmed
    ..and who resumed, after each rehabilitation, his preoperative sports practice (eg, walking and high-altitude mountaineering [6000+ m])...
  45. Litch J, Bishop R. Reascent following resolution of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). High Alt Med Biol. 2001;2:53-5 pubmed
    ..The evidence for protective pulmonary vascular remodeling is discussed to further support such a recommendation for cases of uncomplicated HAPE. ..
  46. Luo Y, Yang X, Gao Y. Strategies for the prevention of acute mountain sickness and treatment for large groups making a rapid ascent in China. Int J Cardiol. 2013;169:97-100 pubmed publisher
    ..The incidence of acute mountain sickness can be reduced by improving prevention and treatment and by implementing the recommendations described in this manuscript. ..
  47. Sanchez X, Boschker M, Llewellyn D. Pre-performance psychological states and performance in an elite climbing competition. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20:356-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The psychological states preceding elite climbing competition appeared to be an important factor in determining success, even when differences in baseline ability were taken into account. ..
  48. Lubick N. Scaling peaks: the life and science of Walter Giger. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:6313-7 pubmed
  49. Felicijan A, Golja P, Milcinski M, Cheung S, Mekjavic I. Enhancement of cold-induced vasodilatation following acclimatization to altitude. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;104:201-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A control group (N = 7) with no mountaineering experience was tested at the same time points...
  50. Shimizu M, Miyagawa K, Iwashita S, Noda T, Hamada K, Genno H, et al. Energy expenditure during 2-day trail walking in the mountains (2,857 m) and the effects of amino acid supplementation in older men and women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112:1077-86 pubmed publisher
    ..2). Thus, trail walking in the mountains required a high-intensity effort for older people, while the effects of BCAA and arginine supplementation were modest in this condition. ..
  51. Clarke C. Endeavour, altitude and risk: reflections on a lifetime of mountaineering and exploration. J Med Biogr. 2012;20:130-5 pubmed publisher
    ..I have spent a lifetime climbing mountains, with a focus on the exploration of remote regions. I also deal here with the physiological and medical challenges that high altitude mountaineering poses, and discuss its risks.
  52. MacCormick I, Somner J, Morris D, MacGillivray T, Bourne R, Huang S, et al. Retinal vessel tortuosity in response to hypobaric hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol. 2012;13:263-8 pubmed publisher
    ..nct00664001, nct00627965. ..
  53. Fanshan M, Lin Z, Wenqing L, Chunlei L, Yongqiang L, Naiyi L. Functions of standard CPR training on performance qualities of medical volunteers for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival. BMC Emerg Med. 2013;13 Suppl 1:S3 pubmed publisher
    ..16~14.2). The CPR performance qualities of volunteers who had had repeating standard training were much higher than those of untrained medical workers, which proved that standard training helped improve CPR performance qualities. ..