martial arts


Summary: Activities in which participants learn self-defense mainly through the use of hand-to-hand combat. Judo involves throwing an opponent to the ground while karate (which includes kung fu and tae kwon do) involves kicking and punching an opponent.

Top Publications

  1. Machado S, Osorio R, Silva N, Magini M. Biomechanical analysis of the muscular power of martial arts athletes. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2010;48:573-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study uniquely showed that muscular enhancement capacity is not only related to the power capacity of contraction but also to motor coordination. ..
  2. Groen B, Smulders E, de Kam D, Duysens J, Weerdesteyn V. Martial arts fall training to prevent hip fractures in the elderly. Osteoporos Int. 2010;21:215-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggested that martial arts fall techniques may be trainable in older individuals. Better performance resulted in a reduced impact force...
  3. Torres E. Two classes of movements in motor control. Exp Brain Res. 2011;215:269-83 pubmed publisher
    ..To this end, we tested 5 novices and 1 karate expert as they performed beginner's martial arts routines...
  4. Rossi L, Schaefer Cardoso M, Torres H, Ragasso Casalenovo V. Heat stress and dehydration in kendo. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2011;51:603-8 pubmed
  5. Inoue S, Karita K, Yano E. Geographical distribution of judo therapists and orthopedists in Japan. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2005;28:253-8 pubmed
    ..In smaller municipalities, judo therapist facilities may fill in the absence of orthopedists. As for lager municipalities, further study is needed to examine whether the relationships between them are competitive or complementary. ..
  6. Weerdesteyn V, Groen B, van Swigchem R, Duysens J. Martial arts fall techniques reduce hip impact forces in naive subjects after a brief period of training. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2008;18:235-42 pubmed
    Hip fractures are among the most serious consequences of falls in the elderly. Martial arts (MA) fall techniques may reduce hip fracture risk, as they are known to reduce hip impact forces by approximately 30% in experienced fallers...
  7. Baker J, Schorer J. The southpaw advantage? Lateral preference in mixed martial arts. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79793 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined whether combat stance orientation was related to skill and success in Mixed Martial Arts fighters. Data were extracted for 1468 mixed martial artists from a reliable and valid online data source...
  8. Jetton A, Lawrence M, Meucci M, Haines T, Collier S, Morris D, et al. Dehydration and acute weight gain in mixed martial arts fighters before competition. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27:1322-6 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to characterize the magnitude of acute weight gain (AWG) and dehydration in mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters before competition...
  9. Robazza B, Bertollo M, Bortoli L. Frequency and direction of competitive anger in contact sports. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2006;46:501-8 pubmed
    ..Practitioners should assist athletes in gaining control over anger rather than attempting to suppress it. ..

More Information


  1. Okumura M, Kijima A, Kadota K, Yokoyama K, Suzuki H, Yamamoto Y. A critical interpersonal distance switches between two coordination modes in kendo matches. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51877 pubmed publisher
    ..These dynamics are profoundly affected by the task constraints of kendo and the physical constraints of the players. Thus, the current study identifies the clear behavioral dynamics that emerge in a sport setting. ..
  2. Tanimura Y, Kon M, Shimizu K, Kimura F, Kono I, Ajisaka R. Effect of 6-day intense Kendo training on lymphocyte counts and its expression of CD95. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;107:227-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, short-term high-intensity exercise induced a decrease in the T lymphocyte counts without increasing in CD95(+) expression. ..
  3. Franchini E, Del Vecchio F, Matsushigue K, Artioli G. Physiological profiles of elite judo athletes. Sports Med. 2011;41:147-66 pubmed publisher
    ..However, further research is needed concerning the differences among the seven weight categories in which judo athletes compete. ..
  4. Bu B, Haijun H, Yong L, Chaohui Z, Xiaoyuan Y, Singh M. Effects of martial arts on health status: a systematic review. J Evid Based Med. 2010;3:205-19 pubmed publisher
    To systematically summarize the evidence for the effects of martial arts on health and fitness, to show the strengths of different types of martial arts, and to get a more complete picture of the impacts of martial arts on health, and ..
  5. Kon M, Tanabe K, Akimoto T, Kimura F, Tanimura Y, Shimizu K, et al. Reducing exercise-induced muscular injury in kendo athletes with supplementation of coenzyme Q10. Br J Nutr. 2008;100:903-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum scavenging activity against superoxide anion did not change in either group. These results indicate that CoQ10 supplementation reduced exercise-induced muscular injury in athletes. ..
  6. Sbriccoli P, Bazzucchi I, Di Mario A, Marzattinocci G, Felici F. Assessment of maximal cardiorespiratory performance and muscle power in the Italian Olympic judoka. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21:738-44 pubmed
    ..Having these results in top-level athletes may represent a useful contribution to the work of coaches and trainers in optimizing training programs for the achievement of the best performance of the judoka. ..
  7. Burke D, al Adawi S, Lee Y, Audette J. Martial arts as sport and therapy. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2007;47:96-102 pubmed
    The term Martial Arts is often used as general phrase to describe many of the combat arts, which have developed in eastern cultures over the past millennium...
  8. Groen B, Weerdesteyn V, Duysens J. Martial arts fall techniques decrease the impact forces at the hip during sideways falling. J Biomech. 2007;40:458-62 pubmed
    ..A previous study has indicated that martial arts (MA) fall techniques can reduce hip impact force, but the underlying mechanism is unknown...
  9. Pieter W. Martial arts injuries. Med Sport Sci. 2005;48:59-73 pubmed
    To review the current evidence for the epidemiology of pediatric injuries in martial arts. The relevant literature was searched using SPORT DISCUS (keywords: martial arts injuries, judo injuries, karate injuries, and taekwondo injuries ..
  10. Terry C. The martial arts. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2006;17:645-76 pubmed
    Given the increasing popularity of the martial arts, it is likely that physicians in all specialties encounter patients who participate...
  11. Yard E, Knox C, Smith G, Comstock R. Pediatric martial arts injuries presenting to Emergency Departments, United States 1990-2003. J Sci Med Sport. 2007;10:219-26 pubmed
    ..Describe pediatric martial arts injuries presenting to a representative sample of US Emergency Departments (EDs) from 1990 to 2003...
  12. Ravier G, Dugue B, Grappe F, Rouillon J. Impressive anaerobic adaptations in elite karate athletes due to few intensive intermittent sessions added to regular karate training. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009;19:687-94 pubmed publisher
  13. Tomlinson C, Patel S, Meek C, Clarke C, Stowe R, Shah L, et al. Physiotherapy versus placebo or no intervention in Parkinson's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;:CD002817 pubmed publisher
    ..the following intervention comparisons: general physiotherapy, exercise, treadmill training, cueing, dance and martial arts. We used tests for heterogeneity to assess for differences in treatment effect across these different ..
  14. Artioli G, Gualano B, Coelho D, Benatti F, Gailey A, Lancha A. Does sodium-bicarbonate ingestion improve simulated judo performance?. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007;17:206-17 pubmed
    ..Ratings of perceived exertion did not differ between treatments. In conclusion, sodium bicarbonate improves judo-related performance and increases blood lactate concentration but has no effect on perceived exertion. ..
  15. Gulledge J, Dapena J. A comparison of the reverse and power punches in oriental martial arts. J Sports Sci. 2008;26:189-96 pubmed
    ..2 vs. 37.7 N x s). The results indicate that the power punch is less potent than the reverse punch, but slightly more effective for throwing the opponent off balance. ..
  16. Zetaruk M, Violan M, Zurakowski D, Micheli L. Injuries in martial arts: a comparison of five styles. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:29-33 pubmed
    To compare five martial arts with respect to injury outcomes. A one year retrospective cohort was studied using an injury survey...
  17. Degoutte F, Jouanel P, Filaire E. Energy demands during a judo match and recovery. Br J Sports Med. 2003;37:245-9 pubmed
    ..These results show that a judo match induces both protein and lipid metabolism. Carbohydrate availability, training adaptation, and metabolic stress may explain the requirement for these types of metabolism. ..
  18. Reynes E, Lorant J. Competitive martial arts and aggressiveness: a 2-yr. longitudinal study among young boys. Percept Mot Skills. 2004;98:103-15 pubmed
    ..However, the results suggested the importance of kata or meditation in training sessions on self-control acquisition for such young boys. ..
  19. Filaire E, Maso F, Degoutte F, Jouanel P, Lac G. Food restriction, performance, psychological state and lipid values in judo athletes. Int J Sports Med. 2001;22:454-9 pubmed
    ..The data indicated that a 7-day food restriction adversely affects the physiology and psychology of judo athletes and impairs physical performance, possibly due to inadequate carbohydrate and micronutrients. ..
  20. Hughes P, Sherrill C, Myers B, Rowe N, Marshall D. Self-defense and martial arts evaluation for college women: preliminary validation of perceptions of dangerous situations scale. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2003;74:153-64 pubmed
    b>Martial arts and self-defense programs train fearful people, especially women, to be more competent and confident to defend themselves in dangerous situations...
  21. Brudnak M, Dundero D, Van Hecke F. Are the 'hard' martial arts, such as the Korean martial art, TaeKwon-Do, of benefit to senior citizens?. Med Hypotheses. 2002;59:485-91 pubmed
    ..However, to date, there have been no studies with senior citizens using other martial arts, of which, TC is but one...
  22. Mikheev M, Mohr C, Afanasiev S, Landis T, Thut G. Motor control and cerebral hemispheric specialization in highly qualified judo wrestlers. Neuropsychologia. 2002;40:1209-19 pubmed
  23. Zivin G, Hassan N, DePaula G, Monti D, Harlan C, Hossain K, et al. An effective approach to violence prevention: traditional martial arts in middle school. Adolescence. 2001;36:443-59 pubmed
    ..changes in psychological risk factors after being required to take a school-linked course in traditional martial arts. In the present study, 60 boys in a large urban middle school were required to take a traditional martial arts ..
  24. Reynes E, Lorant J. Do competitive martial arts attract aggressive children?. Percept Mot Skills. 2001;93:382-6 pubmed
    The purpose of the present study was to ascertain whether children beginning martial arts training were more aggressive than their peers. 150 8-yr.-old children were administered the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire...
  25. Park J, Ro K, Lee D. Snapping knee caused by a popliteomeniscal fascicle tear of the lateral meniscus in a professional Taekwondo athlete. Orthopedics. 2012;35:e1104-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of snapping of the lateral aspect of the knee due to a popliteomeniscal fascicle tear. ..
  26. Kim J, Lee N, Trilk J, Kim E, Kim S, Lee M, et al. Effects of sprint interval training on elite Judoists. Int J Sports Med. 2011;32:929-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggested that SIT program for elite Judoists would be effective to increase anaerobic power in a short period during off-season training. ..
  27. Pallarés J, Martínez Abellán A, López Gullón J, Morán Navarro R, De la Cruz Sánchez E, Mora Rodriguez R. Muscle contraction velocity, strength and power output changes following different degrees of hypohydration in competitive olympic combat sports. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016;13:10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the advantage of competing in a lower weight category could compensate the declines in neuromuscular performance at the onset of competition, since 69 % of medal winners underwent marked hypohydration. ..
  28. Woodward T. A review of the effects of martial arts practice on health. WMJ. 2009;108:40-3 pubmed
    b>Martial arts are ancient forms of combat, modified for modern sport and exercise. Participation in the martial arts is increasing, particularly for youth...
  29. Finaud J, Degoutte F, Scislowski V, Rouveix M, Durand D, Filaire E. Competition and food restriction effects on oxidative stress in judo. Int J Sports Med. 2006;27:834-41 pubmed
    ..Theses results could be linked to the food containing a large proportion of PUFA and a relative low proportion of carbohydrates. ..
  30. Koga T, Umeda T, Kojima A, Tanabe M, Yamamoto Y, Takahashi I, et al. Influence of a 3-month training program on muscular damage and neutrophil function in male university freshman judoists. Luminescence. 2013;28:136-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term training strengthened muscular function and improved neutrophil reaction against practice-mediated stress. ..
  31. Paillard T, Montoya R, Dupui P. Influence of postural regulation in male judokas' direction of falls. Percept Mot Skills. 2005;101:885-90 pubmed
    ..Postural activities might not play a direct role but perhaps an indirect one in the direction of falls by expert judokas. ..
  32. McAnulty S, McAnulty L, Collier S, Souza Junior T, McBride J. Tai Chi and Kung-Fu practice maintains physical performance but not vascular health in young versus old participants. Phys Sportsmed. 2016;44:184-9 pubmed publisher
    Kung-Fu and Tai Chi along with other martial arts are gaining popularity but studies examining the benefits of martial arts on physical fitness, vascular health, nutrition, and psychological wellness are limited...
  33. Kutlu M, Guler G. Assessment of hydration status by urinary analysis of elite junior taekwon-do athletes in preparing for competition. J Sports Sci. 2006;24:869-73 pubmed
    ..In addition, it appears that each of the four methods used gave essentially the same estimate of hydration status of these athletes. ..
  34. Otsuki T, Shimizu K, Iemitsu M, Kono I. Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants. Nutr J. 2012;11:103 pubmed publisher
    ..113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 ?g/min). Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport. ..
  35. Del Percio C, Brancucci A, Vecchio F, Marzano N, Pirritano M, Meccariello E, et al. Visual event-related potentials in elite and amateur athletes. Brain Res Bull. 2007;74:104-12 pubmed
    ..These results support the hypothesis that peculiar mechanisms of occipital neural synchronization can be observed in elite athletes during visuo-spatial demands, possibly to underlie sustained visuo-spatial attention and self-control. ..
  36. Paillard T. Physiological profile of fighters influences training organisation in combat sports: response to Del Vecchio, Hirata, and Franchini (2011). Percept Mot Skills. 2011;113:803-4 pubmed
    ..2011) provides relevant information to trainers about the effort-pause ratio during mixed martial arts matches. Taking into account the physiological profiles of fighters would increase interest in these findings.
  37. Pape H. Young women who commit intimate partner violence. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2011;131:1994-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results should be seen in light of the reservation that surveys of the normal population only to a limited extent capture really serious violence in intimate relationships. ..
  38. Kruppa C, Goericke S, Matheney T, Ozokyay L, Schildhauer T, Muhr G, et al. [Blunt force injuries due to martial arts in children--a diagnostic problem? Delayed diagnosis of an infected hematoma]. Unfallchirurg. 2010;113:866-9 pubmed publisher
    Blunt force injuries in martial arts occur frequently but isolated hematoma of muscles in the extremities is rare...
  39. Bae J, Shin K. [Estimating the prevalence of atopic dermatitis in school students of jejudo, Korea]. J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42:171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..41% (95% CI=14.2-14.6), respectively. On comparing the prevalence of AD, the students in Jejudo had a higher number of recurrence events in spite of their lower number of cases. Further studies are needed to evaluate these aspects of AD. ..
  40. Shimizu K, Aizawa K, Suzuki N, Masuchi K, Okada H, Akimoto T, et al. Influences of weight loss on monocytes and T-cell subpopulations in male judo athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:1943-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Coaches, support staff, and athletes should monitor athletes' weight loss, hydration status, appearance of URTI symptoms, and immunocompetence such as lymphocytes and monocytes to prevent the physical condition from becoming worse. ..
  41. Feltman R, Elliot A. The influence of red on perceptions of relative dominance and threat in a competitive context. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2011;33:308-14 pubmed
    ..Our findings lead to practical suggestions regarding the use of colored attire in sport contexts, and add to an emerging, provocative literature indicating that red has a subtle but important influence on psychological functioning. ..
  42. Shiraki Y, Hiruma M, Hirose N, Ikeda S. Commonly affected body sites in 92 Japanese combat sports participants with Trichophyton tonsurans infection. Mycoses. 2009;52:339-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Initial screening of these sites might facilitate the identification of the infection especially in judo practitioners. ..
  43. Green C, Petrou M, Fogarty Hover M, Rolf C. Injuries among judokas during competition. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2007;17:205-10 pubmed
    ..Judokas are advised not to lose weight before a competition as this increases the risk of injury. Neither grade, nor gender, or weight category are associated with an increase in injury rate. ..
  44. Korobeynikov G, Mazmanian K, Korobeynikova L, Jagiello W. Diagnostics of psychophysiological states and motivation in elite athletes. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2011;112:637-43 pubmed
    ..This can be viewed as an effect of training in athletes (Tab. 3, Fig. 1, Ref. 38). ..
  45. Tsai M, Chou K, Chang C, Fang S. Changes of mucosal immunity and antioxidation activity in elite male Taiwanese taekwondo athletes associated with intensive training and rapid weight loss. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45:729-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, because of the "open window" of impaired immunity during the precompetition period, the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection was significantly increased after the competition. ..
  46. Katic R, Jukić J, Cavala M, Vucić D, Blazević S. Motor determinants of fighting efficacy in Croatian youth karateka. Coll Antropol. 2013;37 Suppl 2:1-8 pubmed
  47. Sasa T, Yoshizumi Y, Imada K, Aoki M, Terai T, Koizumi T, et al. Cervical spondylolysis in a judo player: a case report and biomechanical analysis. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2009;129:559-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we recommended that judo players with cervical spondylolysis should change to non-contact sports, such as jogging. ..
  48. Itaka T, Agemizu K, Aruga S, Machida S. G Allele of the IGF2 ApaI Polymorphism Is Associated With Judo Status. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30:2043-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, no differences were found in back muscle or handgrip strength among the ACTN3 genotypes. In conclusion, the results indicate that the IGF2 gene polymorphism may be associated with judo status. ..
  49. Chishaki T, Umeda T, Takahashi I, Matsuzaka M, Iwane K, Matsumoto H, et al. Effects of dehydration on immune functions after a judo practice session. Luminescence. 2013;28:114-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that dehydration resulted in immunosuppression, including decreased neutrophil function. ..
  50. Doiz E, Garrido F, Conejero R, Garcia P, Fernandez E. Acute pseudoaneurysm of the femoral artery after repeated trauma in full-contact karate practice. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42:1004-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The majority appear asymptomatically as a pulsatile mass, although on occasions clinical signs of compression (pain, neurological or venous symptoms) may occur or, if the aneurysm bursts, hypovolemic shock. ..
  51. van der Zijden A, Groen B, Tanck E, Nienhuis B, Verdonschot N, Weerdesteyn V. Can martial arts techniques reduce fall severity? An in vivo study of femoral loading configurations in sideways falls. J Biomech. 2012;45:1650-5 pubmed publisher
    Sideways falls onto the hip are a major cause of femoral fractures in the elderly. Martial arts (MA) fall techniques decrease hip impact forces in sideways falls...
  52. De Crée C. Acute weight cycling versus long-term judo practice in male and female judoists. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39:208; author reply 209 pubmed
  53. Manjarrez Montes de Oca R, Farfán González F, Camarillo Romero S, Tlatempa Sotelo P, Francisco Argüelles C, Kormanowski A, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation in taekwondo practitioners. Nutr Hosp. 2013;28:391-9 pubmed publisher
    ..La suplementación parece ser segura, pero es necesario ser cuidadosos cuando se busca disminuir el peso corporal. ..