Summary: A system of exercise using the weight of the body and specific apparatus to promote strength and grace of carriage.

Top Publications

  1. Theodoropoulou A, Markou K, Vagenakis G, Benardot D, Leglise M, Kourounis G, et al. Delayed but normally progressed puberty is more pronounced in artistic compared with rhythmic elite gymnasts due to the intensity of training. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:6022-7 pubmed
    ..The objective of the investigation was to study the impact of gymnastics on pubertal development in rhythmic (RGs) and artistic gymnasts (AGs)...
  2. Webb B, Rettig L. Gymnastic wrist injuries. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2008;7:289-95 pubmed publisher
    ..are increased during upper extremity weight-bearing and predispose the wrist to high rates of injury during gymnastics. Distal radius stress injuries are the most common and most documented gymnastic wrist conditions...
  3. Ozer Kaya D, Duzgun I, Baltaci G, Karacan S, Colakoglu F. Effects of calisthenics and Pilates exercises on coordination and proprioception in adult women: a randomized controlled trial. J Sport Rehabil. 2012;21:235-43 pubmed
    ..Calisthenic exercises may be useful for individuals who require improved coordination. ..
  4. Gurd B, Klentrou P. Physical and pubertal development in young male gymnasts. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;95:1011-5 pubmed
  5. Erlandson M, Kontulainen S, Chilibeck P, Arnold C, Baxter Jones A. Bone mineral accrual in 4- to 10-year-old precompetitive, recreational gymnasts: a 4-year longitudinal study. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:1313-20 pubmed publisher
    ..However, less is known about the effect of recreational and/or precompetitive gymnastics participation on bone development...
  6. Daly R, Caine D, Bass S, Pieter W, Broekhoff J. Growth of highly versus moderately trained competitive female artistic gymnasts. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37:1053-60 pubmed
  7. Ackland T, Elliott B, Richards J. Growth in body size affects rotational performance in women's gymnastics. Sports Biomech. 2003;2:163-76 pubmed
    ..g. back rotation), performance on others like the front rotation and vertical jump, appeared partly immune to the physical and mechanical changes associated with growth. ..
  8. Erlandson M, Sherar L, Mirwald R, Maffulli N, Baxter Jones A. Growth and maturation of adolescent female gymnasts, swimmers, and tennis players. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:34-42 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The results from this study suggest that regular training did not affect final adult stature and that, when aligned by biological age, the tempo of sexual maturation was similar in these young athletes. ..
  9. Markou K, Mylonas P, Theodoropoulou A, Kontogiannis A, Leglise M, Vagenakis A, et al. The influence of intensive physical exercise on bone acquisition in adolescent elite female and male artistic gymnasts. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:4383-7 pubmed
    ..The age of onset, the duration, and the intensity of exercise attenuate the bone acquisition, at least in female artistic gymnasts. ..

More Information


  1. Pollock N, Laing E, Modlesky C, O Connor P, Lewis R. Former college artistic gymnasts maintain higher BMD: a nine-year follow-up. Osteoporos Int. 2006;17:1691-7 pubmed artistic gymnasts maintained significantly higher aBMD than controls 24 years after retirement from gymnastics training and competition...
  2. Claessens A, Lefevre J, Beunen G, Malina R. Maturity-associated variation in the body size and proportions of elite female gymnasts 14-17 years of age. Eur J Pediatr. 2006;165:186-92 pubmed
    ..0-17.9 years of age, who had participated in the 24th World Championship in Artistic Gymnastics, Rotterdam. Height, body mass, sitting height and biacromial and bicristal breadths were measured...
  3. Laing E, Wilson A, Modlesky C, O Connor P, Hall D, Lewis R. Initial years of recreational artistic gymnastics training improves lumbar spine bone mineral accrual in 4- to 8-year-old females. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:509-19 pubmed
    ..Prepubertal females who enrolled in beginning artistic gymnastics (n = 65) had lower bone mineral than controls (n = 78)...
  4. Thomis M, Claessens A, Lefevre J, Philippaerts R, Beunen G, Malina R. Adolescent growth spurts in female gymnasts. J Pediatr. 2005;146:239-44 pubmed
    ..The results emphasize a primary role for constitutional factors in the selection process of female gymnasts at relatively young ages. ..
  5. Georgopoulos N, Theodoropoulou A, Leglise M, Vagenakis A, Markou K. Growth and skeletal maturation in male and female artistic gymnasts. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:4377-82 pubmed
    ..001) for female AG and to Delta age - bone age (P < 0.001) for male AG. In conclusion, a deterioration of growth in AG was observed. For both sexes, genetic predisposition to final height, although altered, was not disrupted. ..
  6. Nurmi Lawton J, Baxter Jones A, Mirwald R, Bishop J, Taylor P, Cooper C, et al. Evidence of sustained skeletal benefits from impact-loading exercise in young females: a 3-year longitudinal study. J Bone Miner Res. 2004;19:314-22 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence of sustained skeletal benefits from impact-loading exercise, which are unlikely to result entirely from heredity, throughout pubertal years. ..
  7. Weimann E, Witzel C, Schwidergall S, Böhles H. Peripubertal perturbations in elite gymnasts caused by sport specific training regimes and inadequate nutritional intake. Int J Sports Med. 2000;21:210-5 pubmed
    ..There is a peripubertal change favouring fat mass over muscle mass in females while there is a net gain of muscle mass during pubertal development in males. ..
  8. Georgopoulos N, Markou K, Theodoropoulou A, Benardot D, Leglise M, Vagenakis A. Growth retardation in artistic compared with rhythmic elite female gymnasts. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:3169-73 pubmed
    We studied 129 female rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and 142 female artistic gymnasts (AG) who participated in the 1999 Gymnastics World Championship for RG in Osaka, Japan, and the 1999 and 2001 Gymnastics World Championships for AG in Tianjin, ..
  9. Damsgaard R, Bencke J, Matthiesen G, Petersen J, Muller J. Is prepubertal growth adversely affected by sport?. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:1698-703 pubmed
    ..A total of 184 children (96 girls, 88 boys), competing in swimming, tennis, team handball, and gymnastics, were investigated, assessing their height, weight, pubertal development, and BMI...
  10. Viciana J, Cervelló E, Ramirez Lechuga J. Effect of manipulating positive and negative feedback on goal orientations, perceived motivational climate, satisfaction, task choice, perception of ability, and attitude toward physical education lessons. Percept Mot Skills. 2007;105:67-82 pubmed
    ..The effects of feedback on physical education students' motivation are discussed. ..
  11. Menezes L, Novaes J, Fernandes Filho J. [Pre-and post-pubertal rhythmic gymnastics athletes' physical qualities]. Rev Salud Publica (Bogota). 2012;14:238-47 pubmed
    Identifying and comparinge the physical qualities of Brazilian athletes and practitioners of rhythmic gymnastics. 125 Brazilian athletes and rhythmic gymnasts practitioners of Rhythmic Gymnastics fromaged 7 to 25 years- old were evaluated...
  12. Delas S, Babin J, Katic R. Effects of biomotor structures on performance of competitive gymnastics elements in elementary school female sixth-graders. Coll Antropol. 2007;31:979-85 pubmed
    In order to identify biomotor systems that determine performance of competitive gymnastics elements in elementary school female sixth-graders, factor structures of morphological characteristics and basic motor abilities were determined ..
  13. Kokubo Y, Yokoyama Y, Kisara K, Ohira Y, Sunami A, Yoshizaki T, et al. Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Bodily Iron Status Among Japanese Collegiate Elite Female Rhythmic Gymnasts. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2016;26:105-13 pubmed publisher
    ..669, 0.990], p = .039). Participants in the preseason's weight-loss periods showed a tendency toward insufficient nutrient intake and were at a high risk for ID, particularly because of lower protein intake. ..
  14. Mathieu L, Dumontier C. [Kienböck's disease in a nine-year-old boy: a case report]. Chir Main. 2009;28:99-102 pubmed publisher
    ..It resulted in a clinically normal wrist and complete revascularisation of the lunate on MRI. This case suggests that the natural course of Kienböck's disease can be more favourable in children as compared to adults. ..
  15. Croix G, Chollet D, Thouvarecq R. Effect of expertise level on the perceptual characteristics of gymnasts. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:1458-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, a high level of gymnastics training may improve the ability to change the frame of reference...
  16. Maimoun L, Coste O, Mura T, Philibert P, Galtier F, Mariano Goulart D, et al. Specific bone mass acquisition in elite female athletes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:2844-53 pubmed publisher, which was based on linear mixed models for longitudinal data, demonstrated that the osteogenic effect of gymnastics is characterized by greater bone mass gain localized at mechanically loaded bone (ie, the proximal femur) ..
  17. von Lassberg C, Beykirch K, Campos J, Krug J. Smooth pursuit eye movement adaptation in high level gymnasts. Motor Control. 2012;16:176-94 pubmed
    ..These results have interesting implications for understanding the characteristics of eye-movements in expert populations as well as understanding the general principles that underlie oculomotor adaptation. ..
  18. Hall E, Bishop D, Gee T. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0148790 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors. ..
  19. Erlandson M, Kontulainen S, Chilibeck P, Arnold C, Faulkner R, Baxter Jones A. Former premenarcheal gymnasts exhibit site-specific skeletal benefits in adulthood after long-term retirement. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27:2298-305 pubmed publisher
    Young female gymnasts have greater bone strength compared to controls; although possibly due to selection into gymnastics, it is thought that their loading activity during growth increases their bone mass, influencing both bone geometry ..
  20. Caine D, Nassar L. Gymnastics injuries. Med Sport Sci. 2005;48:18-58 pubmed
    ..of this chapter is to review the distribution and determinants of injury rates as reported in the pediatric gymnastics injury literature, and to suggest measures for the prevention of injury and directions for further research...
  21. Gruodyte R, Jürimäe J, Saar M, Jurimae T. The relationships among bone health, insulin-like growth factor-1 and sex hormones in adolescent female athletes. J Bone Miner Metab. 2010;28:306-13 pubmed publisher
    ..e., sports games (n = 49), track sprinting (n = 24), rhythmic gymnastics (n = 23), swimming (n = 24) and cross-country skiing (n = 17)...
  22. Foley E, Bird H. "Extreme" or tariff sports: their injuries and their prevention (with particular reference to diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating). Clin Rheumatol. 2013;32:463-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Inevitably, some performers over-reach themselves. Examples of injuries and prevention strategies to avoid such injuries are discussed in a preliminary analysis of four sports: diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating.
  23. Kuu S, Gapeyeva H, Ereline J, Pääsuke M. Twitch contractile properties of plantarflexor muscles in young and middle-aged recreationally physically active and non-active women. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2007;19:48-54 pubmed
    ..RPA women exercised regularly in groups of recreational gymnastics 2-3 times per week...
  24. Potter B, Lehman R, Doukas W. Simultaneous bilateral rupture of the pectoralis major tendon. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004;86-A:1519-21 pubmed
  25. Parm A, Jürimäe J, Saar M, Pärna K, Tillmann V, Maasalu K, et al. Plasma adipocytokine and ghrelin levels in relation to bone mineral density in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts. J Bone Miner Metab. 2011;29:717-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, although all measured BMD values were significantly higher in RG, plasma adipocytokine and ghrelin concentrations were not directly related to bone mineralization in prepubertal RG in contrast to UC. ..
  26. Maimoun L, Coste O, Mariano Goulart D, Galtier F, Mura T, Philibert P, et al. In peripubertal girls, artistic gymnastics improves areal bone mineral density and femoral bone geometry without affecting serum OPG/RANKL levels. Osteoporos Int. 2011;22:3055-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of artistic gymnastics (GYM) on areal bone mineral density (aBMD), femoral bone geometry and bone markers and its relationship with the ..
  27. Pain M, Mills C, Yeadon M. Video analysis of the deformation and effective mass of gymnastics landing mats. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37:1754-60 pubmed
    Landing mats that undergo large area deformation are now essential for the safe completion of landings in gymnastics. The aim of this study was to determine the effective mass, shock transmission time, and deformation characteristics of a ..
  28. Babiloni C, Marzano N, Iacoboni M, Infarinato F, Aschieri P, Buffo P, et al. Resting state cortical rhythms in athletes: a high-resolution EEG study. Brain Res Bull. 2010;81:149-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results supported the hypothesis that cortical neural synchronization at the basis of eyes-closed resting state EEG rhythms is enhanced in elite athletes than in control subjects. ..
  29. Bradshaw E, Le Rossignol P. Anthropometric and biomechanical field measures of floor and vault ability in 8 to 14 year old talent-selected gymnasts. Sports Biomech. 2004;3:249-62 pubmed
    ..The best regression model for indicating floor tumbling ability had, as predictor variables, age, vault running velocity, and reduced ground contact time in a handstand push-off. ..
  30. Parm A, Jürimäe J, Saar M, Pärna K, Tillmann V, Maasalu K, et al. Bone mineralization in rhythmic gymnasts before puberty: no longitudinal associations with adipocytokine and ghrelin levels. Horm Res Paediatr. 2012;77:369-75 pubmed publisher
    ..However, leptin together with specific body composition variables was associated with an increase in ?WB BMD value in UC. ..
  31. Kawano Y, Ishizaki S, Sasamoto S, Katoh Y, Kobayashi S. Effect of meals with milk on body iron stores and improvement of dietary habit during weight loss in female rhythmic gymnasts. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2002;48:395-400 pubmed
    ..Further, milk intake with meals is related to keeping regular meal times and frequency. ..
  32. Jackson M, Hiley M, Yeadon M. A comparison of Coulomb and pseudo-Coulomb friction implementations: Application to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting. J Biomech. 2011;44:2706-11 pubmed publisher
    In the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting both dynamic and static friction act...
  33. Kauther M, Rummel S, Thobe B, Hussmann B, Nast Kolb D, Wedemeyer C. [The "wheel gymnast's elbow" - first description of a common overuse syndrome]. Sportverletz Sportschaden. 2011;25:103-7 pubmed publisher
    Overuse syndromes of the elbow due to wheel gymnastics are unknown in medical literature. This study describes a common overuse syndrome of the elbow in wheel gymnastics...
  34. Dowthwaite J, Scerpella T. Skeletal geometry and indices of bone strength in artistic gymnasts. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2009;9:198-214 pubmed
    ..A brief background characterizes artistic gymnastics as a mechanical loading model and outlines densitometric techniques, skeletal outcomes and challenges in ..
  35. Tan J, Calitri R, Bloodworth A, McNamee M. Understanding Eating Disorders in Elite Gymnastics: Ethical and Conceptual Challenges. Clin Sports Med. 2016;35:275-92 pubmed publisher
    ..the pattern of eating disorder symptoms, depressive symptoms and levels of self-esteem among national and international level gymnasts from the UK in the gymnastic disciplines of sport acrobatics, tumbling, and rhythmic gymnastics.
  36. Durall C, Udermann B, Johansen D, Gibson B, Reineke D, Reuteman P. The effects of preseason trunk muscle training on low-back pain occurrence in women collegiate gymnasts. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23:86-92 pubmed publisher
    ..During the subsequent gymnastics season, none of the gymnasts reported new episodes of LBP...
  37. Linge S, Hallingstad O, Solberg F. Modelling the parallel bars in men's artistic gymnastics. Hum Mov Sci. 2006;25:221-37 pubmed
    ..The model gave convincing predictions of bar movements both for the 100 kg (1 period, RMS error of 7.0 mm) and 60 kg (1 period, RMS error of 3.7 mm) pendulums, as well as for the somersault landing (2 periods, RMS error of 8.1 mm). ..
  38. Bennett D, Nassar L, DeLano M. Lumbar spine MRI in the elite-level female gymnast with low back pain. Skeletal Radiol. 2006;35:503-9 pubmed
    ..Our initial hypothesis was not confirmed, in that there were findings that were confined to the symptomatic group of elite-level female gymnasts. ..
  39. Defrance J, Brier P, El Boujjoufi T. [Transformations of the relationships between medicine and physical activities from the beginning of the 19th C. to the beginning of the 20th C. in France]. Gesnerus. 2013;70:86-110 pubmed
    ..The process is tight, and the adaptations of the respective tasks are continuously retranslated in terms of statuary dimensions and protection of respective jurisdictions of both groups in the process of professionalization. ..
  40. Falk B, Bronshtein Z, Zigel L, Constantini N, Eliakim A. Quantitative ultrasound of the tibia and radius in prepubertal and early-pubertal female athletes. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:139-43 pubmed
    ..Longitudinal studies using various modes of bone evaluation are necessary to determine the long-term effect of various types of exercise on bone properties. ..
  41. Kim D, Vaccaro A, Berta S. Acute sports-related spinal cord injury: contemporary management principles. Clin Sports Med. 2003;22:501-12 pubmed
    ..The presence of actual cord deformation or compression on MRI should preclude participation in high-risk contact or collision sports. ..
  42. Siatras T, Skaperda M, Mameletzi D. Reliability of anthropometric measurements in young male and female artistic gymnasts. Med Probl Perform Art. 2010;25:162-6 pubmed
    Body dimensions and body composition of children participating in artistic activities, such as gymnastics and many types of dancing, are important factors in performance improvement...
  43. Kruse D, Lemmen B. Spine injuries in the sport of gymnastics. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2009;8:20-8 pubmed publisher
    Injury in gymnastics is not an uncommon occurrence, and an injury of the spine frequently is a source of pain in a gymnast...
  44. Simons C, Bradshaw E. Do accelerometers mounted on the back provide a good estimate of impact loads in jumping and landing tasks?. Sports Biomech. 2016;15:76-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These impact loads are thought to be associated with the high injury rates observed in gymnastics. Due to the variable apparatus and surfaces in gymnastics, impact loads during training are difficult to ..
  45. Gittoes M, Irwin G, Kerwin D. Kinematic landing strategy transference in backward rotating gymnastic dismounts. J Appl Biomech. 2013;29:253-60 pubmed
    ..Further consideration of the joint strategy adjustments made according to the gymnast's performance level may, however, be warranted. ..
  46. Mills C, Pain M, Yeadon M. Reducing ground reaction forces in gymnastics' landings may increase internal loading. J Biomech. 2009;42:671-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, using a reduction in GRF, due to a change in landing strategy, as a basis for a reduction in injury potential in vaulting movements may not be appropriate since internal loading can increase. ..
  47. Coventry E, Sands W, Smith S. Hitting the vault board: implications for vaulting take-off--a preliminary investigation. Sports Biomech. 2006;5:63-75 pubmed
    b>Gymnastics vaulting relies on a specialized take-off board for propulsion during the take-off phase of the vault. There is little information on the vault board and its behaviour...
  48. Grant Ford M, Sitler M, Kozin S, Barbe M, Barr A. Effect of a prophylactic brace on wrist and ulnocarpal joint biomechanics in a cadaveric model. Am J Sports Med. 2003;31:736-43 pubmed
    ..This brace may decrease the cumulative effects of repetitive stress of pommel horse exercise training. ..
  49. Greene D, Naughton G, Bradshaw E, Moresi M, Ducher G. Mechanical loading with or without weight-bearing activity: influence on bone strength index in elite female adolescent athletes engaged in water polo, gymnastics, and track-and-field. J Bone Miner Metab. 2012;30:580-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, despite training at an elite level, female water polo players did not show any benefits in musculoskeletal health in the lower leg and only limited benefits in the upper body when compared with nonactive girls. ..
  50. Davis K. Imaging pediatric sports injuries: upper extremity. Radiol Clin North Am. 2010;48:1199-211 pubmed publisher
    ..Wrist abnormalities that occur nowadays include triangular fibrocartilage tears. Tendonitis, which is now observed frequently in clinical practice in this age group, rarely requires imaging. ..
  51. Gruodyte Raciene R, Erlandson M, Jackowski S, Baxter Jones A. Structural strength development at the proximal femur in 4- to 10-year-old precompetitive gymnasts: a 4-year longitudinal hip structural analysis study. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28:2592-600 pubmed publisher
    b>Gymnastics, a high-impact weight-bearing physical activity, has been shown to be highly osteogenic...
  52. Kim H, Hong J, Jung J, Kim T, Kim J, Kim Y, et al. Gymnasterkoreayne F inhibits osteoclast formation by suppressing NFATc1 and DC-STAMP expression. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10:1440-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that GK-F might be useful as a therapeutic agent for bone resorption-related diseases. ..
  53. Babiloni C, Del Percio C, Rossini P, Marzano N, Iacoboni M, Infarinato F, et al. Judgment of actions in experts: a high-resolution EEG study in elite athletes. Neuroimage. 2009;45:512-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results globally suggest that the judgment of observed sporting actions is related to low amplitude of alpha ERD, as a possible index of spatially selective cortical activation ("neural efficiency"). ..