activities of daily living


Summary: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.

Top Publications

  1. Idland G, Engedal K, Bergland A. Physical performance and 13.5-year mortality in elderly women. Scand J Public Health. 2013;41:102-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5-year mortality, and walking speed was the strongest predictor of mortality. Screening elderly women with performance measurements may aid in identifying those at risk and thus targeted interventions may be applied. ..
  2. Vergara I, Bilbao A, Orive M, García Gutiérrez S, Navarro G, Quintana J. Validation of the Spanish version of the Lawton IADL Scale for its application in elderly people. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2012;10:130 pubmed publisher
    ..The Lawton IADL (instrumental activities of daily living) Scale is a very often used scale to assess independent living skills, but has never been validated for ..
  3. Vellas B, Balardy L, Gillette Guyonnet S, Abellan Van Kan G, Ghisolfi Marque A, Subra J, et al. Looking for frailty in community-dwelling older persons: the Gérontopôle Frailty Screening Tool (GFST). J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17:629-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of the GFST may help at raising awareness about the importance of identifying frailty, training healthcare professionals at the detection of the syndrome, and developing preventive interventions against disabling conditions. ..
  4. García Peña C, García Fabela L, Gutiérrez Robledo L, García González J, Arango Lopera V, Pérez Zepeda M. Handgrip strength predicts functional decline at discharge in hospitalized male elderly: a hospital cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69849 pubmed publisher
    ..Handgrip strength along with other variables was measured at initial assessment, including: instrumental activities of daily living, cognition, depressive symptoms, delirium, hospitalization length and quality of life...
  5. Turner Stokes L, Siegert R. A comprehensive psychometric evaluation of the UK FIM?+?FAM. Disabil Rehabil. 2013;35:1885-95 pubmed publisher and four separate subscales of independence: Physical, Psychosocial, Communication and Extended Activities of Daily Living (EADL)...
  6. Reppermund S, Brodaty H, Crawford J, Kochan N, Draper B, Slavin M, et al. Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living with high cognitive demand is an early marker of mild cognitive impairment: the Sydney memory and ageing study. Psychol Med. 2013;43:2437-45 pubmed publisher
    Criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) consider impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) as exclusionary, but cross-sectional studies suggest that some high-level functional deficits are present in MCI...
  7. Kim Y, Lee B, Jung C, Jeon Y, Hyun D, Kim K, et al. Patient's perception of symptoms related to morning activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the SYMBOL Study. Korean J Intern Med. 2012;27:426-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These patients also have more prevalent and severe COPD symptoms. The results of this study therefore provide valuable information for the development of patient-reported outcomes in COPD. ..
  8. Grönstedt H, Frändin K, Bergland A, Helbostad J, Granbo R, Puggaard L, et al. Effects of individually tailored physical and daily activities in nursing home residents on activities of daily living, physical performance and physical activity level: a randomized controlled trial. Gerontology. 2013;59:220-9 pubmed publisher
    Nursing home residents are extremely inactive and deterioration in health and an increasing dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) are common...
  9. Gustafsson M, Sandman P, Karlsson S, Gustafson Y, Lövheim H. Association between behavioral and psychological symptoms and psychotropic drug use among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care settings. Int Psychogeriatr. 2013;25:1415-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Data concerning psychotropic and anti-dementia drug use, function in activities of daily living, cognitive function, and prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms were collected, using the ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Lindelof N, Rosendahl E, Gustafsson S, Nygaard J, Gustafson Y, Nyberg L. Perceptions of participating in high-intensity functional exercise among older people dependent in activities of daily living (ADL). Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2013;57:369-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings support the use of a high-intensity exercise program in this population of older people. ..
  2. Querin G, D Ascenzo C, Peterle E, Ermani M, Bello L, Melacini P, et al. Pilot trial of clenbuterol in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Neurology. 2013;80:2095-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the efficacy and tolerability of clenbuterol in patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA)...
  3. Christ J, Fruhmann Berger M, Riedl E, Prakash D, Csoti I, Molt W, et al. How precise are activities of daily living scales for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease dementia? A pilot study. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2013;19:371-4 pubmed publisher
    Beside the presence of cognitive deficits, impaired activities of daily living (ADL) are crucial for the diagnosis of dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD). Several scales can be used to evaluate PD patients' ADL (dys)function...
  4. Limmathurotsakul D, Kanoksil M, Wuthiekanun V, Kitphati R, Destavola B, Day N, et al. Activities of daily living associated with acquisition of melioidosis in northeast Thailand: a matched case-control study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2072 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Activities of daily living were recorded for the 30-day period before onset of symptoms, and home visits were performed to obtain ..
  5. Jauch S, Huber G, Sellenschloh K, Haschke H, Baxmann M, Grupp T, et al. Micromotions at the taper interface between stem and neck adapter of a bimodular hip prosthesis during activities of daily living. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:1165-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Still, the role of taper seating is not clearly understood. ..
  6. Schaefer S, Patterson C, Lang C. Transfer of training between distinct motor tasks after stroke: implications for task-specific approaches to upper-extremity neurorehabilitation. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013;27:602-12 pubmed publisher
  7. Sacco G, Joumier V, Darmon N, Dechamps A, Derreumaux A, Lee J, et al. Detection of activities of daily living impairment in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment using information and communication technology. Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:539-49 pubmed publisher
    ..that it is possible using a video monitoring system to obtain a quantifiable assessment of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) in AD and in MCI...
  8. Takata Y, Ansai T, Soh I, Awano S, Nakamichi I, Akifusa S, et al. High-level activities of daily living and disease-specific mortality during a 12-year follow-up of an octogenarian population. Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:721-8 pubmed publisher
    Little is known about the relationship between disease-specific mortality and high-level activities of daily living in the elderly...
  9. Aratani M, Ricci N, Caovilla H, Ganança F. Brazilian version of the Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL). Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;79:203-11 pubmed
    The Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL) assesses the impact of dizziness and body imbalance on the everyday activities of patients with vestibulopathy...
  10. James S, Ziviani J, Boyd R. A systematic review of activities of daily living measures for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2014;56:233-44 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to systematically review the psychometric properties and clinical utility of measures of activities of daily living (ADL) for children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 5 to 18 years.
  11. Hsueh I, Chen J, Wang C, Hou W, Hsieh C. Development of a computerized adaptive test for assessing activities of daily living in outpatients with stroke. Phys Ther. 2013;93:681-93 pubmed publisher
    An efficient, reliable, and valid measure for assessing activities of daily living (ADL) function is useful to improve the efficiency of patient management and outcome measurement...
  12. Sekaran N, Choi H, Hayward R, Langa K. Fall-associated difficulty with activities of daily living in functionally independent individuals aged 65 to 69 in the United States: a cohort study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013;61:96-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Falling is an important marker for future ADL difficulty in younger, functionally independent older adults. Individuals who fall frequently or report injury are at highest risk. ..
  13. Grill E, Bronstein A, Furman J, Zee D, Muller M. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for patients with vertigo, dizziness and balance disorders. J Vestib Res. 2012;22:261-71 pubmed publisher
    ..ICF Core Sets create patient-relevant outcomes that can be used as evidence for the success of treatments...
  14. Doody R, Thomas R, Farlow M, Iwatsubo T, Vellas B, Joffe S, et al. Phase 3 trials of solanezumab for mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:311-21 pubmed publisher
    ..higher scores indicating greater cognitive impairment) and the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living scale (ADCS-ADL; range, 0 to 78, with lower scores indicating worse functioning)...
  15. Painter P, Marcus R. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;8:861-72 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided. ..
  16. Hung M, Sung J, Chang Y, Hwang J, Wang J. Estimation of physical functional disabilities and long-term care needs for patients under maintenance hemodialysis. Med Care. 2014;52:63-70 pubmed publisher
    ..HD patients are in need of long-term care and require early intervention and resource planning. The method developed in this study can also be applied to other chronic illnesses with various functional disabilities. ..
  17. Ravindrarajah R, Lee D, Pye S, Gielen E, Boonen S, Vanderschueren D, et al. The ability of three different models of frailty to predict all-cause mortality: results from the European Male Aging Study (EMAS). Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2013;57:360-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the choice of frailty model may not be of paramount importance when predicting future risk of death, enabling flexibility in the approach used. ..
  18. Crocker T, Young J, Forster A, Brown L, Ozer S, Greenwood D. The effect of physical rehabilitation on activities of daily living in older residents of long-term care facilities: systematic review with meta-analysis. Age Ageing. 2013;42:682-8 pubmed publisher examine the effects of physical rehabilitation on activities of daily living (ADL) in elderly residents of long-term care facilities...
  19. Kimura Y, Ogawa H, Yoshihara A, Yamaga T, Takiguchi T, Wada T, et al. Evaluation of chewing ability and its relationship with activities of daily living, depression, cognitive status and food intake in the community-dwelling elderly. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2013;13:718-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Assessment of chewing ability was carried out by a dentist using color-changeable chewing gum. Activities of daily living (ADL), depression and subjective quality of life (QOL) were assessed by questionnaire...
  20. Wattmo C, Paulsson E, Minthon L, Londos E. A longitudinal study of risk factors for community-based home help services in Alzheimer's disease: the influence of cholinesterase inhibitor therapy. Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:329-39 pubmed publisher
    ..were assessed with several rating scales, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), and Physical Self-Maintenance Scale. Doses of ChEI and amounts of HHS per week were recorded...
  21. O Donnell C, Schwartzstein R, Lansing R, Guilfoyle T, Elkin D, Banzett R. Dyspnea affective response: comparing COPD patients with healthy volunteers and laboratory model with activities of daily living. BMC Pulm Med. 2013;13:27 pubmed publisher
    ..during activities of daily living (ADL)...
  22. Velázquez Alva M, Irigoyen Camacho M, Delgadillo Velázquez J, Lazarevich I. The relationship between sarcopenia,undernutrition, physical mobility and basic activities of daily living in a group of elderly women of Mexico City. Nutr Hosp. 2013;28:514-21 pubmed publisher
    ..undernutrition, and to assess the association between sarcopenia and mobility, and sarcopenia and basic activities of daily living (ADL) in a group of elderly women...
  23. Takata Y, Ansai T, Soh I, Awano S, Nakamichi I, Akifusa S, et al. Activities of daily living dependency and disease-specific mortality during 12-year follow-up in an 80-year-old population. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2013;25:193-201 pubmed publisher
    Although total mortality is likely to be higher in elderly individuals with frailty or impaired activities of daily living (ADL), little is known about the relationships between disease-specific mortality and ADL dependency in the elderly...
  24. Reinhardt J, Wahrendorf M, Siegrist J. Socioeconomic position, psychosocial work environment and disability in an ageing workforce: a longitudinal analysis of SHARE data from 11 European countries. Occup Environ Med. 2013;70:156-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Investing in reduction of work stress and reducing social inequalities in health functioning are relevant entry points of policies that aim at maintaining work ability in early old age. ..
  25. Kwon J, Park M, Yoon I, Park S. Effects of virtual reality on upper extremity function and activities of daily living performance in acute stroke: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. NeuroRehabilitation. 2012;31:379-85 pubmed publisher
    ..therapy (CT) combined with intensive virtual reality (VR) program on upper extremity function and activities of daily living (ADL) in individuals in the acute stage of stroke...
  26. Caljouw M, Kruijdenberg S, de Craen A, Cools H, den Elzen W, Gussekloo J. Clinically diagnosed infections predict disability in activities of daily living among the oldest-old in the general population: the Leiden 85-plus Study. Age Ageing. 2013;42:482-8 pubmed publisher
    ageing is frequently accompanied by a higher incidence of infections and an increase in disability in activities of daily living (ADL)...
  27. Pitangui A, Gomes M, Lima A, Schwingel P, Albuquerque A, de Araújo R. Menstruation disturbances: prevalence, characteristics, and effects on the activities of daily living among adolescent girls from Brazil. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2013;26:148-52 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence, characteristics and effects on the activities of daily living of menstruation disturbances among adolescent girls. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. A public school in the city of Petrolina, Brazil...
  28. Shindo Y, Ito R, Kobayashi D, Ando M, Ichikawa M, Shiraki A, et al. Risk factors for drug-resistant pathogens in community-acquired and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;188:985-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of patients with drug-resistant pathogens at initial diagnosis is essential for treatment of pneumonia...
  29. Deramore Denver B, Adolfsson M, Froude E, Rosenbaum P, Imms C. Methods for conceptualising 'visual ability' as a measurable construct in children with cerebral palsy. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2017;17:46 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has identified observable visual behaviours that may be developed into items assessing how vision is used in daily activities. ..
  30. Zhang C, Zhao S, Zang Y, Gu F, Mao S, Feng S, et al. The efficacy and safety of Dl-3n-butylphthalide on progressive cerebral infarction: A randomized controlled STROBE study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7257 pubmed publisher
    ..05).NBP was useful to improve the outcome of patients with PCI and decreased their disability for activities of daily living. NBP was an efficacious and safe treatment for PCI.
  31. Rivera Lopez R, Gutierrez Rodriguez R, López Caler C, Aguilar Alonso E, Castillo Lorente E, Garcia Delgado M, et al. Relationship between functional status prior to onset of critical illness and mortality: a prospective multicentre cohort study. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2017;45:351-358 pubmed
    ..using a modification of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), including group 1 with no limitations on activities of daily living; group 2 with some limitations but self-sufficient; and group 3 who were dependent on others for their ..
  32. Ohshima S, Hara A, Abe T, Akimoto H, Ohara K, Negishi A, et al. Deprescribing Using the Guidelines for Medical Treatment and Its Safety in the Elderly and Changes in Patient QOL and Activities of Daily Living. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2017;137:623-633 pubmed publisher
    ..After the prescription change, activities of daily living (ADL) and QOL were assessed using the Barthel Index and SF-36v2, respectively...
  33. Mahdavi B, Fallahi Khoshknab M, Mohammadi F, Hosseini M, Haghi M. Effects of Spiritual Group Therapy on Caregiver Strain in Home Caregivers of the Elderly with Alzheimer's Disease. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2017;31:269-273 pubmed publisher
    ..The mean posttest score of care strain was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the two other groups (P<0.001). Spiritual care can reduce care strain in home caregivers of the elderly with Alzheimer's disease. ..
  34. Ford J, Kharicha K, Clarke C, Clark A, Iliffe S, Goodman C, et al. Service use of older people who participate in primary care health promotion: a latent class analysis. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17:176 pubmed publisher
    ..Older people taking part in the Multi-dimensional Risk Appraisal for Older people primary care health promotion can be described as three groups: active well, high NHS users, and community service users. ..
  35. Acquah J, Dahal R, Sloan F. 1918 Influenza Pandemic: In Utero Exposure in the United States and Long-Term Impact on Hospitalizations. Am J Public Health. 2017;107:1477-1483 pubmed publisher
    ..Public Health Implications. To determine investments in influenza pandemic prevention programs that protect fetal health, policymakers should include long-term reductions in hospitalizations in their cost-benefit evaluations. ..
  36. Musekamp G, Gerlich C, Ehlebracht König I, Faller H, Reusch A. Evaluation of a self-management patient education program for patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016;17:55 pubmed publisher
    ..Study results will show whether self-management patient education is beneficial for this group of patients. German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS00008782 , Registered 8 July 2015. ..
  37. Cioncoloni D, Casali S, Ginanneschi F, Carone M, Veronica B, Rossi A, et al. Major motor-functional determinants associated with poor self-reported health-related quality of life in myasthenia gravis patients. Neurol Sci. 2016;37:717-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, decremental response to RNS at diagnosis may identify patients at risk for poor HRQoL. ..
  38. Dong X. The Association Between Physical Function and Elder Mistreatment Among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017;72:S90-S94 pubmed publisher
    ..3 years (SD ± 8.4) and 58.0% were female. After adjusting for potential covariates, higher scores of activities of daily living (odds ratio [OR] = 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73-0...
  39. Lipińska Grobelny A. [Multiwork and satisfaction with various life domains: Analysis of sex, gender, occupational and age differences]. Med Pr. 2016;67:385-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Otrzymane rezultaty pog??biaj? wiedz? na temat funkcjonowania psychospo?ecznego wielopracownika i zjawiska wielopracy. Med. Pr. 2016;67(3):385–395. ..
  40. Abu Bakar N, Torkamani M, Tanprawate S, Lambru G, Matharu M, Jahanshahi M. The development and validation of the Cluster Headache Quality of life scale (CHQ). J Headache Pain. 2016;17:79 pubmed publisher
    ..and exploratory factor analysis led to 28-items, grouped into four subscales labelled "restriction of activities of daily living", "impact on mood and interpersonal relationships", "pain and anxiety", and "lack of vitality"...
  41. Jo H, Song M. Effects of the "Happy Together" integrated cognitive behavior program on elderly people with dementia being cared for at home in rural areas. Asia Pac Psychiatry. 2016;8:172-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The program brought about positive changes in the instrumental activities of daily living of elderly people with dementia and alleviated the burden felt by family caregivers...
  42. Gray Miceli D. Impaired Mobility and Functional Decline in Older Adults: Evidence to Facilitate a Practice Change. Nurs Clin North Am. 2017;52:469-487 pubmed publisher
  43. Andrade S, Santos N, Fernández Calvo B, Boggio P, Oliveira E, Ferreira J, et al. Stroke Treatment Associated with Rehabilitation Therapy and Transcranial DC Stimulation (START-tDCS): a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2016;17:56 pubmed publisher
    ..randomized clinical trial aiming to evaluate the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation in activities of daily living and motor function post subacute stroke...
  44. Schaefer G, El Kareh R, Quartarolo J, Seymann G. Evaluation of the Yale New Haven Readmission Risk Score for Pneumonia in a General Hospital Population. Am J Med. 2017;130:1107-1111.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Indicators of functional status and social support were not significant predictors of readmission. The YNHRRS can be applied to an unselected population as a tool to predict patients with pneumonia at risk for readmission. ..
  45. Kato N, Hashida G, Konaka K. Rehabilitation for a patient with anti-Yo antibody-positive paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration caused by breast cancer: A case report and literature review. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8468 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the course of physical and cognitive functions and activities of daily living (ADL) in a patient with PCD and examine the effect of rehabilitation, along with a review of relevant ..
  46. Villar J, Vergara P, Menendez M, de la Cal E, González V, Sedano J. Generalized Models for the Classification of Abnormal Movements in Daily Life and its Applicability to Epilepsy Convulsion Recognition. Int J Neural Syst. 2016;26:1650037 pubmed publisher
    ..The event-based error measurement system records the results, penalizing those models that raise false alarms. The results showed the good generalization capabilities of Fuzzy Systems. ..
  47. Lebrec J, Ascher Svanum H, Chen Y, Reed C, Kahle Wrobleski K, Hake A, et al. Effect of diabetes on caregiver burden in an observational study of individuals with Alzheimer's disease. BMC Geriatr. 2016;16:93 pubmed publisher
    ..Caregiver burden was assessed using the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). Caregiver time on activities of daily living (ADL: basic ADL; instrumental ADL, iADL) and supervision (hours/month), and caregiver and patient HCRU (..
  48. Shoaib M, Bosch S, Incel O, Scholten H, Havinga P. Complex Human Activity Recognition Using Smartphone and Wrist-Worn Motion Sensors. Sensors (Basel). 2016;16:426 pubmed publisher
    ..We also propose various optimizations to further improve the recognition of these activities. For reproducibility, we make our dataset publicly available. ..
  49. Rodríguez Míguez E, Abellán Perpiñán J, Alvarez X, González X, Sampayo A. The DEP-6D, a new preference-based measure to assess health states of dependency. Soc Sci Med. 2016;153:210-9 pubmed publisher
    ..medical literature there are numerous multidimensional scales to measure health states for dependence in activities of daily living. However, these scales are not preference-based and are not able to yield QALYs...
  50. Simoes E, Sokolov A, Graf J, Pavlova M, Brucker S, Wallwiener D, et al. [Why Strive after Clinical Social Medicine? From Epidemiological Association to Personalized Social Medicine: a Case of Breast Cancer Care]. Gesundheitswesen. 2016;78:97-102 pubmed publisher
    ..This, however, requires institutionalization of (clinical) social medicine and in particular, better opportunities for advanced training in social medicine in clinical departments and outpatient units. ..
  51. Aberg A, Halvorsen K, From I, Bruhn Å, Oestreicher L, Melander Wikman A. A Study Protocol for Applying User Participation and Co-Learning-Lessons Learned from the eBalance Project. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
    ..who have an interest in balance training and met the inclusion criteria of independence in personal activities of daily living, access to and basic knowledge of a computer, four staff working with the rehabilitation of older adults,..
  52. Karakurt P, Kasimoğlu N, Bahçeli A, Atalikoğlu Başkan S, Ağdemir B. The effect of activities of daily living on the self-care agency of patients in a cardiovascular surgery clinic. J Vasc Nurs. 2017;35:78-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to identify the effect of activities of daily living on the self-care agency of patients in a cardiovascular surgery clinic...
  53. Ding Y. Developing physical frailty specifications for investigation of frailty pathways in older people. Age (Dordr). 2016;38:47 pubmed publisher