wheat germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase conjugate


Summary: The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.

Top Publications

  1. Hirakawa N, Morimoto M, Totoki T. Sympathetic innervation of the young canine heart using antero- and retrograde axonal tracer methods. Brain Res Bull. 1993;31:673-80 pubmed
    ..The labeled fibers were also observed around the coronary arteries. ..
  2. Moon Y, Baker H. Lectin-induced apoptosis of mature olfactory receptor cells. J Neurosci Res. 2002;68:398-405 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that internalization of WGA-HRP by some receptor cells results in their death by apoptosis and a subsequent deafferentation of the olfactory bulb. ..
  3. Blok B, Holstege G. The pontine micturition center in rat receives direct lumbosacral input. An ultrastructural study. Neurosci Lett. 2000;282:29-32 pubmed
    ..The results provide evidence that in the rat, unlike the cat, a direct lumbosacral pathway to the PMC exists, which might explain the differences in micturition behavior between rats and cats. ..
  4. Mitchell I, Cooper A, Griffiths M, Cooper A. Acute administration of haloperidol induces apoptosis of neurones in the striatum and substantia nigra in the rat. Neuroscience. 2002;109:89-99 pubmed
    ..The possibility that chronic administration of haloperidol could induce cumulative neuronal loss in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and thereby induce the pathological changes which lead to tardive dyskinesia is discussed. ..
  5. Yasuda K, Okuda D, Tanaka M, Mori R, Hasumi Nakayama Y, Tanaka M, et al. Central distribution of neuronal cell bodies innervating the levator veli palatini muscle and associated pattern of myosin heavy chain isoform expression in rat. Brain Res. 2003;968:80-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a relationship between MyHC isoform expression and the central distribution of LVP motoneurons or central projections of afferent neurons, with regard to activity of the LVP during both inspiration and expiration...
  6. Remple M, Reed J, Stepniewska I, Kaas J. Organization of frontoparietal cortex in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri). I. Architecture, microelectrode maps, and corticospinal connections. J Comp Neurol. 2006;497:133-54 pubmed
    ..Evidence for a complex primate-like array of motor fields is lacking in tree shrews, but their motor cortex shares a number of basic features with that of primates, which are not found in more distantly related species, such as rats. ..
  7. Zempoalteca R, Lucio R, Eguibar J. Perineal striated muscles: Anatomy, spinal motoneurons, and participation on copulatory behavior in male rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Synapse. 2008;62:653-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the participation of the ICm and BSm perineal muscles in penile orientation during copulation but not in seminal emission as described in other mammalian species. ..
  8. Hayakawa T, Kuwahara S, Maeda S, Tanaka K, Seki M. Direct synaptic contacts on the myenteric ganglia of the rat stomach from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. J Comp Neurol. 2006;498:352-62 pubmed
    ..The present results indicate that the DMV projects to all types of neurons and that their axon terminals contain mostly round synaptic vesicles and form asymmetric synaptic contacts. ..
  9. Lee S, Lee H, Waterhouse B. The collateral projection from the dorsal raphe nucleus to whisker-related, trigeminal sensory and facial motor systems in the rat. Brain Res. 2008;1214:11-22 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Tellegen A, Dubbeldam J. Location of reticular premotor areas of a motor center innervating craniocervical muscles in the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos L.). J Comp Neurol. 1999;405:281-98 pubmed
    ..g., feeding). The pattern of afferent and efferent connections of the reticular formation is used to redefine its subdivisions in the myelencephalon of the mallard. ..
  2. Shioda S, Nakai Y. Direct projections form catecholaminergic neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla to vasopressin-containing neurons in the supraoptic nucleus: a triple-labeling electron microscope study in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1996;221:45-8 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that AVP-containing neurons in the SON receive monosynaptic catecholaminergic synaptic input from the CVLM. ..
  3. Medalla M, Barbas H. Diversity of laminar connections linking periarcuate and lateral intraparietal areas depends on cortical structure. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:161-79 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the neuronal density of linked areas can reliably predict their laminar connections and may form the basis of understanding the functional complexity of prefrontal-intraparietal interactions in cognition. ..
  4. Nakamura H, Wu R, Onozuka M, Itoh K. Ventral lateral geniculate nucleus projects to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the cat. Neuroreport. 2005;16:1575-8 pubmed
  5. Hayakawa T, Takanaga A, Tanaka K, Maeda S, Seki M. Ultrastructure of the rostral ventral respiratory group neurons in the ventrolateral medulla of the rat. Brain Res. 2004;1027:94-102 pubmed
    ..55 microm), and about 60% of them were Gray's type I. The rVRG neurons have ultrastructural characteristics, which are different from the palatopharyngeal motor neurons or the prorpiobulbar neurons. ..
  6. Craig A, Zhang E, Blomqvist A. Association of spinothalamic lamina I neurons and their ascending axons with calbindin-immunoreactivity in monkey and human. Pain. 2002;97:105-15 pubmed
    ..These findings support the view that lamina I STT neurons are involved in spinal cordotomies that reduce pain, temperature and itch sensations. ..
  7. Tanoue M, Yamaga M, Ide J, Takagi K. Acute stretching of peripheral nerves inhibits retrograde axonal transport. J Hand Surg Br. 1996;21:358-63 pubmed
  8. Thompson A. A medullary source of norepinephrine in cat cochlear nuclear complex. Exp Brain Res. 2003;153:486-90 pubmed
    ..The projection from A1 to the CNC may be part of a system-wide modulation by the noradrenergic system based on stress and arousal level, or it may be part of a separate circuit that modulates its targets during survival behaviors. ..
  9. Assina R, Sankar T, Theodore N, Javedan S, Gibson A, Horn K, et al. Activated autologous macrophage implantation in a large-animal model of spinal cord injury. Neurosurg Focus. 2008;25:E3 pubmed publisher
  10. Sincich L, Jocson C, Horton J. V1 interpatch projections to v2 thick stripes and pale stripes. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6963-74 pubmed publisher
  11. Fitzgibbon T, Bittar R, Dreher B. Projections from striate and extrastriate visual cortices of the cat to the reticular thalamic nucleus. J Comp Neurol. 1999;410:467-88 pubmed
    ..The map also shows a ventrodorsal shift along the rostrocaudal axis of the RTN such that in the rostral RTN the representation of vertical meridian is placed more ventrally than that in the caudal part of the nucleus. ..
  12. Vanderhorst V, Terasawa E, Ralston H. Estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactive neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray receive monosynaptic input from the lumbosacral cord in the rhesus monkey. J Comp Neurol. 2002;443:27-42 pubmed
    ..This pathway might be involved in the mechanisms of analgesia, blood pressure, mating behavior, and micturition. ..
  13. Imura K, Rockland K. Long-range interneurons within the medial pulvinar nucleus of macaque monkeys. J Comp Neurol. 2006;498:649-66 pubmed
  14. Frappé I, Gaillard A, Roger M. Attraction exerted in vivo by grafts of embryonic neocortex on developing thalamic axons. Exp Neurol. 2001;169:264-75 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms by which the thalamic axons find their way to the graft probably rely on cell-contact signaling and/or long-range attraction exerted by diffusible molecules. ..
  15. Vanderhorst V, Terasawa E, Ralston H. Axonal sprouting of a brainstem-spinal pathway after estrogen administration in the adult female rhesus monkey. J Comp Neurol. 2002;454:82-103 pubmed
    ..Moreover, they demonstrated that a long descending brainstem-spinal tract in adult nonhuman primates retains the capacity for axonal sprouting. ..
  16. Aoki T, Matsunaga T, Misaki K, Watanabe Y, Terashima T. Abnormal distributions of callosal commissural and corticothalamic neurons in the cerebral neocortex of Shaking Rat Kawasaki. Neuroscience. 2002;114:427-38 pubmed
    ..01). Taken together with previous findings, our data demonstrate that the abnormal cytoarchitecture of SRK cortex resembles the reeler cortex. ..
  17. Cruz Y, Rodríguez Antolín J, Nicolás L, Martínez Gómez M, Lucio R. Components of the neural circuitry of the vaginocavernosus reflex in rabbits. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:199-210 pubmed publisher
  18. Tokuno H, Takada M, Nambu A, Inase M. Reevaluation of ipsilateral corticocortical inputs to the orofacial region of the primary motor cortex in the macaque monkey. J Comp Neurol. 1997;389:34-48 pubmed
    ..Based on the present results, we discuss the functional diversity of the cortical areas related to orofacial motor behavior and the somatotopical organization in the premotor areas of the frontal cortex. ..
  19. Levinsson A, Holmberg H, Broman J, Zhang M, Schouenborg J. Spinal sensorimotor transformation: relation between cutaneous somatotopy and a reflex network. J Neurosci. 2002;22:8170-82 pubmed
    ..Hence, the spinal somatotopic map may be better understood in light of the topography of such reflex systems. ..
  20. Yan Y, Cui D, Lynch J. Overlap of saccadic and pursuit eye movement systems in the brain stem reticular formation. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86:3056-60 pubmed
    ..The direct FEFsem-to-riMLF projection suggests a possible role of the riMLF in smooth pursuit eye movements and supports the hypothesis that there is interaction between the saccadic and pursuit subsystems at the brain stem level...
  21. Stepniewska I, Preuss T, Kaas J. Thalamic connections of the dorsal and ventral premotor areas in New World owl monkeys. Neuroscience. 2007;147:727-45 pubmed
    ..VApc, VLd, and MD project mainly to premotor areas, while VLp projects mainly to M1. Overall, the thalamic connectivity patterns of premotor cortex in New World owl monkeys are similar to those reported for Old World monkeys...
  22. Mendez I, Baker K, Hong M. Simultaneous intrastriatal and intranigral grafting (double grafts) in the rat model of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2000;32:328-39 pubmed
    ..This double graft strategy may have potential implications in clinical neural transplantation for Parkinson's disease. ..
  23. Wang H, Siddharthan V, Hall J, Morrey J. West Nile virus preferentially transports along motor neuron axons after sciatic nerve injection of hamsters. J Neurovirol. 2009;15:293-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05) compared to the placebo-treated hamsters. These data suggest that WNV is preferentially transported through the motor axons, but not the sensory axons, to subsequently infect motor neurons and cause motor weakness and paralysis. ..
  24. Fudge J, Haber S. Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and extended amygdala inputs to dopamine subpopulations in primates. Neuroscience. 2001;104:807-27 pubmed
    ..From these results we suggest that specific subdivisions of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis have differential influences on the dopamine subpopulations, influencing dopamine responses in diverse brain regions. ..
  25. Cappe C, Morel A, Rouiller E. Thalamocortical and the dual pattern of corticothalamic projections of the posterior parietal cortex in macaque monkeys. Neuroscience. 2007;146:1371-87 pubmed
  26. Oliver D. Dorsal cochlear nucleus projections to the inferior colliculus in the cat: a light and electron microscopic study. J Comp Neurol. 1984;224:155-72 pubmed
    ..These morphological differences could contribute to different electrophysiological responses to the sound stimuli by these cells. ..
  27. Boers J, Klop E, Hulshoff A, de Weerd H, Holstege G. Direct projections from the nucleus retroambiguus to cricothyroid motoneurons in the cat. Neurosci Lett. 2002;319:5-8 pubmed
    ..Almost all NRA terminal profiles had asymmetrical synapses and contained mostly round or pleiomorphic vesicles, which strongly suggests that the NRA-cricothyroid motoneuronal projection is an excitatory pathway. ..
  28. Stepniewska I, Preuss T, Kaas J. Ipsilateral cortical connections of dorsal and ventral premotor areas in New World owl monkeys. J Comp Neurol. 2006;495:691-708 pubmed
    ..Comparisons of PMD and PMV connectivity with the cortex of the lateral sulcus and posterior parietal cortex of owl monkeys, galagos, and macaques help identify areas that could be homologous...
  29. Hihara S, Notoya T, Tanaka M, Ichinose S, Ojima H, Obayashi S, et al. Extension of corticocortical afferents into the anterior bank of the intraparietal sulcus by tool-use training in adult monkeys. Neuropsychologia. 2006;44:2636-46 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first concrete evidence for the induction of novel neural connections in the adult monkey cerebral cortex, which accompanies a process of demanding behaviour in these animals. ..
  30. Fudge J, Breitbart M, Danish M, Pannoni V. Insular and gustatory inputs to the caudal ventral striatum in primates. J Comp Neurol. 2005;490:101-18 pubmed
  31. Zhang M, Liu Y, Broman J. Organization of the ferret lateral cervical nucleus and cervicothalamic tract. Somatosens Mot Res. 2002;19:36-48 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate a conserved general organization of the SCTP among carnivores. ..
  32. Lee P, Schmidt M, Hall W. Excitatory and inhibitory circuitry in the superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus. J Neurosci. 2001;21:8145-53 pubmed
    ..2001), our results support the hypothesis that ACh reduces CTN activity by nicotinic receptor-mediated excitation of local GABAergic interneurons. These interneurons in turn use GABA(B) receptors to inhibit the CTNs. ..
  33. Jia L, Wang Z, Chen Y. Distribution and cytoarchitecture of sympathetic neurons innervating the pineal gland in chick: a CTB-HRP study. Anat Histol Embryol. 2009;38:76-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The neurons with small or middle-sized dendritic field from group I and II were about 91.4% of the total neurons labelled with CTB-HRP, and the neurons with wide dendritic field from group III and IV were less with 8.6%. ..
  34. Wang H, Wei F, Dubner R, Ren K. Selective distribution and function of primary afferent nociceptive inputs from deep muscle tissue to the brainstem trigeminal transition zone. J Comp Neurol. 2006;498:390-402 pubmed
    ..These findings provide further evidence to support a role of the trigeminal transition zone in response to orofacial deep injury. ..
  35. Simonyan K, Jürgens U. Afferent subcortical connections into the motor cortical larynx area in the rhesus monkey. Neuroscience. 2005;130:119-31 pubmed
    ..The findings are discussed in terms of the possible role of these structures in voluntary vocal control. ..
  36. Weller R, Steele G, Kaas J. Pulvinar and other subcortical connections of dorsolateral visual cortex in monkeys. J Comp Neurol. 2002;450:215-40 pubmed
    ..Similarities in the subcortical connections of the dorsolateral region, especially those with the pulvinar, provide further support for the conclusion that the DL regions are homologous in the three primate groups. ..
  37. Lee H, Kim M, Valentino R, Waterhouse B. Glutamatergic afferent projections to the dorsal raphe nucleus of the rat. Brain Res. 2003;963:57-71 pubmed
  38. Martínez Lorenzana G, Jiménez J, Condés Lara M. Interamygdaloid connection of basolateral nucleus through the anterior commissure in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2004;366:154-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the basolateral nucleus projects through the anterior commissure to the homologous amygdaloid nucleus in the contralateral hemisphere. ..
  39. Herve D, Trovero F, Blanc G, Thierry A, Glowinski J, Tassin J. Nondopaminergic prefrontocortical efferent fibers modulate D1 receptor denervation supersensitivity in specific regions of the rat striatum. J Neurosci. 1989;9:3699-708 pubmed
  40. Tellegen A, Arends J, Dubbeldam J. The vestibular nuclei and vestibuloreticular connections in the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos L.). An anterograde and retrograde tracing study. Brain Behav Evol. 2001;58:205-17 pubmed
  41. Wu C, Bichot N, Kaas J. Somatosensory areas S2 and PV project to the superior colliculus of a prosimian primate, Galago garnetti. Somatosens Mot Res. 2005;22:221-31 pubmed
  42. Yamamoto M, Kitagawa H, Imagawa T, Uehara M. The organization of the spinocerebellar tract neurons in the chicken. Brain Res Bull. 2000;52:537-46 pubmed
    ..In the cervical region most of SCT neurons were observed in the ventral horn, while the central cervical nucleus, which consists of SCT neurons in mammals, was not identified in the chicken. ..
  43. Prochnow N, Lee P, Hall W, Schmidt M. In vitro properties of neurons in the rat pretectal nucleus of the optic tract. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:3574-84 pubmed
  44. Perkins E, Warren S, Lin R, May P. Projections of somatosensory cortex and frontal eye fields onto incertotectal neurons in the cat. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2006;288:1310-29 pubmed
    ..From these data, we conclude that inputs from somatosensory and FEF cortex both play a role in controlling gaze-related activity in the superior colliculus by way of the inhibitory incertotectal projection. ..
  45. Tassorelli C, Joseph S, Nappi G. Reciprocal circuits involved in nitroglycerin-induced neuronal activation of autonomic regions and pain pathways: a double immunolabeling and tract-tracing study. Brain Res. 1999;842:294-310 pubmed
    ..These data confirm and expand on our previous findings and demonstrate that nitroglycerin activates a complex set of structures that are functionally and structurally interconnected to articulate an integrated response. ..
  46. Lee H, Lee B, Waterhouse B. Retrograde study of projections from the tuberomammillary nucleus to the dorsal raphe and the locus coeruleus in the rat. Brain Res. 2005;1043:65-75 pubmed
    ..The TMN neurons with such axon collaterals might provide simultaneous, possibly more efficient, way of controlling the brainstem monoaminergic nuclei, thus influencing various sleep and arousal states of the animal. ..
  47. Steencken A, Siebert J, Stelzner D. Lack of axonal sprouting of spared propriospinal fibers caudal to spinal contusion injury is attributed to chronic axonopathy. J Neurotrauma. 2009;26:2279-97 pubmed publisher
  48. Gruber C, Kahl A, Lebenheim L, Kowski A, Dittgen A, Veh R. Dopaminergic projections from the VTA substantially contribute to the mesohabenular pathway in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2007;427:165-70 pubmed
    ..Instead, our data are in line with the idea that the anterior VTA via its projection to the medial part of the LHb may modulate the information flow from the limbic forebrain to monoaminergic midbrain nuclei. ..
  49. Weible A, Weiss C, Disterhoft J. Connections of the caudal anterior cingulate cortex in rabbit: neural circuitry participating in the acquisition of trace eyeblink conditioning. Neuroscience. 2007;145:288-302 pubmed
    ..The relevance of these connections to acquisition of the trace conditioned reflex is discussed. ..
  50. Linke R. Differential projection patterns of superior and inferior collicular neurons onto posterior paralaminar nuclei of the thalamus surrounding the medial geniculate body in the rat. Eur J Neurosci. 1999;11:187-203 pubmed
    ..It appears that the thalamic nuclei may be concerned mainly, but not exclusively, with a single sensory modality, and give rise to parallel multimodal and unimodal pathways to the amygdala. ..
  51. Plant G, Harvey A. A new type of biocompatible bridging structure supports axon regrowth after implantation into the lesioned rat optic tract. Cell Transplant. 2000;9:759-72 pubmed
    ..Thus, implants of this type may potentially be useful in bridging large tissue defects in the CNS. ..
  52. Somogyi P, Minson J, Morilak D, Llewellyn Smith I, McIlhinney J, Chalmers J. Evidence for an excitatory amino acid pathway in the brainstem and for its involvement in cardiovascular control. Brain Res. 1989;496:401-7 pubmed
    ..Among other possible functions, this pathway may mediate tonic and reflex control of blood pressure via NMDA receptors in the VLM. ..
  53. Odekunle A. Impairment of transneuronal traffic in Streptozotocin-induced diabetes, a WGA-HRP neurohistochemical study in the rat. J Biomed Sci. 2006;13:675-80 pubmed
    ..The depletion of labeled neurons in the diabetic rats compared with the euglycaemic rats is indicative of an interference with the mechanism of retrograde neuronal transport of WGA-HRP by chronic diabetic state. ..