apomorphine

Summary

Summary: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.

Top Publications

  1. Qu Y, Saint Marie R, Breier M, Ko D, Stouffer D, Parsons L, et al. Neural basis for a heritable phenotype: differences in the effects of apomorphine on startle gating and ventral pallidal GABA efflux in male Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;207:271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study evaluated the effects of the DA agonist, apomorphine (APO), on ventral pallidal (VP) gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate efflux and PPI in SD and LE rats...
  2. Himeno E, Ohyagi Y, Ma L, Nakamura N, Miyoshi K, Sakae N, et al. Apomorphine treatment in Alzheimer mice promoting amyloid-? degradation. Ann Neurol. 2011;69:248-56 pubmed publisher
    Intracellular amyloid ?-protein (A?) contributes to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer disease (AD). Apomorphine (APO) is a dopamine receptor agonist for Parkinson disease and also protects against oxidative stress...
  3. Carrera M, Carey R, Dias F, de Matos L. Reversal of apomorphine locomotor sensitization by a single post-conditioning trial treatment with a low autoreceptor dose of apomorphine: a memory re-consolidation approach. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011;99:29-34 pubmed publisher
    ..protocol to induce a context specific sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effect of a high dose of apomorphine (2.0mg/kg)...
  4. Fujita S, Kiguchi M, Kobayashi M, Koshikawa N, Waddington J. Involvement of NMDA receptors in the ventrolateral striatum of rats in apomorphine-induced jaw movements. Brain Res. 2010;1322:30-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Apomorphine (1mg/kg i.v...
  5. Gogos A, Kwek P, Chavez C, van den Buuse M. Estrogen treatment blocks 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin- and apomorphine-induced disruptions of prepulse inhibition: involvement of dopamine D1 or D2 or serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, or 5-HT7 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;333:218-27 pubmed publisher
    ..of estrogen treatment to reverse PPI disruption induced by 8-OH-DPAT or the dopamine D(1)/D(2) receptor agonist apomorphine. Part 2 of this study compared these effects to the ability of various antagonists in reversing the action of 8-..
  6. Antonini A, Tolosa E. Apomorphine and levodopa infusion therapies for advanced Parkinson's disease: selection criteria and patient management. Expert Rev Neurother. 2009;9:859-67 pubmed publisher
    The continuous infusion of levodopa or apomorphine represents a good therapeutic option for advanced Parkinson's disease as this approach provides constant dopaminergic stimulations and is a good alternative to deep brain stimulation...
  7. Hoffmann L, Schütte S, Koch M, Schwabe K. Effect of "enriched environment" during development on adult rat behavior and response to the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. Neuroscience. 2009;158:1589-98 pubmed publisher
    ..the acoustic startle response (ASR)) were tested with and without challenge with the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. The time spent on the open or enclosed arms of the elevated plus-maze did not differ between groups, but the ..
  8. Schellekens A, van Oosterwijck A, Ellenbroek B, De Jong C, Buitelaar J, Cools L, et al. The dopamine agonist apomorphine differentially affects cognitive performance in alcohol dependent patients and healthy controls. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;19:68-73 pubmed publisher
    ..controls (N=39) performed an AX-continuous performance test before and after administration of the DA agonist apomorphine (0.005 mg/kg)...
  9. Satake S, Yamada K, Melo L, Barbosa Silva R. Effects of microinjections of apomorphine and haloperidol into the inferior colliculus on prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex in rat. Neurosci Lett. 2012;509:60-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Bilateral microinjections of apomorphine (9.0 ?g/0...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Sarkis R, Saade N, Atweh S, Jabbur S, Al Amin H. Chronic dizocilpine or apomorphine and development of neuropathy in two rat models I: behavioral effects and role of nucleus accumbens. Exp Neurol. 2011;228:19-29 pubmed publisher
    ..administration of dizocilpine (MK-801), a N-methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) noncompetitive receptor antagonist, or apomorphine (APO), a dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor agonist, on neuropathic manifestations in the chronic constriction ..
  2. Shao F, Han X, Li N, Wang W. Adolescent chronic apomorphine treatment impairs latent inhibition and reduces prefrontal cortex mGluR5 receptor expression in adult rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;649:202-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, adolescent Wistar rats were subjected to chronic dopamine agonist apomorphine treatment (1 mg/kg for 14 days)...
  3. Dellapina E, Gerdelat Mas A, Ory Magne F, Pourcel L, Galitzky M, Calvas F, et al. Apomorphine effect on pain threshold in Parkinson's disease: a clinical and positron emission tomography study. Mov Disord. 2011;26:153-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this randomized controlled double blind study, we compared the effect of apomorphine versus placebo on pain thresholds and pain-induced cerebral activity in 25 patients with PD...
  4. Garcia Ruiz P, Sesar Ignacio A, Ares Pensado B, Castro García A, Alonso Frech F, Alvarez López M, et al. Efficacy of long-term continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion in advanced Parkinson's disease with motor fluctuations: a multicenter study. Mov Disord. 2008;23:1130-6 pubmed publisher
    Continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (CSAI) is, at present, an alternative option for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) with motor fluctuations...
  5. Brunerova L, Potockova J, Horacek J, Koprivova H, Rehula M, Andel M. Sublingual apomorphine as a neuroendocrine probe. Psychiatry Res. 2012;198:297-9 pubmed publisher
    Subcutaneous apomorphine, a dopaminergic agonist, is used as a neuroendocrine probe for assessing central dopaminergic activity. The aim of our study was to test sublingual apomorphine for the same purpose...
  6. Elia A, Dollenz C, Soliveri P, Albanese A. Motor features and response to oral levodopa in patients with Parkinson's disease under continuous dopaminergic infusion or deep brain stimulation. Eur J Neurol. 2012;19:76-83 pubmed publisher
    ..deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) and continuous dopaminergic infusions (jejunal levodopa or subcutaneous apomorphine) are indicated in complicated Parkinson's disease (PD), although it remains unsettled how they compare to each ..
  7. Nardin P, Tramontina A, Quincozes Santos A, Tortorelli L, Lunardi P, Klein P, et al. In vitro S100B secretion is reduced by apomorphine: effects of antipsychotics and antioxidants. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35:1291-6 pubmed publisher
    ..rat brain preparations (fresh hippocampal slices, C6 glioma cells and primary astrocyte cultures) exposed to apomorphine and antipsychotics (haloperidol and risperidone), aiming to evaluate, ex vivo and in vitro, whether dopamine ..
  8. Ondo W, Hunter C, Ferrara J, Mostile G. Apomorphine injections: predictors of initial common adverse events and long term tolerability. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012;18:619-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Apomorphine injections effectively abort "off" episodes in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, their use is limited by actual and perceived adverse events (AE)...
  9. Martinez Martin P, Reddy P, Antonini A, Henriksen T, Katzenschlager R, Odin P, et al. Chronic subcutaneous infusion therapy with apomorphine in advanced Parkinson's disease compared to conventional therapy: a real life study of non motor effect. J Parkinsons Dis. 2011;1:197-203 pubmed publisher
    b>Apomorphine infusion therapy remains under-used and there are no comparative studies of motor and non-motor effects of apomorphine infusion...
  10. Tsai M, Huang Y, Wu P, Fu Y, Kao Y, Fang J, et al. Oral apomorphine delivery from solid lipid nanoparticles with different monostearate emulsifiers: pharmacokinetic and behavioral evaluations. J Pharm Sci. 2011;100:547-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Apomorphine, a dopamine receptor agonist for treating Parkinson's disease, has very poor oral bioavailability (<2%) due to the first-pass effect...
  11. Treister R, Pud D, Eisenberg E. The dopamine agonist apomorphine enhances conditioned pain modulation in healthy humans. Neurosci Lett. 2013;548:115-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study was aimed to test the effects of apomorphine, a non-specific dopamine agonist, on the magnitude of CPM in healthy subjects...
  12. Todorova A, Ray Chaudhuri K. Subcutaneous apomorphine and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2013;19:1073-8 pubmed publisher
    ..continuous drug delivery have been reported to have a beneficial effect on NMS in PD and while the efficacy of apomorphine on motor function in PD has been confirmed in a number of studies, in addition to its possible anti-dyskinetic ..
  13. Antonini A, Odin P. Pros and cons of apomorphine and L-dopa continuous infusion in advanced Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009;15 Suppl 4:S97-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Continuous duodenal L-dopa or subcutaneous apomorphine infusions are helpful strategies because they can control motor complications by providing continuous ..
  14. Nickla D, Totonelly K, Dhillon B. Dopaminergic agonists that result in ocular growth inhibition also elicit transient increases in choroidal thickness in chicks. Exp Eye Res. 2010;91:715-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Eyes were injected daily at noon, for 4 days, and the lenses immediately replaced. Agonists used were apomorphine (non-specific; n = 17), quinpirole (D2; n = 10), SKF-38393 (D1; n = 9), and saline controls (n = 22)...
  15. Treister R, Pud D, Ebstein R, Eisenberg E. Dopamine transporter genotype dependent effects of apomorphine on cold pain tolerance in healthy volunteers. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63808 pubmed publisher
    The aims of this study were to assess the effects of the dopamine agonist apomorphine on experimental pain models in healthy subjects and to explore the possible association between these effects and a common polymorphism within the ..
  16. Gourgiotis I, Kampouri N, Koulouri V, Lempesis I, Prasinou M, Georgiadou G, et al. Nitric oxide modulates apomorphine-induced recognition memory deficits in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012;102:507-14 pubmed publisher
    ..NOS inhibitors to reverse recognition memory impairments produced by the DA D(1)/D(2) mixed receptor agonist apomorphine in rats. For these studies, the novel object recognition test (NORT) was used as the memory test...
  17. Meyer P, Morgan M, Kozell L, Ingram S. Contribution of dopamine receptors to periaqueductal gray-mediated antinociception. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;204:531-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Injection of the dopamine receptor agonist (-) apomorphine into the vPAG caused a robust antinociception that was inhibited by the D2 antagonist eticlopride but not the ..
  18. Luo X, Zhang X, Shao W, Yin Y, Zhou J. Crucial roles of MZF-1 in the transcriptional regulation of apomorphine-induced modulation of FGF-2 expression in astrocytic cultures. J Neurochem. 2009;108:952-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Apomorphine (APO), a potent D1/D2 dopamine receptor agonist, is used as an anti-parkinsonian drug...
  19. Hwang T, Lin Y, Chi C, Huang T, Fang J. Development and evaluation of perfluorocarbon nanobubbles for apomorphine delivery. J Pharm Sci. 2009;98:3735-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Apomorphine is a dopamine receptor agonist for treating Parkinson's disease. However, its clinical application is limited by its instability and the need for frequent injections...
  20. Yano K, Koda K, Ago Y, Kobayashi H, Kawasaki T, Takuma K, et al. Galantamine improves apomorphine-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition via muscarinic ACh receptors in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;156:173-80 pubmed publisher
    ..esterase (AChE) inhibitor and allosteric potentiator of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs), improves apomorphine-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI), sensory information-processing deficits, via a nAChR-independent ..
  21. Ma L, Ohyagi Y, Nakamura N, Iinuma K, Miyoshi K, Himeno E, et al. Activation of glutathione peroxidase and inhibition of p53-related apoptosis by apomorphine. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011;27:225-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Apomorphine hydrochloride (APO) is known to be a dopamine receptor agonist, and has recently been found to be a novel drug for Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  22. Sotoing Taïwe G, Ngo Bum E, Talla E, Dawe A, Okomolo Moto F, Temkou Ngoupaye G, et al. Antipsychotic and sedative effects of the leaf extract of Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh (Asteraceae) in rodents. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;143:213-20 pubmed
    ..Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh (Asteraceae) has been used as a medicine for the treatment of epilepsy, insomnia, dementia and psychotic disorders in Cameroonian traditional medicine...
  23. Hsu S, Wen C, al Suwayeh S, Chang H, Yen T, Fang J. Physicochemical characterization and in vivo bioluminescence imaging of nanostructured lipid carriers for targeting the brain: apomorphine as a model drug. Nanotechnology. 2010;21:405101 pubmed publisher
    ..An anti-Parkinson's drug, apomorphine, was used as the model drug...
  24. Al Amin H, Sarkis R, Atweh S, Jabbur S, Saade N. Chronic dizocilpine or apomorphine and development of neuropathy in two animal models II: effects on brain cytokines and neurotrophins. Exp Neurol. 2011;228:30-40 pubmed publisher
    ..ip) injection of dizocilpine (MK-801), a N-methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) noncompetitive receptor antagonist, or apomorphine (APO), a dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor agonist, on neuropathic manifestations in the chronic constriction ..
  25. Wang Y, Zhang Q, Liu J, Ali U, Gui Z, Hui Y, et al. Noradrenergic lesion of the locus coeruleus increases apomorphine-induced circling behavior and the firing activity of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res. 2010;1310:189-99 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, apomorphine-induced circling behavior and extracellular firing activity of substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) neurons ..
  26. Hoenicka J, Quiñones Lombraña A, España Serrano L, Alvira Botero X, Kremer L, Pérez González R, et al. The ANKK1 gene associated with addictions is expressed in astroglial cells and upregulated by apomorphine. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;67:3-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Ankk1 mRNA level in mouse astrocyte cultures was upregulated by apomorphine, suggesting a potential relationship with the dopaminergic system...
  27. Schellekens A, Grootens K, Neef C, Movig K, Buitelaar J, Ellenbroek B, et al. Effect of apomorphine on cognitive performance and sensorimotor gating in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010;207:559-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Fifteen healthy male volunteers received apomorphine sublingually (2 mg), subcutaneously (0.005 mg/kg), and placebo in a balanced, double-blind, cross-over design...
  28. Melo L, Pereira E, Pagini C, Coimbra N, Brandao M, Ferrari E. Effects of microinjections of apomorphine and haloperidol into the inferior colliculus on the latent inhibition of the conditioned emotional response. Exp Neurol. 2009;216:16-21 pubmed publisher
    ..PE and NPE rats received IC microinjections of physiological saline, the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine (9.0 microg/0.5 microL/side), or the dopaminergic antagonist haloperidol (0.5 microg/0...
  29. Clarke C, Worth P, Grosset D, Stewart D. Systematic review of apomorphine infusion, levodopa infusion and deep brain stimulation in advanced Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009;15:728-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In such cases infusion therapies (apomorphine and intraduodenal levodopa) and neurosurgery (deep brain stimulation [DBS]) may be used...
  30. Stocchi F. Use of apomorphine in Parkinson's disease. Neurol Sci. 2008;29 Suppl 5:S383-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this respect, apomorphine administration, via infusion pump, may be a good therapeutic option, aimed at obtaining continuous receptor ..
  31. Finnema S, Halldin C, Bang Andersen B, Gulyas B, Bundgaard C, Wikström H, et al. Dopamine D(2/3) receptor occupancy of apomorphine in the nonhuman primate brain--a comparative PET study with [11C]raclopride and [11C]MNPA. Synapse. 2009;63:378-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the inhibition by apomorphine of agonist and antagonist radioligand binding to D(2/3) receptors in vivo...
  32. Ribaric S. The pharmacological properties and therapeutic use of apomorphine. Molecules. 2012;17:5289-309 pubmed publisher
    b>Apomorphine (APO) is an aporphine derivative used in human and veterinary medicine...
  33. Wen C, Zhang L, Al Suwayeh S, Yen T, Fang J. Theranostic liposomes loaded with quantum dots and apomorphine for brain targeting and bioimaging. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:1599-611 pubmed publisher
    Quantum dots (QDs) and apomorphine were incorporated into liposomes to eliminate uptake by the liver and enhance brain targeting...
  34. Dixit T, Sharma A, Lucot J, Elased K. Antipsychotic-like effect of GLP-1 agonist liraglutide but not DPP-IV inhibitor sitagliptin in mouse model for psychosis. Physiol Behav. 2013;114-115:38-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this, we used apomorphine-induced cage climbing behavior as a murine model for psychosis and examined for potential antipsychotic-like ..
  35. Antonini A, Isaias I, Rodolfi G, Landi A, Natuzzi F, Siri C, et al. A 5-year prospective assessment of advanced Parkinson disease patients treated with subcutaneous apomorphine infusion or deep brain stimulation. J Neurol. 2011;258:579-85 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and continuous subcutaneous infusion of apomorphine (CSAI) in patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD) are lacking...
  36. Garrido E, Palomo T, Ponce G, Garcia Consuegra I, Jimenez Arriero M, Hoenicka J. The ANKK1 protein associated with addictions has nuclear and cytoplasmic localization and shows a differential response of Ala239Thr to apomorphine. Neurotox Res. 2011;20:32-9 pubmed publisher
    ..differences in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm at basal level and when stimulated with the dopamine agonist apomorphine. Specifically, the ANKK1-kinase(Thr239) variant showed the highest level of basal protein expression, while ..
  37. Riley A, Main M, Morgan F. Inhalation device allows novel administration of apomorphine in men with erectile dysfunction-efficacy and safety findings. J Sex Med. 2010;7:1508-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this article is to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of inhaled apomorphine, VR004, in men with mild to severe ED...
  38. Lafreniere Roula M, Darbin O, Hutchison W, Wichmann T, Lozano A, Dostrovsky J. Apomorphine reduces subthalamic neuronal entropy in parkinsonian patients. Exp Neurol. 2010;225:455-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of 8 neurons was recorded prior to, during, and following systemic administration of the dopamine agonist apomorphine at clinically effective doses...
  39. Tien L, Park Y, Fan L, Ma T, Loh H, Ho I. Increased dopamine D2 receptor binding and enhanced apomorphine-induced locomotor activity in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. Brain Res Bull. 2003;61:109-15 pubmed
    ..In this study, apomorphine-induced locomotor activity and the D1 and D2 subtype dopamine receptor binding were examined in mice lacking ..
  40. Peters S, Suchan B, Rusin J, Daum I, Köster O, Przuntek H, et al. Apomorphine reduces BOLD signal in fMRI during voluntary movement in Parkinsonian patients. Neuroreport. 2003;14:809-12 pubmed
    Our group investigated modulatory effects of apomorphine on cerebral activation patterns during finger tapping movements in seven Parkinson's disease (PD) patients off medication...
  41. Bortolato M, Frau R, Aru G, Orru M, Gessa G. Baclofen reverses the reduction in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response induced by dizocilpine, but not by apomorphine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004;171:322-30 pubmed
    ..rats, per se and in co-treatment with some of the substances known to induce a robust reduction of PPI, such as apomorphine (0.25 mg/kg SC) and dizocilpine (0.1 mg/kg SC)...
  42. Di Rosa A, Epifanio A, Antonini A, Stocchi F, Martino G, Di Blasi L, et al. Continuous apomorphine infusion and neuropsychiatric disorders: a controlled study in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. Neurol Sci. 2003;24:174-5 pubmed
    ..PD) develop cognitive and psychiatric complications more frequently during prolonged therapy with continuous apomorphine infusion compared with standard oral treatment...
  43. Troncoso A, Osaki M, Mason S, Borelli K, Brandão M. Apomorphine enhances conditioned responses induced by aversive stimulation of the inferior colliculus. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28:284-91 pubmed
    ..The rats quickly learned to avoid or interrupt the IC stimulation. Apomorphine injections produced a dose-dependent increase in the number of avoidance responses...
  44. Muller T, Benz S, Przuntek H. Apomorphine delays simple reaction time in Parkinsonian patients. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2002;8:357-60 pubmed
    ..To examine short-term effects of an acute subcutaneous injection of the dopamine agonist apomorphine on the results of a SRT task...
  45. Zijlmans J, Debilly B, Rascol O, Lees A, Durif F. Safety of entacapone and apomorphine coadministration in levodopa-treated Parkinson's disease patients: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic results of a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Mov Disord. 2004;19:1006-1011 pubmed
    ..transferase (COMT) inhibitor entacapone, at doses of 200 mg and 400 mg, alters the pharmacokinetics of apomorphine in Parkinson's disease patients experiencing severe motor fluctuations...
  46. van der Elst M, Verheij M, Roubos E, Ellenbroek B, Veening J, Cools A. A single exposure to novelty differentially affects the accumbal dopaminergic system of apomorphine-susceptible and apomorphine-unsusceptible rats. Life Sci. 2005;76:1391-406 pubmed
    ..to assess the effect of a single exposure to novelty on the neurochemistry of the nucleus acc umbens in apomorphine-susceptible and apomorphine-unsusceptible rats...
  47. Touchon J, Holmer H, Moore C, McKee B, Frederickson J, Meshul C. Apomorphine-induced alterations in striatal and substantia nigra pars reticulata glutamate following unilateral loss of striatal dopamine. Exp Neurol. 2005;193:131-40 pubmed
    ..nigra pars reticulata (SN-PR) and the effect of subchronic administration of the dopamine D-1/D-2 agonist, apomorphine, on extracellular glutamate within both the striatum and the SN-PR using in vivo microdialysis...
  48. Auclair A, Kleven M, Besnard J, Depoortere R, Newman Tancredi A. Actions of novel antipsychotic agents on apomorphine-induced PPI disruption: influence of combined serotonin 5-HT1A receptor activation and dopamine D2 receptor blockade. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:1900-9 pubmed
    The dopamine D1/D2 agonist apomorphine (0.63 mg/kg) disrupted prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle in rats, a model of sensorimotor gating deficits observed in schizophrenia...
  49. Li A, Guo H, Luo X, Sheng J, Yang S, Yin Y, et al. Apomorphine-induced activation of dopamine receptors modulates FGF-2 expression in astrocytic cultures and promotes survival of dopaminergic neurons. FASEB J. 2006;20:1263-5 pubmed
    b>Apomorphine (APO), a potent D1/D2 dopamine receptor agonist, is currently used as an antiparkinsonian drug...
  50. Castellano J, Batrynchuk J, Dolbeare K, Verma V, Mann A, Skoblenick K, et al. MIF-1 and its peptidomimetic analogs attenuate haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements and modulate apomorphine-induced rotational behavior in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Peptides. 2007;28:2009-15 pubmed
    ..trifluoroacetate (B), were evaluated for their ability to modulate dopaminergic activity by measuring apomorphine-induced rotations in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats, and haloperidol (HP)-induced vacuous chewing ..
  51. Swerdlow N, Krupin A, Bongiovanni M, Shoemaker J, Goins J, Hammer R. Heritable differences in the dopaminergic regulation of behavior in rats: relationship to D2-like receptor G-protein function. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:721-9 pubmed
    ..Sensitivity to the PPI-disruptive effects of apomorphine (APO) was examined in SD, LE, and F1 (SD x LE) rats...
  52. Hansenne M, Pinto E, Scantamburlo G, Couvreur A, Reggers J, Fuchs S, et al. Mismatch negativity is not correlated with neuroendocrine indicators of catecholaminergic activity in healthy subjects. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2003;18:201-5 pubmed
    ..Noradrenergic and dopaminergic activities were assessed with the apomorphine and clonidine challenge tests...
  53. Brusa L, Bassi A, Pierantozzi M, Gaudiello S Frasca F, Floris R, Stanzione P. Perfusion-weighted dynamic susceptibility (DSC) MRI: basal ganglia hemodynamic changes after apomorphine in Parkinson's disease. Neurol Sci. 2002;23 Suppl 2:S61-2 pubmed
    ..A second DSC-MRI examination performed after subcutaneous apomorphine administration did not show any significant asymmetry in PD patients...