Summary: A group of XANTHENES that contain a 9-keto OXYGEN.

Top Publications

  1. Woydziak Z, Fu L, Peterson B. Synthesis of fluorinated benzophenones, xanthones, acridones, and thioxanthones by iterative nucleophilic aromatic substitution. J Org Chem. 2012;77:473-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This method yields symmetrical and asymmetrical fluorinated benzophenones, xanthones, acridones, and thioxanthones and provides scalable access to known and novel precursors to fluorinated ..
  2. Gutierrez Orozco F, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Lesinski G, Suksamrarn S, Failla M. ?-Mangostin: anti-inflammatory activity and metabolism by human cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:3891-900 pubmed publisher
    ..The relative amounts of free and phase II metabolites of ?-MG and other xanthones present in media 24 h after addition of ?-MG was shown to vary by cell type and inflammatory insult...
  3. Lu L, Tang D, Wang L, Huang L, Jiang G, Xiao X, et al. Gambogic acid inhibits TNF-?-induced invasion of human prostate cancer PC3 cells in vitro through PI3K/Akt and NF-?B signaling pathways. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2012;33:531-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of gambogic acid (GA) on TNF-?-induced metastasis of human prostate cancer PC3 cells in vitro...
  4. Tocci N, D Auria F, Simonetti G, Panella S, Palamara A, Pasqua G. A three-step culture system to increase the xanthone production and antifungal activity of Hypericum perforatum subsp. angustifolium in vitro roots. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2012;57:54-8 pubmed publisher
    Hypericum perforatum is a well-known medicinal plant. Among all secondary metabolites produced by this species, xanthones are very interesting for their antifungal activity...
  5. Wang X, Deng R, Lu Y, Xu Q, Yan M, Ye D, et al. Gambogic acid as a non-competitive inhibitor of ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 reverses the multidrug resistance of human epithelial cancers by promoting ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 protein degradation. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2013;112:25-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study will aid in the understanding of the synergistic effects of combining GA with other drugs as a new anti-multidrug-resistant agent. ..
  6. Prantner D, Perkins D, Lai W, Williams M, Sharma S, Fitzgerald K, et al. 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) activates stimulator of interferon gene (STING)-dependent innate immune pathways and is regulated by mitochondrial membrane potential. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:39776-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Although both stimuli signal through STING, cyclic dinucleotides interact directly with STING, suggesting that recognition of DMXAA by STING may also be mediated by direct interaction. ..
  7. Jang H, Kwon O, Oh S, Lee H, Ahn K, Chin Y. Mangosteen xanthones mitigate ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:4042-50 pubmed publisher
    and ?-Mangostin, which are the major xanthones purified from a Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana Linn., exhibit a wide range of anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities...
  8. Márquez L, Garcia Bueno B, Madrigal J, Leza J. Mangiferin decreases inflammation and oxidative damage in rat brain after stress. Eur J Nutr. 2012;51:729-39 pubmed publisher
  9. Das J, Ghosh J, Roy A, Sil P. Mangiferin exerts hepatoprotective activity against D-galactosamine induced acute toxicity and oxidative/nitrosative stress via Nrf2-NF?B pathways. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;260:35-47 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the hepatoprotective role of mangiferin was due to induction of antioxidant defense via the Nrf2 pathway and reduction of inflammation via NF?B inhibition. ..

More Information


  1. Niu S, Li Z, Ji F, Liu G, Zhao N, Liu X, et al. Xanthones from the stem bark of Garcinia bracteata with growth inhibitory effects against HL-60 cells. Phytochemistry. 2012;77:280-6 pubmed publisher
    Five xanthones, 1,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone (1) and bracteaxanthones III-VI (2-5) together with twenty-six known compounds (6-31), were isolated from the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Garcinia bracteata...
  2. Henare K, Wang L, Wang L, Thomsen L, Tijono S, Chen C, et al. Dissection of stromal and cancer cell-derived signals in melanoma xenografts before and after treatment with DMXAA. Br J Cancer. 2012;106:1134-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The experimental platform used allowed distinction between cancer cells and stromal cells and can be applied to investigate other tumour models and anti-cancer agents. ..
  3. Reyes Fermín L, González Reyes S, Tarco Álvarez N, Hernández Nava M, Orozco Ibarra M, Pedraza Chaverri J. Neuroprotective effect of ?-mangostin and curcumin against iodoacetate-induced cell death. Nutr Neurosci. 2012;15:34-41 pubmed publisher
  4. de Oliveira A, de Sousa J, da Silva M, Hilário F, Resende F, de Camargo M, et al. Estrogenic and chemopreventive activities of xanthones and flavones of Syngonanthus (Eriocaulaceae). Steroids. 2013;78:1053-63 pubmed publisher
    The possible benefits of some bioactive flavones and xanthones present in plants of the genus Syngonanthus prompted us to screen them for estrogenic activity...
  5. Gutierrez Orozco F, Failla M. Biological activities and bioavailability of mangosteen xanthones: a critical review of the current evidence. Nutrients. 2013;5:3163-83 pubmed publisher
    ..that produces a fruit whose pericarp contains a family of tricyclic isoprenylated polyphenols referred to as xanthones. Numerous in vitro studies have shown that these xanthones possess anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, pro-..
  6. Cao S, McMillin D, Tamayo G, Delmore J, Mitsiades C, Clardy J. Inhibition of tumor cells interacting with stromal cells by xanthones isolated from a Costa Rican Penicillium sp. J Nat Prod. 2012;75:793-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Bioassay-guided separation led to the identification of five xanthones (1-5) from CR1642D...
  7. Ramos Alves F, de Queiroz D, Santos Rocha J, Duarte G, Xavier F. Increased cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostanoids contributes to the hyperreactivity to noradrenaline in mesenteric resistance arteries from offspring of diabetic rats. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50593 pubmed publisher
    ..As increased contractile response in resistance vessels may contribute to hypertension, our results suggest a role for these COX-2-derived prostanoids in elevating vascular resistance and blood pressure in offspring of diabetic rats. ..
  8. Feng R, Zhang Y, Chen X, Wang Y, Shi J, Che C, et al. In vitro study on metabolite profiles of bioactive xanthones isolated from Halenia elliptica D. Don by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2012;62:228-34 pubmed publisher
    The metabolisms of five xanthones isolated from a Tibetan medicinal herb Halenia elliptica D...
  9. Martinez A, Hernandez Marin E, Galano A. Xanthones as antioxidants: a theoretical study on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the single electron transfer mechanism. Food Funct. 2012;3:442-50 pubmed publisher
    ..It has a dark red pericarp that is rich in bioactive compounds including xanthones, which have been classified as very good antioxidants from several experimental results...
  10. Ramaiya A, Li G, Petiwala S, Johnson J. Single dose oral pharmacokinetic profile of ?-mangostin in mice. Curr Drug Targets. 2012;13:1698-704 pubmed
    The mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana) is a rich source of dietary xanthones with the most prominent being ?-mangostin. Dietary xanthones have been reported to have a variety of health promoting properties...
  11. van der Merwe J, Joubert E, Manley M, De Beer D, Malherbe C, Gelderblom W. Mangiferin glucuronidation: important hepatic modulation of antioxidant activity. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:808-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper provides the first evidence that the glucuronidated metabolites of mangiferin resulted in a loss in free radical scavenging and ferric iron reducing ability. ..
  12. Johnson J, Petiwala S, Syed D, Rasmussen J, Adhami V, Siddiqui I, et al. ?-Mangostin, a xanthone from mangosteen fruit, promotes cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer and decreases xenograft tumor growth. Carcinogenesis. 2012;33:413-9 pubmed publisher
    ..01). The ability of ?-mangostin to inhibit PCa in vitro and in vivo suggests ?-mangostin may be a novel agent for the management of PCa...
  13. Chitchumroonchokchai C, Thomas Ahner J, Li J, Riedl K, Nontakham J, Suksumrarn S, et al. Anti-tumorigenicity of dietary ?-mangostin in an HT-29 colon cell xenograft model and the tissue distribution of xanthones and their phase II metabolites. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57:203-11 pubmed publisher
    ..tumorigenicity, proliferation, and several markers of tumor cell activity, as well as the profile and amounts of xanthones in serum, tumor, liver, and feces...
  14. Chitchumroonchokchai C, Riedl K, Suksumrarn S, Clinton S, Kinghorn A, Failla M. Xanthones in mangosteen juice are absorbed and partially conjugated by healthy adults. J Nutr. 2012;142:675-80 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of the pericarp from mangosteen fruit have been attributed to a family of polyphenols referred to as xanthones. The purpose of this study was to determine the bioavailability of xanthones from 100% mangosteen juice in ..
  15. Márquez Valadez B, Maldonado P, Galvan Arzate S, Méndez Cuesta L, Perez De La Cruz V, Pedraza Chaverri J, et al. Alpha-mangostin induces changes in glutathione levels associated with glutathione peroxidase activity in rat brain synaptosomes. Nutr Neurosci. 2012;15:13-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In a previous report, we have characterized the antiperoxidative properties of alpha-mangostin in different toxic models tested in nerve tissue preparations...
  16. Kosem N, Ichikawa K, Utsumi H, Moongkarndi P. In vivo toxicity and antitumor activity of mangosteen extract. J Nat Med. 2013;67:255-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it is worth undertaking further investigation to identify active compounds and obtain a deeper understanding of their mechanism, in order to acquire novel effective anticancer drugs...
  17. Li C, Qi Q, Lu N, Dai Q, Li F, Wang X, et al. Gambogic acid promotes apoptosis and resistance to metastatic potential in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells. Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;90:718-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data provide further support for the multiple effects of GA on human breast cancer cells, as well as for its potential application to inhibit tumor growth and prevent metastasis in human cancers. ..
  18. Pockrandt D, Ludwig L, Fan A, König G, Li S. New insights into the biosynthesis of prenylated xanthones: Xptb from Aspergillus nidulans catalyses an O-prenylation of xanthones. Chembiochem. 2012;13:2764-71 pubmed publisher
    ..might also accept as substrate the benzophenone arugosin H, which is assumed to be a precursor of prenylated xanthones. In this study, five benzophenones and ten xanthones were incubated with purified recombinant XptB in the ..
  19. Aisha A, Abu Salah K, Ismail Z, Majid A. In vitro and in vivo anti-colon cancer effects of Garcinia mangostana xanthones extract. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:104 pubmed
    b>Xanthones are a group of oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds with remarkable pharmacological effects such as anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities.
  20. Vyas A, Syeda K, Ahmad A, Padhye S, Sarkar F. Perspectives on medicinal properties of mangiferin. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2012;12:412-25 pubmed
  21. Wei Z, Yan L, Deng J, Deng J. [Effects of mangiferin on MAPK signaling pathway in chronic inflammation]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2011;36:1798-802 pubmed
    ..As a possible mechanism, the regulation of mangiferin on the expressions of ERK, JNK gene of leukocyte in MAPK signaling pathway was involved in its great inhibition on the chronic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide. ..
  22. Buelna Chontal M, Correa F, Hernández Reséndiz S, Zazueta C, Pedraza Chaverri J. Protective effect of ?-mangostin on cardiac reperfusion damage by attenuation of oxidative stress. J Med Food. 2011;14:1370-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, ?-M induces a protective effect in postischemic heart associated to the prevention of oxidative stress secondary to reperfusion injury...
  23. Woon S, Hung S, Wu D, Schooltink M, Sutherland R, Baguley B, et al. NF-kappaB-independent induction of endothelial cell apoptosis by the vascular disrupting agent DMXAA. Anticancer Res. 2007;27:327-34 pubmed
    ..The IkappaBalphaM-transfected T24 cells showed similar apoptotic responses to those of parental cells. The DMXAA-induced apoptosis is neither mediated by, nor inhibited by, the expression of the NF-kappaB pathway. ..
  24. Qiang L, Yang Y, You Q, Ma Y, Yang L, Nie F, et al. Inhibition of glioblastoma growth and angiogenesis by gambogic acid: an in vitro and in vivo study. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;75:1083-92 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the current data indicated that GA may be of potential use in treatment of glioblastoma by apoptotic induction and antiangiogenic effects. ..
  25. Han A, Kim J, Lantvit D, Kardono L, Riswan S, Chai H, et al. Cytotoxic xanthone constituents of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen). J Nat Prod. 2009;72:2028-31 pubmed publisher
    ..5 microM. Alpha-mangostin (5) was further tested in an in vivo hollow fiber assay, using HT-29, LNCaP, and MCF-7 cells, but it was found to be inactive at the highest dose tested (20 mg/kg)...
  26. Oehler C, O Donoghue J, Russell J, Zanzonico P, Lorenzen S, Ling C, et al. 18F-fluromisonidazole PET imaging as a biomarker for the response to 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid in colorectal xenograft tumors. J Nucl Med. 2011;52:437-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a reduction in (18)F-FMISO SUV(mean) after DMXAA treatment was indicative of reduced perfusion and therefore delivery of (18)F-FMISO, rather than a reduction in tumor hypoxia. ..
  27. Rivera D, Hernández I, Merino N, Luque Y, Alvarez A, Martín Y, et al. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and mangiferin reduce the airway inflammation and Th2 cytokines in murine model of allergic asthma. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;63:1336-45 pubmed publisher
    ..indica extract and mangiferin in experimental asthma and it could be an important part of pre-clinical requirement necessary for its use to complement the treatment of this complex disease. ..
  28. Mu R, Lu N, Wang J, Yin Y, Ding Y, Zhang X, et al. An oxidative analogue of gambogic acid-induced apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 is involved in its anticancer activity in vitro. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2010;19:61-7 pubmed publisher
  29. Krohn K, Kouam S, Kuigoua G, Hussain H, Cludius Brandt S, Flörke U, et al. Xanthones and oxepino[2, 3-b]chromones from three endophytic fungi. Chemistry. 2009;15:12121-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Microsphaeropsis species, large amounts of fusidienol A (8 a), smaller amounts of emodin (5), the known aromatic xanthones 9 a and 9 b, the new 3,4-dihydrofusidienol A (8 b), and the new aromatic xanthone 9 c were isolated...
  30. Fukai T, Oku Y, Hou A, Yonekawa M, Terada S. Antimicrobial activity of hydrophobic xanthones from Cudrania cochinchinensis against Bacillus subtilis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Chem Biodivers. 2004;1:1385-90 pubmed
    Ten xanthones with one or two isoprenoid groups and a prenylated benzophenone isolated from roots of Cudrania cochinchinensis (Moraceae) were tested for their antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis and methicillin-resistant ..
  31. Choi Y, Brown J, Williams C, Canales L, Shim W. GAC1, a gene encoding a putative GTPase-activating protein, regulates bikaverin biosynthesis in Fusarium verticillioides. Mycologia. 2008;100:701-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that GAC1 plays an important role in signal transduction regulating bikaverin production in F. verticillioides. ..
  32. Wang J, Sanderson B, Zhang W. Cytotoxic effect of xanthones from pericarp of the tropical fruit mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) on human melanoma cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:2385-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these xanthones, especially ?-mangostin, are potential candidates as anti-melanoma agents.
  33. Garrido Suárez B, Garrido G, Delgado R, Bosch F, del C Rabí M. A Mangifera indica L. extract could be used to treat neuropathic pain and implication of mangiferin. Molecules. 2010;15:9035-45 pubmed publisher
  34. Pili R, Rosenthal M, Mainwaring P, Van Hazel G, Srinivas S, Dreicer R, et al. Phase II study on the addition of ASA404 (vadimezan; 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid) to docetaxel in CRMPC. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:2906-14 pubmed publisher
    ..e., time to tumor progression). The results indicate that the combination of ASA404 with docetaxel has acceptable toxicity, lacks adverse pharmacokinetic interaction, and, overall, has activity in CRMPC. ..
  35. Viswanadh E, Rao B, Rao B. Antigenotoxic effect of mangiferin and changes in antioxidant enzyme levels of Swiss albino mice treated with cadmium chloride. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2010;29:409-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study revealed that MGN has potent antigenotoxic effect against CdCl(2)-induced toxicity in mice, which may be due to the scavenging of free radicals and increased antioxidant status...
  36. Shu W, Chen Y, He J, Cui G. Effects of gambogic acid on the regulation of nucleoporin Nup88 in U937 cells. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2007;27:388-92 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that GA exerts its anti-leukemia effects by regulating the expression and distribution of nucleoporin Nup88. It promises to be new agent for the treatment of acute leukemia. ..
  37. Rukachaisirikul V, Sommart U, Phongpaichit S, Sakayaroj J, Kirtikara K. Metabolites from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. PSU-D15. Phytochemistry. 2008;69:783-7 pubmed
    ..Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Phomoenamide (1) exhibited moderate in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. ..
  38. Márquez Valadez B, Lugo Huitrón R, Valdivia Cerda V, Miranda Ramírez L, Perez De La Cruz V, González Cuahutencos O, et al. The natural xanthone alpha-mangostin reduces oxidative damage in rat brain tissue. Nutr Neurosci. 2009;12:35-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In light of these findings, this antioxidant should be tested in other neurotoxic models involving oxidative stress. ..
  39. Song J, Yip Y, Han Q, Qiao C, Xu H. Rapid determination of polyprenylated xanthones in gamboge resin of Garcinia hanburyi by HPLC. J Sep Sci. 2007;30:304-9 pubmed
    A rapid ion-pair HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of eight polyprenylated xanthones including three pairs of epimers, namely morellic acid (MA), 30-hydroxygambogic acid (HGA), 30-hydroxyepigambogic acid (HEGA)..
  40. Qin Y, Meng L, Hu C, Duan W, Zuo Z, Lin L, et al. Gambogic acid inhibits the catalytic activity of human topoisomerase IIalpha by binding to its ATPase domain. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:2429-40 pubmed
    ..They also indicate that GA inhibits Topo IIalpha-mediated DNA cleavage and modulate the activity of Topo II poisons, which provide rationale for further clinical evaluation of GA. ..
  41. Li R, Chen Y, Zeng L, Shu W, Zhao F, Wen L, et al. Gambogic acid induces G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis involving inhibition of SRC-3 and inactivation of Akt pathway in K562 leukemia cells. Toxicology. 2009;262:98-105 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that GA might exhibit its strong antitumor effects via the interruption of SRC-3. ..
  42. McKeage M, Von Pawel J, Reck M, Jameson M, Rosenthal M, Sullivan R, et al. Randomised phase II study of ASA404 combined with carboplatin and paclitaxel in previously untreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:2006-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that there may be a benefit associated with ASA404, but this needs to be evaluated in a larger trial. ..
  43. De A, Chattopadhyay S. The variation in cytoplasmic distribution of mouse peritoneal macrophage during phagocytosis modulated by mangiferin, an immunomodulator. Immunobiology. 2009;214:367-76 pubmed publisher
  44. Kondo M, Zhang L, Ji H, Kou Y, Ou B. Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of a xanthone-rich Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) product in humans. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:8788-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this study demonstrated the bioavailability of antioxidants from a xanthone-rich mangosteen product and its in vivo antioxidant effects...
  45. Shan T, Ma Q, Guo K, Liu J, Li W, Wang F, et al. Xanthones from mangosteen extracts as natural chemopreventive agents: potential anticancer drugs. Curr Mol Med. 2011;11:666-77 pubmed
    ..b>Xanthones, from the pericarp, whole fruit, heartwood, and leaf of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn...
  46. Xu X, Liu Y, Wang L, He J, Zhang H, Chen X, et al. Gambogic acid induces apoptosis by regulating the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 and enhancing caspase-3 activity in human malignant melanoma A375 cells. Int J Dermatol. 2009;48:186-92 pubmed publisher
    ..GA can inhibit the proliferation of A375 cells and induce their apoptosis, which may be related to the up-regulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 activity. ..
  47. Rajendran P, Ekambaram G, Sakthisekaran D. Protective role of mangiferin against Benzo(a)pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis in experimental animals. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:1053-8 pubmed
    ..Our present results explain the unique association between the anti-oxidant effect of mangiferin and ultimately the capability of mangiferin to prevent cancer. ..
  48. Zhang W, Krohn K, Flörke U, Pescitelli G, Di Bari L, Antus S, et al. New mono- and dimeric members of the secalonic acid family: blennolides A-G isolated from the fungus Blennoria sp. Chemistry. 2008;14:4913-23 pubmed publisher
    ..They were also active against the alga Chlorella fusca and the bacterium Escherichia coli. ..
  49. McKeage M, Reck M, Jameson M, Rosenthal M, Gibbs D, Mainwaring P, et al. Phase II study of ASA404 (vadimezan, 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid/DMXAA) 1800mg/m(2) combined with carboplatin and paclitaxel in previously untreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2009;65:192-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The manageable safety profile, lack of adverse pharmacokinetic interactions and efficacy outcomes seen in this single-arm study suggest that ASA404 1800mg/m(2) is a viable dose for future combination studies. ..
  50. Nie F, Zhang X, Qi Q, Yang L, Yang Y, Liu W, et al. Reactive oxygen species accumulation contributes to gambogic acid-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells. Toxicology. 2009;260:60-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our study demonstrated that accumulation of ROS played an important role in GA-induced mitochondrial signaling pathway, which provided further theoretical support for the application of GA as a promising anticancer agent. ..
  51. Cui G, Shu W, Wu Q, Chen Y. Effect of Gambogic acid on the regulation of hERG channel in K562 cells in vitro. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2009;29:540-5 pubmed publisher
  52. Sissing L, Marnewick J, de Kock M, Swanevelder S, Joubert E, Gelderblom W. Modulating effects of rooibos and honeybush herbal teas on the development of esophageal papillomas in rats. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63:600-10 pubmed publisher
    ..008) intake (mg/100 g body weight) of the teas and the FLAVA (r = 0.89; P < 0.04) and flavonol/flavones/xanthones (r = 0.99; P < 0.002) intake when considering only the herbal teas...