Summary: An adenine analog REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITOR with antiviral activity against HIV-1 and HEPATITIS B. It is used to treat HIV INFECTIONS and CHRONIC HEPATITIS B, in combination with other ANTIVIRAL AGENTS, due to the emergence of ANTIVIRAL DRUG RESISTANCE when it is used alone.

Top Publications

  1. Liu Y, Wang C, Cheng J, Liang Z, Zhong Y, Ren X, et al. Hepatitis B virus in tenofovir-naive Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B contains no mutation of rtA194T conferring a reduced tenofovir susceptibility. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009;122:1585-6 pubmed
  2. Persad G, Emanuel E. The ethics of expanding access to cheaper, less effective treatments. Lancet. 2016;388:932-4 pubmed publisher
  3. de Moraes Filho A, de Jesus Silva Carvalho C, Verçosa C, Gonçalves M, Rohde C, de Melo e Silva D, et al. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of efavirenz (EFV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) alone and in their clinical combinations in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 2017;820:31-38 pubmed publisher
    This study focuses on the antiretrovirals efavirenz (EFV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), an oral prodrug of tenofovir analog of adenosine 5'-monophosphate, which belongs to the ..
  4. Corado K, Daar E. Emtricitabine + tenofovir alafenamide for the treatment of HIV. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2017;18:427-432 pubmed publisher
    b>Tenofovir alafenamide is a new oral prodrug of tenofovir resulting in relatively low plasma levels and rapid uptake into peripheral blood mononuclear cells in its active form...
  5. Papavarnavas N, Manning K, Conrad F, Govender M, Maartens G. Factors associated with loss to follow-up after occupational HIV exposure in Cape Town, South Africa: a retrospective cohort study. AIDS Res Ther. 2017;14:23 pubmed publisher
    ..Occupational Health Clinic in Cape Town, South Africa for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) during a period when tenofovir was available. Our primary outcome was LTFU at the 3-month visit...
  6. Birlie B, Braekers R, Awoke T, Kasim A, Shkedy Z. Multi-state models for the analysis of time-to-treatment modification among HIV patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy in Southwest Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:453 pubmed publisher
    ..31%. The HAART combinations that were robust to treatment changes were tenofovir (TDF) + lamivudine (3TC)+ efavirenz (EFV), tenofovir + lamivudine (3TC) + nevirapine (NVP) and zidovudine (AZT) +..
  7. Aberra H, Desalegn H, Berhe N, Medhin G, Stene Johansen K, Gundersen S, et al. Early experiences from one of the first treatment programs for chronic hepatitis B in sub-Saharan Africa. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:438 pubmed publisher
    ..Logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of fibrosis. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) was initiated based on the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) ..
  8. Variava E, Sigauke F, Norman J, Rakgokong M, Muchichwa P, Mochan A, et al. Brief Report: Late Efavirenz-Induced Ataxia and Encephalopathy: A Case Series. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;75:577-579 pubmed publisher
    ..Eight patients had a record of prior subsequent weights and 7 of 8 showed significant weight loss gain; median gain of 10.8 kg (IQR: 8-11.6). ..
  9. Lori F, Lewis M, Xu J, Varga G, Zinn D, Crabbs C, et al. Control of SIV rebound through structured treatment interruptions during early infection. Science. 2000;290:1591-3 pubmed
    ..Fixed-schedule STI-HAART appears to be an effective alternative to continuous HAART for the early treatment of retroviral infection. ..

More Information


  1. . Virological response to a triple nucleoside/nucleotide analogue regimen over 48 weeks in HIV-1-infected adults in Africa. AIDS. 2006;20:1391-9 pubmed
    ..emergence of HIV-1 resistance mutations at 24 weeks, in therapy-naive adults initiating zidovudine/lamivudine/tenofovir DF. : A cohort within the DART trial...
  2. Lee K, Lee J, Ku N, Jeong S, Han S, Choi J, et al. Change in Renal Function among HIV-Infected Koreans Receiving Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate-Backbone Antiretroviral Therapy: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study. Yonsei Med J. 2017;58:770-777 pubmed publisher
    b>Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is commonly prescribed as a fixed-dose, co-formulated antiretroviral drug for HIV-1 infection. The major concern of long-term TDF use is renal dysfunction...
  3. Kooij K, Vogt L, Wit F, van der Valk M, van Zoest R, Goorhuis A, et al. Higher Prevalence and Faster Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Middle-Aged Individuals Compared With Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Uninfected Controls. J Infect Dis. 2017;216:622-631 pubmed publisher
    ..Human immunodeficiency virus infection, traditional CKD risk factors, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may all contribute...
  4. Oyagüez I, Buti M, Brosa M, Rueda M, Casado M. Cost-Effectiveness and Clinical Impact of Antiviral Strategies of HBeAg-Positive and -Negative Chronic Hepatitis B. Ann Hepatol. 2017;16:358-365 pubmed publisher
    ..71% of treated population) and strategy 2 (100%), both based on pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) followed by oral tenofovir or entecavir, were compared to no treatment. Progression was based on HBV-DNA levels...
  5. Montejano R, Stella Ascariz N, Monge S, Bernardino J, Perez Valero I, Montes M, et al. Impact of Antiretroviral Treatment Containing Tenofovir Difumarate on the Telomere Length of Aviremic HIV-Infected Patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;76:102-109 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the in vivo relevance of the inhibitory effect of tenofovir on telomerase activity observed in vitro...
  6. Park J, Kwak K, Kim S, Jang M, Suk K, Kim D, et al. Comparison of the long-term efficacy between entecavir and tenofovir in treatment- naïve chronic hepatitis B patients. BMC Gastroenterol. 2017;17:39 pubmed publisher
    There have been limited studies directly comparing the long-term efficacy between entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)...
  7. Some F, Koech M, Chesire E, Kigen G. Reversal of tenofovir induced nephrotoxicity: case reports of two patients. Pan Afr Med J. 2017;27:126 pubmed publisher
    The use of the antiretroviral drug tenofovir has been associated with nephrotoxicity. However, the overall impact of this adverse effect has not comprehensively evaluated...
  8. Rhee S, Varghese V, Holmes S, van Zyl G, Steegen K, Boyd M, et al. Mutational Correlates of Virological Failure in Individuals Receiving a WHO-Recommended Tenofovir-Containing First-Line Regimen: An International Collaboration. EBioMedicine. 2017;18:225-235 pubmed publisher
    b>Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) genotypic resistance defined by K65R/N and/or K70E/Q/G occurs in 20% to 60% of individuals with virological failure (VF) on a WHO-recommended TDF-containing first-line regimen...
  9. Janssen H, Sonneveld M, Brunetto M. Quantification of serum hepatitis B surface antigen: is it useful for the management of chronic hepatitis B?. Gut. 2012;61:641-5 pubmed publisher
  10. Beyrer C, Bekker L, Pozniak A, Barré Sinoussi F. Pre-exposure prophylaxis works--it's time to deliver. Lancet. 2015;385:1482-4 pubmed publisher
  11. Karim S, Kashuba A, Werner L, Karim Q. Drug concentrations after topical and oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis: implications for HIV prevention in women. Lancet. 2011;378:279-81 pubmed publisher
  12. Spaulding A, Rutherford G, Siegfried N. Tenofovir or zidovudine in three-drug combination therapy with one nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for initial treatment of HIV infection in antiretroviral-naïve individuals. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;:CD008740 pubmed publisher
    ..transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) zidovudine (AZT) and the nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NtRTI) tenofovir (TDF)...
  13. Salvaggio S, Giacomelli A, Falvella F, Oreni M, Meraviglia P, Atzori C, et al. Clinical and genetic factors associated with kidney tubular dysfunction in a real-life single centre cohort of HIV-positive patients. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:396 pubmed publisher
    b>Tenofovir (TDF) is one of the most widely used antiretroviral drug. Despite the high degree of tolerability a small percentage of patients experienced alteration in tubular function during TDF use...
  14. Decloedt E, Lesosky M, Maartens G, Joska J. Renal safety of lithium in HIV-infected patients established on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate containing antiretroviral therapy: analysis from a randomized placebo-controlled trial. AIDS Res Ther. 2017;14:6 pubmed publisher
    ..Lithium is the most effective mood stabiliser, while tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is frequently used as part of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
  15. Soorju V, Naidoo P. Confirmation of factors that influence antiretroviral regimen change and the subsequent patient outcomes at a Regional Hospital in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med. 2016;8:e1-e6 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common regimen patients were changed to was tenofovir (TDF)/3TC/EFV n = 89(33%). Stavudine was the most commonly substituted drug (35.5%)...
  16. Tsai C, Follis K, Beck T, Sabo A, Bischofberger N, Dailey P. Effects of (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine monotherapy on chronic SIV infection in macaques. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1997;13:707-12 pubmed
    ..At a dose of 30 mg/kg/day PMPA was well tolerated, causing no side effects while increasing the mean CD4+ cell counts in animals that received this dose. Thus PMPA seems to be a promising agent for use against retroviral infections. ..
  17. Güerri Fernández R, Molina Morant D, Villar García J, Herrera S, González Mena A, Guelar A, et al. Bone Density, Microarchitecture, and Tissue Quality After Long-Term Treatment With Tenofovir/Emtricitabine or Abacavir/Lamivudine. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;75:322-327 pubmed publisher
    ..this study is to analyze the BMD, microarchitecture, and tissue quality of bone in patients receiving long-term tenofovir- or abacavir-based ART...
  18. Grant R, Liegler T, Defechereux P, Kashuba A, Taylor D, Abdel Mohsen M, et al. Drug resistance and plasma viral RNA level after ineffective use of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis in women. AIDS. 2015;29:331-7 pubmed
    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily oral emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate may select for drug resistance if there is low adherence...
  19. Lennox J, Landovitz R, Ribaudo H, Ofotokun I, Na L, Godfrey C, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of 3 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing antiretroviral regimens for treatment-naive volunteers infected with HIV-1: a randomized, controlled equivalence trial. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161:461-71 pubmed publisher
    ..mg twice daily; or darunavir, 800 mg/d, with ritonavir, 100 mg/d, plus combination emtricitabine, 200 mg/d, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, 300 mg/d...
  20. Kruse L, Stover K, Henderson H. Perceptions of emtricitabine-tenofovir in HIV PrEP. HIV Clin. 2014;26:1, 4-7 pubmed
  21. Atta M, Stokes M. ASN clinical pathological conference. Tenofovir-related ATN (severe). Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;8:882-90 pubmed publisher
  22. Squillace N, Ricci E, Quirino T, Gori A, Bandera A, Carenzi L, et al. Safety and tolerability of Elvitegravir/Cobicistat/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil fumarate in a real life setting: Data from surveillance cohort long-term toxicity antiretrovirals/antivirals (SCOLTA) project. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179254 pubmed publisher
    ..the impact on Liver and Kidney toxicity of the single tablet regimen Elvitegravir/Cobicistat/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF) on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) experienced or naïve patients...
  23. Ndow G, Gore M, Shimakawa Y, Suso P, Jatta A, Tamba S, et al. Hepatitis B testing and treatment in HIV patients in The Gambia-Compliance with international guidelines and clinical outcomes. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179025 pubmed publisher
    ..3%, 95% CI 8.0-17.9) were positive of whom none had liver assessment and only 6 (26.1%) had received Tenofovir. Our HBV testing intervention was accepted by all participants and found 94/870 (10.8%, 95% CI 8.8-13...
  24. Celum C, Morrow R, Donnell D, Hong T, Hendrix C, Thomas K, et al. Daily oral tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir preexposure prophylaxis reduces herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition among heterosexual HIV-1-uninfected men and women: a subgroup analysis of a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161:11-9 pubmed publisher
    Daily oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using the antiretroviral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) alone or in combination with emtricitabine (FTC-TDF) reduces the risk for HIV-1 acquisition...
  25. Waitt C, Diliiy Penchala S, Olagunju A, Amara A, Else L, Lamorde M, et al. Development, validation and clinical application of a method for the simultaneous quantification of lamivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir in dried blood and dried breast milk spots using LC-MS/MS. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2017;1060:300-307 pubmed publisher
    ..clinical application of a LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of lamivudine (3TC), emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) in dried blood spots (DBS) and dried breast milk spots (DBMS)...
  26. Tsai C, Follis K, Sabo A, Beck T, Grant R, Bischofberger N, et al. Prevention of SIV infection in macaques by (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine. Science. 1995;270:1197-9 pubmed
    ..PMPA prevented SIV infection in all macaques without toxicity, whereas all control macaques became infected. These results suggest a potential role for PMPA prophylaxis against early HIV infection in cases of known exposure. ..
  27. Papatheodoridis G, Idilman R, Dalekos G, Buti M, Chi H, van Boemmel F, et al. The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma decreases after the first 5 years of entecavir or tenofovir in Caucasians with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology. 2017;66:1444-1453 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore assessed the HCC incidence beyond year 5 of entecavir/tenofovir (ETV/TDF) therapy and tried to determine possible factors associated with late HCC occurrence...
  28. Hogben M, Liddon N. Disinhibition and risk compensation: scope, definitions, and perspective. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35:1009-10 pubmed publisher
  29. Rosenwirth B, ten Haaft P, Bogers W, Nieuwenhuis I, Niphuis H, Kuhn E, et al. Antiretroviral therapy during primary immunodeficiency virus infection can induce persistent suppression of virus load and protection from heterologous challenge in rhesus macaques. J Virol. 2000;74:1704-11 pubmed
    ..By this chemotherapeutic attenuation, the replication kinetics of attenuated viruses could be mimicked and a vaccination effect similar to that induced by live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines was achieved. ..
  30. Sculier D, Gayet Ageron A, Battegay M, Cavassini M, Fehr J, Hirzel C, et al. Rilpivirine use in the Swiss HIV cohort study: a prospective cohort study. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:476 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to determine the reasons for prescribing the rilpivirine (RPV)/tenofovir disoproxil (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) co-formulation within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and to assess its ..
  31. . Global epidemiology of drug resistance after failure of WHO recommended first-line regimens for adult HIV-1 infection: a multicentre retrospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16:565-575 pubmed publisher
    ..Potent tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-containing regimens are increasingly used to treat and prevent HIV, although few data exist ..
  32. Todesco E, Surgers L, Marcelin A, Calvez V, Meynard J, Morand Joubert L. Presence of Minority Resistant Variants After Failure of a Tenofovir, Emtricitabine, and Rilpivirine Regimen. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016;72:e43-5 pubmed publisher
  33. Gallay P, Chatterji U, Kirchhoff A, Gandarilla A, Gunawardana M, Pyles R, et al. Prevention of vaginal and rectal HIV transmission by antiretroviral combinations in humanized mice. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184303 pubmed publisher
    ..The dose-response relationship of these agents was measured and showed that topical tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) can offer 100% protection against rectal or vaginal HIV ..
  34. Carballo Dieguez A, BALAN I, Brown W, Giguere R, Dolezal C, Leu C, et al. High levels of adherence to a rectal microbicide gel and to oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) achieved in MTN-017 among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181607 pubmed publisher
    ..sequence, open-label, expanded safety and acceptability crossover study comparing 1) daily oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF), 2) daily use of reduced-glycerin 1% tenofovir (RG-TFV) gel applied rectally, and ..
  35. Murphy R, Valentovic M. Factors Contributing to the Antiviral Effectiveness of Tenofovir. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2017;363:156-163 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tenofovir is a nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor that prevents viral replication and is approved for treatment of HIV and ..
  36. Du Jeong I, Jung S, Park B, Lee B, Park J, Kim B, et al. Clinical Course of Partial Virologic Response with Prolonged Tenofovir Therapy in Nuclos(t)ides-Naïve Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62:2908-2914 pubmed publisher
    The clinical course of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with partial virologic response (PVR) during tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) therapy remains unclear...
  37. Chuchuen O, Maher J, Henderson M, Desoto M, Rohan L, Wax A, et al. Label-free analysis of tenofovir delivery to vaginal tissue using co-registered confocal Raman spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185633 pubmed publisher
    ..This measures depth-resolved microbicide concentration distributions within epithelium and stroma. Data for a tenofovir gel were fitted with a compartmental diffusion model to obtain fundamental transport properties: the molecular ..
  38. Du X, Kou H, Fu Q, Li Y, Zhu Z, Li T. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Chinese patients. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2017;10:783-788 pubmed publisher
    The pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in Chinese adults infected with HIV is unknown...
  39. Moss J, Baum M, Easley J, Cox D, Smith T. An intravaginal ring for real-time evaluation of adherence to therapy. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174729 pubmed publisher
    ..The device described here is a promising, low-cost method for real-time adherence assessment in clinical trials involving medicated intravaginal rings or other intravaginal devices. ..
  40. Saag M. Preventing HIV in women--still trying to find their VOICE. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:564-6 pubmed publisher
  41. Unsal A, Mattingly A, Jones S, Purdy J, Reynolds J, Kopp J, et al. Effect of Antiretroviral Therapy on Bone and Renal Health in Young Adults Infected With HIV in Early Life. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:2896-2904 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the HIV group, duration of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) correlated with higher anion gap but did not correlate with bone parameters...
  42. Jotwani V, Atta M, Estrella M. Kidney Disease in HIV: Moving beyond HIV-Associated Nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;28:3142-3154 pubmed publisher
    ..Concerns for nephrotoxicity also extend to HIV-negative individuals using tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-based pre-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection...
  43. Ngandu N, Carlson J, Chopera D, Ndabambi N, Abdool Karim Q, Abdool Karim S, et al. Brief Report: Selection of HIV-1 Variants With Higher Transmission Potential by 1% Tenofovir Gel Microbicide. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;76:43-47 pubmed publisher
    Women in the CAPRISA 004 trial assigned to use 1% tenofovir (TFV) microbicide gel, who became HIV-1 infected, had higher viral load set-point and slower antibody avidity maturation compared with placebo participants...
  44. Noguchi L, Richardson B, Baeten J, Hillier S, Balkus J, Chirenje Z, et al. Risk of HIV-1 acquisition among women who use diff erent types of injectable progestin contraception in South Africa: a prospective cohort study. Lancet HIV. 2015;2:e279-87 pubmed
    ..randomised, placebo-controlled trial that investigated the safety and efficacy of three formulations of tenofovir for prevention of HIV-1 infection in women between Sept 9, 2009, and Aug 13, 2012...
  45. Cohen M, Baden L. Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV--where do we go from here?. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:459-61 pubmed publisher
  46. Abdul Basit S, Dawood A, Ryan J, Gish R. Tenofovir alafenamide for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2017;10:707-716 pubmed publisher
    In April 2017 tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) was added to the list of first-line therapies recommended for chronic hepatitis B (CHB)...
  47. Hyun M, Lee Y, Kim J, Je J, Yoo Y, Yeon J, et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis: the efficacy and safety of tenofovir to prevent mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2017;45:1493-1505 pubmed publisher
    Preventing mother to child transmission of chronic hepatitis B infection in the setting of a high maternal viral load is challenging. The idea has emerged from antepartum tenofovir treatment with combination immunoprophylaxis.
  48. Chamroonkul N, Piratvisuth T. Hepatitis B During Pregnancy in Endemic Areas: Screening, Treatment, and Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission. Paediatr Drugs. 2017;19:173-181 pubmed publisher
    ..US FDA pregnancy category B agents such as tenofovir and telbivudine are allowed through all trimesters of pregnancy...
  49. DeJesus E, Ramgopal M, Crofoot G, Ruane P, Lamarca A, Mills A, et al. Switching from efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to tenofovir alafenamide coformulated with rilpivirine and emtricitabine in virally suppressed adults with HIV-1 infection: a randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase 3b, . Lancet HIV. 2017;4:e205-e213 pubmed publisher
    b>Tenofovir alafenamide is a prodrug that reduces tenofovir plasma concentrations by 90% compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, thereby decreasing bone and renal risks...
  50. Sherman M, Lee S. Canadian patients with chronic hepatitis B cannot access appropriate drug treatments: a call for change. Can J Gastroenterol. 2011;25:538-41 pubmed
  51. Underhill K. Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1374; author reply 1374-5 pubmed publisher
  52. Fabbiani M, Bracciale L, Doino M, D Avino A, Marzocchetti A, Navarra P, et al. Tenofovir discontinuation could predispose to urolithiasis in atazanavir-treated patients. J Infect. 2011;62:319-21 pubmed publisher
  53. Tamayo A, Mazo M, Veiga M, Ruiz Caro R, Notario Pérez F, Rubio J. Drug kinetics release from Eudragit - Tenofovir@SiOC tablets. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2017;75:1097-1105 pubmed publisher
    A novel drug release system has been obtained in form of tablets from Eudragit® RS and tenofovir loaded on porous silicon oxycarbide glasses (SiOC)...