Summary: A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.

Top Publications

  1. Barciszewski J, Massino F, Clark B. Kinetin--a multiactive molecule. Int J Biol Macromol. 2007;40:182-92 pubmed
    ..b>Kinetin which was isolated 50 years ago for the first time as a plant hormone, as well as other cytokinins ..
  2. Hims M, Ibrahim E, Leyne M, Mull J, Liu L, Lazaro C, et al. Therapeutic potential and mechanism of kinetin as a treatment for the human splicing disease familial dysautonomia. J Mol Med (Berl). 2007;85:149-61 pubmed
    ..Previously, we reported that the plant cytokinin kinetin dramatically increases exon 20 inclusion in RNA isolated from cultured FD cells...
  3. Dudzik P, Dulinska Litewka J, Wyszko E, Jędrychowska P, Opałka M, Barciszewski J, et al. Effects of kinetin riboside on proliferation and proapoptotic activities in human normal and cancer cell lines. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:2115-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Kinetin riboside (KR) is a N6-substituted derivative of adenosine. It is a natural compound which occurs in the milk of coconuts on the nanomole level...
  4. Ndong Y, Wadouachi A, Sangwan Norreel B, Sangwan R. Efficient in vitro regeneration of fertile plants from corm explants of Hypoxis hemerocallidea landrace Gaza -- the "African Potato". Plant Cell Rep. 2006;25:265-73 pubmed
    ..with high frequency (100% with 5-8 shoots/explant) was obtained on a basal medium (BM) supplemented with 3 mg/l kinetin (BM1)...
  5. Małecki P, Rypniewski W, Szymanski M, Barciszewski J, Meyer A. Binding of the plant hormone kinetin in the active site of Mistletoe Lectin I from Viscum album. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1824:334-8 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibiting protein Mistletoe Lectin I (ML-I) derived from the European mistletoe, Viscum album, in complex with kinetin has been refined at 2.7Å resolution...
  6. Guo B, Gao M, Liu C. In vitro propagation of an endangered medicinal plant Saussurea involucrata Kar. et Kir. Plant Cell Rep. 2007;26:261-5 pubmed
    ..The regeneration protocol developed in this study provides a basis for germplasm conservation and for further investigation of medicinally active constituents of the elite medicinal plant. ..
  7. Falasca G, Zaghi D, Possenti M, Altamura M. Adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis thaliana thin cell layers. Plant Cell Rep. 2004;23:17-25 pubmed
    ..1 microM kinetin under continuous darkness for 30 days and with 0.6 mM exogenous CaCl2...
  8. Sobieszczuk Nowicka E, Wieczorek P, Legocka J. Kinetin affects the level of chloroplast polyamines and transglutaminase activity during senescence of barley leaves. Acta Biochim Pol. 2009;56:255-9 pubmed
    ..and the level and activity of thylakoid transglutaminases throughout barley leaf senescence, retarded by kinetin. The level of PAs bound to thylakoids changed in senescing barley leaves: bound putrescine (PU) and spermidine (..
  9. McDermott S, Eppert K, Notta F, Isaac M, Datti A, Al Awar R, et al. A small molecule screening strategy with validation on human leukemia stem cells uncovers the therapeutic efficacy of kinetin riboside. Blood. 2012;119:1200-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We characterized a single compound, kinetin riboside (KR), on AML L-ICs and HSPCs...

More Information


  1. Campos P, de Camargo Júnior F, de Andrade J, Gaspar L. Efficacy of cosmetic formulations containing dispersion of liposome with magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, alpha-lipoic acid and kinetin. Photochem Photobiol. 2012;88:748-52 pubmed publisher
    ..containing a dispersion of liposome with magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP), alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and kinetin, as well as their effects on the hydration and viscoelastic skin properties...
  2. Cheong J, Goh D, Yong J, Tan S, Ong E. Inhibitory effect of kinetin riboside in human heptamoa, HepG2. Mol Biosyst. 2009;5:91-8 pubmed publisher
    Cytokinins ribosides such as kinetin riboside are a class of plant hormone that were first identified as factors that promote cell division and have since been implicated in many other aspects of plant growth and development...
  3. Carimi F, Zottini M, Formentin E, Terzi M, Lo Schiavo F. Cytokinins: new apoptotic inducers in plants. Planta. 2003;216:413-21 pubmed
    ..Programmed cell death in the form of DNA laddering was also seen in plants treated with cytokinins. This process was accompanied by accelerated senescence in the form of leaf yellowing. ..
  4. Hsiao G, Shen M, Lin K, Chou C, Tzu N, Lin C, et al. Inhibitory activity of kinetin on free radical formation of activated platelets in vitro and on thrombus formation in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;465:281-7 pubmed
    b>Kinetin has been shown to have anti-aging effects on several different systems, including plants and human cells. Recently, we demonstrated that kinetin markedly inhibited platelet aggregation in washed human platelets...
  5. Boone N, Bergon A, Loriod B, Deveze A, Nguyen C, Axelrod F, et al. Genome-wide analysis of familial dysautonomia and kinetin target genes with patient olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells. Hum Mutat. 2012;33:530-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we identified target genes of kinetin, a plant cytokinin that corrects IKBKAP mRNA splicing and increases the expression of IKAP/hELP1...
  6. Axelrod F, Liebes L, Gold von Simson G, Mendoza S, Mull J, Leyne M, et al. Kinetin improves IKBKAP mRNA splicing in patients with familial dysautonomia. Pediatr Res. 2011;70:480-3 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine) has been shown to improve splicing and increase WT IKBKAP mRNA and IKAP protein ..
  7. Wu J, Weinstein G, Kricorian G, Kormeili T, McCullough J. Topical kinetin 0.1% lotion for improving the signs and symptoms of rosacea. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2007;32:693-5 pubmed
    ..b>Kinetin (N(6)-furfuryladenine) is a plant cytokinin that reportedly helps restore skin barrier function and may be useful ..
  8. Amasino R. 1955: kinetin arrives: the 50th anniversary of a new plant hormone. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:1177-84 pubmed
  9. Gold von Simson G, Goldberg J, Rolnitzky L, Mull J, Leyne M, Voustianiouk A, et al. Kinetin in familial dysautonomia carriers: implications for a new therapeutic strategy targeting mRNA splicing. Pediatr Res. 2009;65:341-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Kinetin increases IKBKAP mRNA and protein expression in FD cell lines...
  10. Pros E, Fernández Rodríguez J, Benito L, Ravella A, Capella G, Blanco I, et al. Modulation of aberrant NF1 pre-mRNA splicing by kinetin treatment. Eur J Hum Genet. 2010;18:614-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that kinetin partially corrects the splicing defect in four of the studied mutations (c.910C>T, c.3113G>A, c...
  11. Berge U, Kristensen P, Rattan S. Kinetin-induced differentiation of normal human keratinocytes undergoing aging in vitro. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1067:332-6 pubmed
    b>Kinetin (N(6)-furfuryladenine) is a cytokinin growth factor having several anti-aging effects reported for human cells and fruit flies...
  12. Mik V, Szüčová L, Smehilová M, Zatloukal M, Dolezal K, Nisler J, et al. N9-substituted derivatives of kinetin: effective anti-senescence agents. Phytochemistry. 2011;72:821-31 pubmed publisher
    The first isolated cytokinin, 6-furfurylaminopurine (kinetin or Kin), was identified almost 55years ago...
  13. Griffaut B, Bos R, Maurizis J, Madelmont J, Ledoigt G. Cytotoxic effects of kinetin riboside on mouse, human and plant tumour cells. Int J Biol Macromol. 2004;34:271-5 pubmed
    The cytotoxicity of two plant hormone compounds, kinetin and kinetin riboside, was studied on tumour cells, by colony forming assay with increased amount of cytotoxic molecules...
  14. Sobieszczuk Nowicka E, Krzesłowska M, Legocka J. Transglutaminases and their substrates in kinetin-stimulated etioplast-to-chloroplast transformation in cucumber cotyledons. Protoplasma. 2008;233:187-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This relationship may represent an important component of the process and be part of the mechanism of kinetin action, which stimulates chloroplast differentiation...
  15. Tiedemann R, Mao X, Shi C, Zhu Y, Palmer S, Sebag M, et al. Identification of kinetin riboside as a repressor of CCND1 and CCND2 with preclinical antimyeloma activity. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1750-64 pubmed publisher
    ..library using a cell-based assay for inhibition of CCND2 trans-activation, we identified the plant cytokinin kinetin riboside as an inhibitor of CCND2 trans-activation...
  16. Slaugenhaupt S, Mull J, Leyne M, Cuajungco M, Gill S, Hims M, et al. Rescue of a human mRNA splicing defect by the plant cytokinin kinetin. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:429-36 pubmed
    ..Here we show that treatment with the plant cytokinin kinetin alters splicing of IKBKAP...
  17. Chiu P, Chan C, Lin H, Chiu H. The clinical anti-aging effects of topical kinetin and niacinamide in Asians: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, split-face comparative trial. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2007;6:243-9 pubmed
    b>Kinetin and niacinamide are used in the cosmetic industry as anti-aging agents. Neither the interactive/additive effects of these compounds nor the anti-aging efficacy on Asian skin has been studied...
  18. Cabello C, Bair W, Ley S, Lamore S, Azimian S, Wondrak G. The experimental chemotherapeutic N6-furfuryladenosine (kinetin-riboside) induces rapid ATP depletion, genotoxic stress, and CDKN1A(p21) upregulation in human cancer cell lines. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;77:1125-38 pubmed publisher
    ..N(6)-furfuryladenosine (FAdo, kinetin-riboside) displays anti-proliferative and apoptogenic activity against various human cancer cell lines, and FAdo ..
  19. Choi B, Kim W, Wang Q, Kim D, Tan S, Yong J, et al. Kinetin riboside preferentially induces apoptosis by modulating Bcl-2 family proteins and caspase-3 in cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2008;261:37-45 pubmed
    Here, we demonstrate that kinetin riboside (KR), a cytokinin analog, induces apoptosis in HeLa and mouse melanoma B16F-10 cells...
  20. Won C, Park S, Cho S, Min B, Roh S. Kinetin enhances in vitro development of parthenogenetic and nuclear transfer porcine embryos. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008;75:1701-9 pubmed publisher
    Culture conditions affect the development of mammalian embryos in vitro. Kinetin belongs to the family of N(6)-substituted adenine derivates and promotes cell division, synthesis of DNA repair enzymes, superoxide dismutase activity, and ..
  21. Liang Y, Yuan X, Zeng G, Hu C, Zhong H, Huang D, et al. Biodelignification of rice straw by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the presence of dirhamnolipid. Biodegradation. 2010;21:615-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Variation partitioning analysis revealed that the dirhamnolipid addition induced a significant straw biodelignification which explained 22.1% (P = 0.013) of the variance. ..
  22. Cao J, Earle E. Transgene expression in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) clones propagated in vitro via leaf explants. Plant Cell Rep. 2003;21:789-96 pubmed
    ..In vitro propagation starting from leaf explants was also successful with other transgenic and non-transgenic Brassica oleracea materials, including broccoli, cauliflower, and collard. ..
  23. Nagano M, Ui Tei K, Suzuki H, Piao Z, Miyata Y. CDK inhibitors suppress apoptosis induced by chemicals and by excessive expression of a cell death gene, reaper, in Drosophila cells. Apoptosis. 2000;5:543-50 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it was shown that apoptosis is not always related to cell cycle in Drosophila cells. It was also suggested that the target(s) of the CDK inhibitors locates upstream of caspase in the cascade(s) of apoptosis. ..
  24. Yu R, Ma N, Yan C, Zhao Y. [Effects of exogenous phytohormones on hairy root growth and biosynthesis of anthraquinones in the hairy root culture of Polygonum multiflorum]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2006;22:619-23 pubmed
    ..The growth of hairy root and biosynthesis of anthraquinones were strongly restrained by 2,4-D. However, NAA and 6-BA of appropriate concentration were favourable to hairy root growth and anthraquinones production. ..
  25. Walia N, Kaur A, Babbar S. An efficient, in vitro cyclic production of shoots from adult trees of Crataeva nurvala Buch. Ham. Plant Cell Rep. 2007;26:277-84 pubmed
    ..Shoots could be rooted on 1/2 MS supplemented with 0.11 and 0.54 microM NAA. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transplanted to soil...
  26. Harrison L, von Aderkas P. Spatially quantitative control of the number of cotyledons in a clonal population of somatic embryos of hybrid larch Larix x leptoeuropaea. Ann Bot. 2004;93:423-34 pubmed
    ..Described here is a spatially quantitative study with the aim of throwing some light on the way cotyledon number is determined, and hence the mechanism of cotyledon formation...
  27. Makarevich A, Sirotkin A, Rafay J. Comparison of effects of protein kinase A, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and cyclin-dependent kinase blockers on rabbit ovarian granulosa cell functions. Horm Metab Res. 2010;42:936-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Different activity and specificity of the PKA, MAPK, and CDK blockers in their effects on PCNA and IGF-I suggests different biological role of these PKs in control of proliferative and secretory functions of rabbit ovarian cells. ..
  28. Mielcarek M, Barciszewska M, Sałanski P, Stobiecki M, Jurczak J, Barciszewski J. Native transfer RNA catalyzes Diels-Alder reaction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;294:145-8 pubmed
    ..A new DNA oxidative damage product, 6-furfuryladenine (kinetin) or its riboside (diene), was transformed with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate or maleic anhydride (dienophile)...
  29. Lu K, Shih C, Teicher B. Expression of pRB, cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinases and E2F1/DP-1 in human tumor lines in cell culture and in xenograft tissues and response to cell cycle agents. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2000;46:293-304 pubmed
    ..There is a high degree of variability in the expression of cell cycle components in human tumor cell lines, resulting in complexity in predicting response to cell cycle directed agents. ..
  30. Kumar S, Krishna V, Venkatesh -, Pradeepa K, Kumar K, Gnanesh A. Direct and indirect method of plant regeneration from root explants of Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.--a threatened medicinal plant of Western Ghats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2012;50:910-7 pubmed
    ..Survival rate was more (95%) in plantlets derived through direct organogenesis than (60%) the plantlets regenerated through root calli. ..
  31. Waters N, Woodard C, Prigge S. Cyclin H activation and drug susceptibility of the Pfmrk cyclin dependent protein kinase from Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2000;107:45-55 pubmed
    ..A molecular model of Pfmrk provides a structural explanation for the failure of these compounds to inhibit Pfmrk. ..
  32. Soliman H, Gabr M, Abdallah N. Efficient transformation and regeneration of fig (Ficus carica L.) via somatic embryogenesis. GM Crops. 2010;1:40-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of different combinations of BA and NAA/2,4-D and kinetin on callus formation from leaf segments were studied...
  33. Liu Q, Zhu Y, Tao H, Wang N, Wang Y. Damage of PS II during senescence of Spirodela polyrrhiza explants under long-day conditions and its prevention by 6-benzyladenine. J Plant Res. 2006;119:145-52 pubmed
    ..These data support a view that the decline in RC is crucial for initiation of the irreversible senescence phase of explants cultivated under long-day conditions. ..
  34. Galis I, Simek P, Van Onckelen H, Kakiuchi Y, Wabiko H. Resistance of transgenic tobacco seedlings expressing the Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58-6b gene, to growth-inhibitory levels of cytokinin is associated with elevated IAA levels and activation of phenylpropanoid metabolism. Plant Cell Physiol. 2002;43:939-50 pubmed
  35. Chaturvedi R, Razdan M, Bhojwani S. Production of haploids of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) by anther culture. Plant Cell Rep. 2003;21:531-7 pubmed
    ..The plants were subsequently established in soil. Of the plants that regenerated from anther callus 60% were haploid, 20% were diploid and 20% were aneuploid. ..
  36. Conde P, Loureiro J, Santos C. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from leaves of Ulmus minor Mill. Plant Cell Rep. 2004;22:632-9 pubmed
    ..3 microM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (I2) and the other supplemented with 1.1 microM kinetin (I6)...
  37. Ugare B, Banerjee K, Ramteke S, Pradhan S, Oulkar D, Utture S, et al. Dissipation kinetics of forchlorfenuron, 6-benzyl aminopurine, gibberellic acid and ethephon residues in table grapes (Vitis vinifera). Food Chem. 2013;141:4208-14 pubmed publisher
    ..5, 12 and 32 days at recommended dose with no PHI applicable for GA3. The PHIs successfully minimised residue problems as observed from survey results of traceable field samples. ..
  38. Paulson J, Patzlaff J, Vallis A. Evidence that the endogenous histone H1 phosphatase in HeLa mitotic chromosomes is protein phosphatase 1, not protein phosphatase 2A. J Cell Sci. 1996;109 ( Pt 6):1437-47 pubmed
  39. Yamazaki Y, Sudo H, Yamazaki M, Aimi N, Saito K. Camptothecin biosynthetic genes in hairy roots of Ophiorrhiza pumila: cloning, characterization and differential expression in tissues and by stress compounds. Plant Cell Physiol. 2003;44:395-403 pubmed
    ..Plant stress compounds like salicylic acid repressed expression of OpSTR and OpTDC, suggesting coordinate regulation of these genes for camptothecin biosynthesis. ..
  40. Chang Y, von Zitzewitz J, Hayes P, Chen T. High frequency plant regeneration from immature embryos of an elite barley cultivar (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Morex). Plant Cell Rep. 2003;21:733-8 pubmed
    ..2 mg/l IBA. Plants were successfully transferred to soil and grown to maturity in the greenhouse. This efficient plant regeneration system provides a foundation for generating transgenic plants of this important barley cultivar. ..
  41. Stock M, Chu J, Hackney D. The kinesin family member BimC contains a second microtubule binding region attached to the N terminus of the motor domain. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52315-22 pubmed
  42. Monaco E, Beaman Hall C, Mathur A, Vallano M. Roscovitine, olomoucine, purvalanol: inducers of apoptosis in maturing cerebellar granule neurons. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004;67:1947-64 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results, and those of others, indicate that the CDK regulation of transcription (CDKs 7 and 9) should be examined as a target of these agents, and as an indirect mediator of neuronal fate. ..
  43. Jin Z, Hong J, Yang K, Koo J, Choi Y, Chung W, et al. Over-expression of Chinese cabbage calreticulin 1, BrCRT1, enhances shoot and root regeneration, but retards plant growth in transgenic tobacco. Transgenic Res. 2005;14:619-26 pubmed
  44. Sivakumar P, Law Y, Ho C, Harikrishna J. High frequency plant regeneration from mature seed of elite, recalcitrant Malaysian indica rice ( Oryza sativa L.) CV. MR 219. Acta Biol Hung. 2010;61:313-21 pubmed publisher
    ..mature seeds as explant on Murashige and Skoog and Chu N6 media containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and kinetin either alone or in different combinations...
  45. Nisler J, Zatloukal M, Popa I, Dolezal K, Strnad M, Spíchal L. Cytokinin receptor antagonists derived from 6-benzylaminopurine. Phytochemistry. 2010;71:823-30 pubmed publisher
    ..LGR-991 exhibits a structural motive that might lead to preparation of cytokinin antagonists with a broader specificity and reduced agonistic properties. ..
  46. Choi H, Chung S. Roscovitine increases intracellular calcium release and capacitative calcium entry in PC12 cells. Neurosci Lett. 2010;469:141-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Cdk5 regulates intracellular calcium homeostasis and that the dysregulation of Cdk5 may contribute to disease pathogenesis by perturbing cellular Ca(2+) signaling. ..
  47. Sanchez M, Gurusinghe S, Bradford K, Vázquez Ramos J. Differential response of PCNA and Cdk-A proteins and associated kinase activities to benzyladenine and abscisic acid during maize seed germination. J Exp Bot. 2005;56:515-23 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that, in maize, ABA delays the germination process by affecting cell cycle advancement, stopping cells mostly in a G(1) state. ..
  48. Cernak I, Stoica B, Byrnes K, Di Giovanni S, Faden A. Role of the cell cycle in the pathobiology of central nervous system trauma. Cell Cycle. 2005;4:1286-93 pubmed
  49. Krystof V, Lenobel R, Havlicek L, Kuzma M, Strnad M. Synthesis and biological activity of olomoucine II. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2002;12:3283-6 pubmed
    ..Olomoucine II in vitro cytotoxic activity exceeds purvalanol A, the most potent CDK inhibitor, as it kills the CEM cells with IC(50) value of 3.0 microM. ..
  50. Cronauer S, Krikorian A. Multiplication of Musa from excised stem tips. Ann Bot. 1984;53:321-8 pubmed
    ..wt of the four clones were compared. During a 4-week culture period 'Pelipita' showed a fivefold increase in f. wt while 'Grande Naine', 'Philippine Lacatan' and 'Saba' showed increases exceeding tenfold. ..
  51. Chatterjee S, Chatterjee S, Chatterjee B, Guha A. Influence of plant growth hormones on the growth of Mucor rouxii and chitosan production. Microbiol Res. 2009;164:347-51 pubmed
    Supplementation of molasses-salt medium with plant growth hormones, viz., indoleacetic acid, indolebutyric acid, kinetin and gibberellic acid, increased chitosan production by Mucor rouxii as well as its growth at different optimum ..
  52. Burstyn Cohen T, Kalcheim C. Association between the cell cycle and neural crest delamination through specific regulation of G1/S transition. Dev Cell. 2002;3:383-95 pubmed
    ..Thus, the events taking place during G1 that control the transition from G1 to S are necessary for the epithelial to mesenchymal conversion of crest precursors. ..
  53. Wesierska Gadek J, Gueorguieva M, Kramer M, Ranftler C, Sarg B, Lindner H. A new, unexpected action of olomoucine, a CDK inhibitor, on normal human cells: up-regulation of CLIMP-63, a cytoskeleton-linking membrane protein. J Cell Biochem. 2007;102:1405-19 pubmed
    ..These results were subsequently confirmed by immunoblotting. Further experiments revealed that OLO, but not ROSC, strongly up-regulates CLIMP-63 in a dose- and time-dependent manner solely in senescent cells. ..