Summary: An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)

Top Publications

  1. Kunnathur V, Shemisa K, Liu B, Salvaterra T, Dluzen D. Sex differences in methamphetamine-evoked striatal dopamine of mice are reversed by nomifensine. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2006;28:557-62 pubmed
    ..of a dopamine transporter which was either unaltered (Experiment 1) or inhibited, with use of the drug, nomifensine (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, MA-evoked DA was significantly greater in male versus female mice...
  2. Obach R, Dalvie D. Metabolism of nomifensine to a dihydroisoquinolinium ion metabolite by human myeloperoxidase, hemoglobin, monoamine oxidase A, and cytochrome P450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006;34:1310-6 pubmed
    b>Nomifensine is an antidepressant agent that was removed from use because of a high incidence of hemolytic anemia...
  3. Garris P, Budygin E, Phillips P, Venton B, Robinson D, Bergstrom B, et al. A role for presynaptic mechanisms in the actions of nomifensine and haloperidol. Neuroscience. 2003;118:819-29 pubmed
    ..Doses of nomifensine (7 mg/kg i.p.), a DA uptake inhibitor, and haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg i.p...
  4. Robinson D, Wightman R. Nomifensine amplifies subsecond dopamine signals in the ventral striatum of freely-moving rats. J Neurochem. 2004;90:894-903 pubmed
    The present experiment examined the effect of the dopamine transporter blocker nomifensine on subsecond fluctuations in dopamine concentrations, or dopamine transients, in the nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle...
  5. Yu J, Brown D, Burdette D. In vitro metabolism studies of nomifensine monooxygenation pathways: metabolite identification, reaction phenotyping, and bioactivation mechanism. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:1767-78 pubmed publisher
    Multiple GSH adducts of the oxidative products of nomifensine (M1-M9) in human hepatocytes and liver microsomes have been identified recently...
  6. Davidson C, Ellinwood E, Douglas S, Lee T. Effect of cocaine, nomifensine, GBR 12909 and WIN 35428 on carbon fiber microelectrode sensitivity for voltammetric recording of dopamine. J Neurosci Methods. 2000;101:75-83 pubmed
    ..The commonly used reuptake inhibitors GBR 12909 (10 microM) and nomifensine (5 microM) drastically reduce electrode sensitivity and, in the case of nomifensine, increase the time to reach ..
  7. Larsen T, Rossen S, Gramsbergen J. Dopamine release in organotypic cultures of foetal mouse mesencephalon: effects of depolarizing agents, pargyline, nomifensine, tetrodotoxin and calcium. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:569-76 pubmed publisher
    ..or multiple challenges (1-h incubations) with high K(+) or veratridine in the presence or absence of pargyline, nomifensine, calcium and/or tetrodotoxin (TTX). Basal (i.e...
  8. Asensi Bernardi L, Martín Biosca Y, Sagrado S, Medina Hernández M. Electrokinetic chromatographic estimation of the enantioselective binding of nomifensine to human serum albumin and total plasma proteins. Biomed Chromatogr. 2012;26:1357-63 pubmed publisher
    This report is the first evidence of enantioselective binding of nomifensine to human serum albumin (HSA) and plasma proteins...
  9. Karoum F, Chrapusta S, Brinjak R, Hitri A, Wyatt R. Regional effects of amphetamine, cocaine, nomifensine and GBR 12909 on the dynamics of dopamine release and metabolism in the rat brain. Br J Pharmacol. 1994;113:1391-9 pubmed
    1. The effects of single-dose regimens of amphetamine, cocaine, nomifensine and GBR 12909 on the dynamics of dopamine (DA) release and metabolism were evaluated in the frontal cortex, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens and striatum...

More Information


  1. Murata M, Kashiwa A, Oshima A, Umino A, Kurachi M, Nishikawa T. Nomifensine-induced c-fos mRNA expression in discrete brain areas of the developing rat. Neurosci Lett. 2001;303:99-102 pubmed
    In rats, the subcutaneous injection of a dopamine uptake inhibitor, nomifensine (40 mg/kg), induced a significant increase in the c-fos mRNA levels in the neocortex on postnatal days 23 and 49, in the striatum on days 8, 14, 23 and 49, ..
  2. Ulu S. Spectrofluorimetric determination of nomifensine in human plasma and urine by derivatization with fluorescamine. Luminescence. 2012;27:80-3 pubmed publisher
    A sensitive, simple and rapid spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of nomifensine in human plasma and urine. The present method was based on the derivatization by fluorescamine in phosphate buffer at pH 4...
  3. Venton B, Wightman R. Pharmacologically induced, subsecond dopamine transients in the caudate-putamen of the anesthetized rat. Synapse. 2007;61:37-9 pubmed
    ..Coadministration of the D2 receptor antagonist, haloperidol, and the DA uptake inhibitor, nomifensine, results in significantly more DA transients than either drug alone...
  4. Lee H, Nakayama J, Xu Y, Fan X, Karouani M, Shen Y, et al. Dopamine dysregulation in a mouse model of paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:507-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that the PNKD protein functions to modulate striatal neuro-transmitter release in response to stress and other precipitating factors. ..
  5. Sotak B, Hnasko T, Robinson S, Kremer E, Palmiter R. Dysregulation of dopamine signaling in the dorsal striatum inhibits feeding. Brain Res. 2005;1061:88-96 pubmed
    ..Administration of amphetamine (AMPH) or nomifensine (NOM), drugs which increase synaptic dopamine concentration, inhibits food intake in virally rescued DD mice (..
  6. Rao T, Adams P, Correa L, Santori E, Sacaan A, Reid R, et al. In vitro pharmacological characterization of (+/-)-4-[2-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]thio]phenol hydrochloride (SIB-1553A), a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand. Brain Res. 2003;981:85-98 pubmed
    ..SIB-1553A did not inhibit rat brain cholinesterase for up to 1 mM. Multiple receptor affinities and release of several neurotransmitters may underlie the cognitive-enhancing effects of SIB-1553A documented in rodent and primate models. ..
  7. Westerink B, De Vries J. A method to evaluate the diffusion rate of drugs from a microdialysis probe through brain tissue. J Neurosci Methods. 2001;109:53-8 pubmed
    ..were observed for the dopamine antagonist sulpiride, the dopamine agonist LY17155, and for amphetamine and nomifensine. A very high penetration rate was observed in case of tetrodotoxin...
  8. Nuwayhid S, Werling L. Sigma2 (sigma2) receptors as a target for cocaine action in the rat striatum. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;535:98-103 pubmed
    ..of approximately 10 microM, under conditions in which the dopamine transporter (DAT) was blocked by 10 microM nomifensine. The inhibition seen by cocaine was reversed by the selective sigma2 antagonist 1'-[4-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-..
  9. Gilbert A, Franklin K. Characterization of the analgesic properties of nomifensine in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001;68:783-7 pubmed
    The analgesic properties of the catecholamine uptake inhibitor nomifensine were investigated in the tail immersion, hot plate and formalin tests. Systemic administration of nomifensine produced analgesia only in the formalin test...
  10. Borgkvist A, Malmlöf T, Feltmann K, Lindskog M, Schilström B. Dopamine in the hippocampus is cleared by the norepinephrine transporter. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012;15:531-40 pubmed publisher hippocampal dopamine levels that could not be further enhanced by the addition of the NET/DAT inhibitor nomifensine (100 ?M)...
  11. Bert L, Parrot S, Robert F, Desvignes C, Denoroy L, Suaud Chagny M, et al. In vivo temporal sequence of rat striatal glutamate, aspartate and dopamine efflux during apomorphine, nomifensine, NMDA and PDC in situ administration. Neuropharmacology. 2002;43:825-35 pubmed
    ..DA and Glu reuptake inhibitors, nomifensine and L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) and, dopaminergic and glutamatergic receptor agonists, ..
  12. Hajnal A, Norgren R. Accumbens dopamine mechanisms in sucrose intake. Brain Res. 2001;904:76-84 pubmed
    ..bilateral reverse microdialysis, D1 and D2 receptor antagonists (SCH23390, sulpiride) and the DA uptake blocker nomifensine were introduced into NAcc while measuring both ingestive behavior and neurochemistry. Licking of 0...
  13. Alfonso M, Duran R, Campos F, Perez Vences D, Faro L, Arias B. Mechanisms underlying domoic acid-induced dopamine release from striatum: an in vivo microdialysis study. Neurochem Res. 2003;28:1487-93 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the inhibitor of DA uptake nomifensine (10 microM) reduced the domoic acid-evoked DA release (356 +/- 59%), suggesting that a carrier-dependent ..
  14. Shiotsuki H, Yoshimi K, Shimo Y, Funayama M, Takamatsu Y, Ikeda K, et al. A rotarod test for evaluation of motor skill learning. J Neurosci Methods. 2010;189:180-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, administration of nomifensine, a dopamine uptake inhibitor, improved the learning...
  15. Janhunen S, Mielikäinen P, Paldánius P, Tuominen R, Ahtee L, Kaakkola S. The effect of nicotine in combination with various dopaminergic drugs on nigrostriatal dopamine in rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2005;371:480-91 pubmed
    ..DA) and its metabolites in the rat dorsal striatum in combination with drugs inhibiting either DA uptake (nomifensine), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; tolcapone), monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B; selegiline) or DA receptors (..
  16. Poth L, O Connell B, McDermott J, Dluzen D. Nomifensine alters sex differences in striatal dopaminergic function. Synapse. 2012;66:686-93 pubmed publisher
    A series of three experiments are presented in which the acute effects of the catecholamine reuptake inhibitor, nomifensine, upon striatal dopaminergic function are compared in female and male mice...
  17. Yakushenko A, Kätelhön E, Wolfrum B. Parallel on-chip analysis of single vesicle neurotransmitter release. Anal Chem. 2013;85:5483-90 pubmed publisher demonstrated by resolving minute concentration-dependent effects of the dopamine reuptake inhibitor nomifensine on recorded single-vesicle release events from PC12 cells...
  18. Oyama G, Yoshimi K, Natori S, Chikaoka Y, Ren Y, Funayama M, et al. Impaired in vivo dopamine release in parkin knockout mice. Brain Res. 2010;1352:214-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed parkin deficiency may affect DA release in PKO mice, although it does not cause massive nigral degeneration or parkinsonian symptoms as in humans. ..
  19. Suarez Roca H, Cubeddu L. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram induces the storage of serotonin in catecholaminergic terminals. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;302:174-9 pubmed
    ..Addition of nomifensine (1-10 microM) was required for complete inhibition of [(3)H]5-HT uptake. In slices labeled with 0...
  20. Robinson D, Phillips P, Budygin E, Trafton B, Garris P, Wightman R. Sub-second changes in accumbal dopamine during sexual behavior in male rats. Neuroreport. 2001;12:2549-52 pubmed
    ..Administration of nomifensine amplified natural and evoked dopamine release, and increased the frequency of detectable signals...
  21. Stanford J, Currier T, Purdom M, Gerhardt G. Nomifensine reveals age-related changes in K(+)-evoked striatal DA overflow in F344 rats. Neurobiol Aging. 2001;22:495-502 pubmed
    ..The addition of the DA uptake inhibitor nomifensine (100 microM) to the perfusion solutions revealed differences between the two age groups...
  22. Pan Y, Gembom E, Peng W, Lesch K, Mossner R, Simantov R. Plasticity in serotonin uptake in primary neuronal cultures of serotonin transporter knockout mice. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2001;126:125-9 pubmed
    ..the serotonin transporter inhibitors fluoxetine and imipramine, but not with the dopamine transporter inhibitor nomifensine. In serotonin transporter knockout cultures, however, serotonin increased both the intensity of serotonin ..
  23. Choong K, Shen R. Methylphenidate restores ventral tegmental area dopamine neuron activity in prenatal ethanol-exposed rats by augmenting dopamine neurotransmission. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;309:444-51 pubmed
    ..of prazosin, an alpha(1) receptor antagonist, and was mimicked by the application of DA transporter blockers, nomifensine and 1-2(-[bis(4-flurophenyl)methoxy]ethyl)-4-(3-phenyl)piperazine dihydrochloride (GBR 12909)...
  24. Kitanaka J, Kitanaka N, Hall F, Uhl G, Asano H, Chatani R, et al. Pretreatment with nomifensine or nomifensine analogue 4-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline augments methamphetamine-induced stereotypical behavior in mice. Brain Res. 2012;1439:15-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Nomifensine is a dopamine/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Nomifensine and some of its structural analogues produce behavioral effects indicative of indirect dopaminergic agonist properties, such as hyperlocomotion...
  25. Tedroff J, Aquilonius S, Hartvig P, Lundqvist H, Gee A, Uhlin J, et al. Monoamine re-uptake sites in the human brain evaluated in vivo by means of 11C-nomifensine and positron emission tomography: the effects of age and Parkinson's disease. Acta Neurol Scand. 1988;77:192-201 pubmed
    ..v. injection of racemic 11C-nomifensine, a catecholamine re-uptake blocking drug...
  26. Ferreira Nunes B, Duran R, Alfonso M, de Oliveira I, Ferreira Faro L. Evaluation of the effects and mechanisms of action of glufosinate, an organophosphate insecticide, on striatal dopamine release by using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats. Arch Toxicol. 2010;84:777-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Coinfusion of GLA and nomifensine shows that the GLA-induced DA release did not involve the DAT...
  27. Sabeti J, Adams C, Burmeister J, Gerhardt G, Zahniser N. Kinetic analysis of striatal clearance of exogenous dopamine recorded by chronoamperometry in freely-moving rats. J Neurosci Methods. 2002;121:41-52 pubmed
    ..However, following nomifensine-induced DAT inhibition, A(max) was increased and k was attenuated simultaneously with behavioral activation; ..
  28. Sumithran S, Crooks P, Xu R, Zhu J, Deaciuc A, Wilkins L, et al. Introduction of unsaturation into the N-n-alkyl chain of the nicotinic receptor antagonists, NONI and NDNI: effect on affinity and selectivity. AAPS J. 2005;7:E201-17 pubmed
  29. Janhunen S, Tuominen R, Ahtee L. Comparison of the effects of nicotine and epibatidine given in combination with nomifensine on rotational behaviour in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2005;381:314-9 pubmed
    ..agonists were given acutely and repeatedly either alone or in combination with a dopamine uptake inhibitor, nomifensine. Neither nicotine nor epibatidine alone produced acutely ipsilateral rotational behaviour in rats...
  30. Basso A, Gallagher K, Bratcher N, Brioni J, Moreland R, Hsieh G, et al. Antidepressant-like effect of D(2/3) receptor-, but not D(4) receptor-activation in the rat forced swim test. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005;30:1257-68 pubmed
    ..b>Nomifensine, a dopamine uptake inhibitor (7, 14, and 28 micromol/kg); quinpirole, a D(2)-like receptor and agonist (0.4, 1...
  31. Getachew B, Hauser S, Taylor R, Tizabi Y. Alcohol-induced depressive-like behavior is associated with cortical norepinephrine reduction. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;96:395-401 pubmed publisher
    ..cortex and hippocampus following alcohol administration as well as pretreatment with two antidepressants, nomifensine and imipramine selective NE/DA and NE/5-HT uptake inhibitors, respectively...
  32. Fujisaki Y, Itoh Y, Oishi R. In vivo evidence for a lack of central effect of ebastine, an antihistaminic agent, in rats: a microdialysis study. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2002;90:353-6 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that neither ebastine nor carebastine affects central dopamine metabolism because of a limited access to brain, in spite of having a potent inhibitory action on neuronal dopamine uptake. ..
  33. Boelen M, Boelen M, Marshak D. Light-stimulated release of dopamine from the primate retina is blocked by 1-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (APB). Vis Neurosci. 1998;15:97-103 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that ON bipolar cells provide the excitatory drive to dopaminergic amacrine cells in primates, as in other species. ..
  34. Dahl C, Gotestam K. An open field study of antidepressant drugs. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1989;64:302-7 pubmed
    ..Only piribedil at 32 mg/kg showed an increase, while 2 mg/kg showed a decrease over time. Amineptine and nomifensine significantly increased and salbutamol significantly decreased both ambulation and rearing with dose...
  35. Hilakivi L, Hilakivi I, Kiianmaa K. Neonatal antidepressant administration suppresses concurrent active (REM) sleep and increases adult alcohol consumption in rats. Alcohol Alcohol Suppl. 1987;1:339-43 pubmed
    Neonatal administration of desipramine, nomifensine and zimeldine suppressed concurrent active sleep and led to increased preference of alcohol as well as decreased concentrations of monoamines in the brain in adult rats...
  36. Fairbrother I, Arbuthnott G, Kelly J, Butcher S. In vivo mechanisms underlying dopamine release from rat nigrostriatal terminals: I. Studies using veratrine and ouabain. J Neurochem. 1990;54:1834-43 pubmed
    ..Veratrine-induced DA efflux was unaffected by systemic injection of the DA uptake inhibitor nomifensine but was inhibited by either coperfusion of tetrodotoxin (TTX) or removal of calcium from the perfusing buffer...
  37. Hewett J, Johanson P, Sharma N, Standaert D, Balcioglu A. Function of dopamine transporter is compromised in DYT1 transgenic animal model in vivo. J Neurochem. 2010;113:228-35 pubmed publisher
    ..07 and for non-transgenic animals, 0.87 +/- 0.06 (p < 0.05). We further investigated the efficacy of nomifensine (a specific DAT inhibitor) in inhibiting amphetamine-induced DA release...
  38. Gruner J, Marcy V, Lin Y, Bozyczko Coyne D, Marino M, Gasior M. The roles of dopamine transport inhibition and dopamine release facilitation in wake enhancement and rebound hypersomnolence induced by dopaminergic agents. Sleep. 2009;32:1425-38 pubmed
    ..However, other DAT-inhibiting agents (mazindol, nomifensine, GBR-12909, and GBR-12935) did not produce RHS...
  39. Ammari R, Lopez C, Fiorentino H, Gonon F, Hammond C. A mouse juvenile or adult slice with preserved functional nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons. Neuroscience. 2009;159:3-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The nigro-striatal slice constitutes a suitable in vitro preparation to determine the impact of endogenously released dopamine on target neurons of the striatum. ..
  40. Lee K, Blaha C, Harris B, Cooper S, Hitti F, Leiter J, et al. Dopamine efflux in the rat striatum evoked by electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus: potential mechanism of action in Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:1005-14 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that enhanced dopamine release within the basal ganglia may be an important mechanism whereby high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. ..
  41. Madsen J, Jansen P, Hesslinger C, Meyer M, Zimmer J, Gramsbergen J. Tetrahydrobiopterin precursor sepiapterin provides protection against neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium in nigral slice cultures. J Neurochem. 2003;85:214-23 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, increasing intracellular tetrahydrobiopterin levels may protect against oxidative stress by complex-I inhibition. ..
  42. Hashimoto T, Furuyashiki T, Sano T, Ito W, Danno G, Kanazawa K, et al. 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (trp-P-1) is incorporated into rat splenocytes, thymocytes, and hepatocytes through monoamine transporters and induces apoptosis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002;66:1205-12 pubmed
    ..Dopamine and serotonin significantly competed with the uptake of Trp-P-1 into these cells, and nomifensine and indatraline, which are inhibitors of dopamine- and serotonin-transporters, respectively, markedly ..
  43. Wan F, Shiah I, Lin H, Huang S, Tung C. Nomifensine attenuates d-amphetamine-induced dopamine terminal neurotoxicity in the striatum of rats. Chin J Physiol. 2000;43:69-74 pubmed
    ..To elucidate this issue, the study was designed to examine the effects of nomifensine, a dopamine transporter blocker, and deprenyl, a monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitor, on the prevention of ..
  44. Abercrombie E, Bonatz A, Zigmond M. Effects of L-dopa on extracellular dopamine in striatum of normal and 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats. Brain Res. 1990;525:36-44 pubmed
    ..extracellular DA approaching the magnitude of those occurring in DA-depleted striata were observed when intact animals were treated with nomifensine (5 mg/kg i.p.; n = 5), an inhibitor of high-affinity DA uptake, in addition to L-DOPA.
  45. Filipov N, Stewart M, Carr R, Sistrunk S. Dopaminergic toxicity of the herbicide atrazine in rat striatal slices. Toxicology. 2007;232:68-78 pubmed
    ..the medium was decreased, whereas the increase in media DA observed in the presence of the DA uptake inhibitor nomifensine was increased even further by ATR in a dose-dependent manner...
  46. Kichigina V. [Dopaminergic regulation of theta activity of septohippocampal neuron in the awake rabbit]. Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2004;54:210-5 pubmed
    The effects of dopamine reuptake blocker nomifensine and nonselective antagonist of dopamine receptors haloperidol on the theta rhythmicity of the medial septal neurons and hippocampal EEG were investigated in the rabbit...
  47. Stanford J, Vorontsova E, Surgener S, Gerhardt G, Fowler S. Aged Fischer 344 rats exhibit altered locomotion in the absence of decreased locomotor activity: exacerbation by nomifensine. Neurosci Lett. 2002;333:195-8 pubmed
    ..The catecholamine uptake inhibitor, nomifensine increased locomotor activity in both groups and exacerbated the gait alteration in the aged group...
  48. Bergquist J, Josefsson E, Tarkowski A, Ekman R, Ewing A. Measurements of catecholamine-mediated apoptosis of immunocompetent cells by capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis. 1997;18:1760-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, both inhibition of dopamine uptake with nomifensine and inhibition of packing of catecholamines into vesicles with tetrabenazine, results in significantly lower ..
  49. Santiago M, Machado A, Cano J. 5-HT3 receptor agonist induced carrier-mediated release of dopamine in rat striatum in vivo. Br J Pharmacol. 1995;116:1545-50 pubmed
    ..5-HIAA output was not affected by any PBG concentration used. 3. When nomifensine (5 microM) was included in the Ringer solution, the effect of PBG on the release of dopamine was ameliorated or ..
  50. Hilakivi I. Early postnatal antidepressant treatment and juvenile stereotyped behaviour in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1994;271:223-6 pubmed
    ..9% sodium chloride, with desipramine 5 mg/kg body weight, with nomifensine 10 mg/kg, or with zimelidine 25 mg/kg...
  51. Butcher S, Fairbrother I, Kelly J, Arbuthnott G. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the rat striatum: an in vivo microdialysis study. J Neurochem. 1988;50:346-55 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that AMPH releases preferentially a newly synthesised pool of DA. Nomifensine, a DA uptake inhibitor, was an effective inhibitor of AMPH-induced DA efflux (18% of control)...
  52. Taylor I, Ilitchev A, Michael A. Restricted diffusion of dopamine in the rat dorsal striatum. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2013;4:870-8 pubmed publisher
    ..also examined the effects of drugs that modulated the dopamine release (raclopride and quinpirole) and uptake (nomifensine)...
  53. Martins I, De Vries M, Teixeira Pinto A, Fadel J, Wilson S, Westerink B, et al. Noradrenaline increases pain facilitation from the brain during inflammatory pain. Neuropharmacology. 2013;71:299-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Three studies were performed. First, we show that the infusion in the DRt of nomifensine, which increases local extracellular levels of noradrenaline as shown by in vivo microdialysis, also enhances ..