Summary: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.

Top Publications

  1. Wakita M, Shin M, Iwata S, Nonaka K, Akaike N. Effects of ethanol on GABA(A) receptors in GABAergic and glutamatergic presynaptic nerve terminals. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;341:809-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects on eEPSCs were reversed by bicuculline. Coapplication of muscimol and EtOH significantly increased the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs and EPSCs...
  2. Frye C, Paris J. Infusions of bicuculline to the ventral tegmental area attenuates sexual, exploratory, and anti-anxiety behavior of proestrous rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009;93:474-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Proestrous rats were bilaterally-infused with saline or bicuculline (100 ng), a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, to the VTA or missed control sites...
  3. Hengen K, Behan M, Carey H, Jones M, Johnson S. Hibernation induces pentobarbital insensitivity in medulla but not cortex. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R1028-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Pretreatment of cortical slices from IBA squirrels with bicuculline (100 microM; GABA(A) receptor antagonist) blocked pentobarbital-dependent inhibition of spontaneous neuronal ..
  4. Partridge J, Janssen M, Chou D, Abe K, Zukowska Z, Vicini S. Excitatory and inhibitory synapses in neuropeptide Y-expressing striatal interneurons. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:3038-45 pubmed publisher
    ..On the contrary, evoked IPSCs decayed faster in NPY neurons than in other striatal neurons. These data report for the first time specific properties of synaptic transmission to NPY striatal interneurons. ..
  5. Shreckengost J, Calvo J, Quevedo J, Hochman S. Bicuculline-sensitive primary afferent depolarization remains after greatly restricting synaptic transmission in the mammalian spinal cord. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5283-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall these results demonstrate that PAD of low-threshold primary afferents can occur by more direct synaptic mechanisms, including the possibility of direct negative-feedback or nonspiking dendroaxonic pathways. ..
  6. Bronfeld M, Belelovsky K, Erez Y, Bugaysen J, Korngreen A, Bar Gad I. Bicuculline-induced chorea manifests in focal rather than globalized abnormalities in the activation of the external and internal globus pallidus. J Neurophysiol. 2010;104:3261-75 pubmed publisher
    ..disorders may be induced in behaving primates by local microinjections of the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline to the globus pallidus externus (GPe)...
  7. Hengen K, Gomez T, Stang K, Johnson S, Behan M. Changes in ventral respiratory column GABAaR ?- and ?-subunits during hibernation mediate resistance to depression by EtOH and pentobarbital. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011;300:R272-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This excitation was prevented by bicuculline pretreatment, indicating the involvement of GABA(A)Rs...
  8. Anggono V, Clem R, Huganir R. PICK1 loss of function occludes homeostatic synaptic scaling. J Neurosci. 2011;31:2188-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data reveal an important role of PICK1 in inactivity-induced synaptic scaling by regulating the subunit composition, abundance, and trafficking of GluA2-containing AMPARs. ..
  9. Zhu W, Czyzyk D, Paranjape S, Zhou L, Horblitt A, Szabo G, et al. Glucose prevents the fall in ventromedial hypothalamic GABA that is required for full activation of glucose counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E971-7 pubmed publisher

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. DeSalvo M, Schridde U, Mishra A, Motelow J, Purcaro M, Danielson N, et al. Focal BOLD fMRI changes in bicuculline-induced tonic-clonic seizures in the rat. Neuroimage. 2010;50:902-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied BOLD changes in anesthetized Wistar rats during bicuculline-induced tonic-clonic seizures...
  2. Freitas R, Uribe Mariño A, Castiblanco Urbina M, Elias Filho D, Coimbra N. GABA(A) receptor blockade in dorsomedial and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus evokes panic-like elaborated defensive behaviour followed by innate fear-induced antinociception. Brain Res. 2009;1305:118-31 pubmed publisher
    ..behaviour and the patterns of defensive alertness and defensive immobility induced by microinjection of the bicuculline either into the dorsomedial or into the ventromedial hypothalamus were very similar...
  3. Yoon J, Green C, Bai J, Lipski J, Nicholson L. Effect of low Mg2+ and bicuculline on cell survival in hippocampal slice cultures. Int J Neurosci. 2010;120:752-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Epileptiform insult was induced in hippocampal slice cultures by lowering extracellular Mg(2+), (+)-bicuculline, or (-)-bicuculline methochloride, a stable salt form of bicuculline (both forms block GABA(A) receptors)...
  4. Godukhin O, Levin S, Parnyshkova E. The effects of interleukin-10 on the development of epileptiform activity in the hippocampus induced by transient hypoxia, bicuculline, and electrical kindling. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2009;39:625-31 pubmed publisher
    ..slices; 2) a disinhibitory model of epileptogenesis in rat hippocampal slices using the GABAA receptor blocker bicuculline; and 3) a partial electrical kindling model in intact rats...
  5. Chesnoy Marchais D. Bicuculline- and neurosteroid-sensitive tonic chloride current in rat hypoglossal motoneurons and atypical dual effect of SR95531. Eur J Neurosci. 2013;37:366-79 pubmed publisher
    Hypoglossal motoneurons (HMs) are known to be under 'permanent' bicuculline-sensitive inhibition and to show 'transient' synaptic ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) and glycine inhibitory responses...
  6. Sugiyo S, Uehashi D, Satoh F, Abe T, Yonehara N, Kobayashi M, et al. Effects of systemic bicuculline or morphine on formalin-evoked pain-related behaviour and c-Fos expression in trigeminal nuclei after formalin injection into the lip or tongue in rats. Exp Brain Res. 2009;196:229-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Vc) with/without systemic preadministration of a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor antagonist, bicuculline (2 mg/kg, i.p., 10 min before formalin injection) or a micro-opioid receptor agonist, morphine (3 mg/kg, i.p...
  7. Lee I, Lim E. Intracisternal or intrathecal glycine, taurine, or muscimol inhibit bicuculline-induced allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in mice. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2010;31:907-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Glycine, taurine, or muscimol was injected with bicuculline into the cistern magna or the lumbar subarachnoidal space in ICR mice...
  8. Lei H, Riffell J, Gage S, Hildebrand J. Contrast enhancement of stimulus intermittency in a primary olfactory network and its behavioral significance. J Biol. 2009;8:21 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested this hypothesis first by establishing that bicuculline methiodide reliably and reversibly disrupted the ability of PNs to produce bursting response patterns...
  9. Shepherd J, Rumbaugh G, Wu J, Chowdhury S, Plath N, Kuhl D, et al. Arc/Arg3.1 mediates homeostatic synaptic scaling of AMPA receptors. Neuron. 2006;52:475-84 pubmed
    ..1 is required for memory consolidation, reveal the importance of Arc/Arg3.1's dynamic expression as it exerts continuous and precise control over synaptic strength and cellular excitability. ..
  10. Ataka T, Gu J. Relationship between tonic inhibitory currents and phasic inhibitory activity in the spinal cord lamina II region of adult mice. Mol Pain. 2006;2:36 pubmed
    ..The prominent charge transfer by tonic inhibitory currents and their synaptic activity dependency suggest a significant role of tonic inhibition in sensory processing. ..
  11. Fenik V, Kubin L. Differential localization of carbachol- and bicuculline-sensitive pontine sites for eliciting REM sleep-like effects in anesthetized rats. J Sleep Res. 2009;18:99-112 pubmed publisher
    ..REM sleep-like episodes (REMSLE), we tested the ability of 10 nL microinjections of carbachol (10 mm) and bicuculline (0...
  12. Condés Lara M, Rojas Piloni G, Martínez Lorenzana G, López Hidalgo M, Rodríguez Jiménez J. Hypothalamospinal oxytocinergic antinociception is mediated by GABAergic and opiate neurons that reduce A-delta and C fiber primary afferent excitation of spinal cord cells. Brain Res. 2009;1247:38-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that topical application of bicuculline blocks the effects produced by PVN electrical stimulation or OT application...
  13. Luna V, Schoppa N. GABAergic circuits control input-spike coupling in the piriform cortex. J Neurosci. 2008;28:8851-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Both mechanisms would help ensure that PCs respond faithfully and selectively to mitral cell inputs arriving as a synchronized gamma frequency pattern. ..
  14. Koya E, Uejima J, Wihbey K, Bossert J, Hope B, Shaham Y. Role of ventral medial prefrontal cortex in incubation of cocaine craving. Neuropharmacology. 2009;56 Suppl 1:177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..After 1 withdrawal day, ventral but not dorsal mPFC injections of bicuculline+saclofen (GABAa+GABAb receptor antagonists that increase neuronal activity) strongly increased extinction ..
  15. Zhang S, Steijaert M, Lau D, Schutz G, Delucinge Vivier C, Descombes P, et al. Decoding NMDA receptor signaling: identification of genomic programs specifying neuronal survival and death. Neuron. 2007;53:549-62 pubmed
    ..They also demonstrate that the survival function is implemented in neurons through a multicomponent system of functionally related genes, whose coordinate expression is controlled by specific calcium signal initiation sites. ..
  16. Behrens C, van den Boom L, Heinemann U. Effects of the GABA(A) receptor antagonists bicuculline and gabazine on stimulus-induced sharp wave-ripple complexes in adult rat hippocampus in vitro. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:2170-81 pubmed
    ..The GABA(A) receptor antagonists bicuculline (BMI) or gabazine (SR-95531) led to a transition of SPW-Rs into prolonged bursts with a significant increase in ..
  17. Wu J, Kohno T, Georgiev S, Ikoma M, Ishii H, Petrenko A, et al. Taurine activates glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors in rat substantia gelatinosa neurons. Neuroreport. 2008;19:333-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether these results show that taurine might represent another important neurotransmitter or modulator in SG neurons, which may be involved in antinociception. ..
  18. Mwilaria E, Ghatak C, Daly K. Disruption of GABAA in the insect antennal lobe generally increases odor detection and discrimination thresholds. Chem Senses. 2008;33:267-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the loss of ability to detect and subsequently discriminate is attributable to a loss of ability of the AL to provide a clear neural signal from background...
  19. Kurt S, Moeller C, Jeschke M, Schulze H. Differential effects of iontophoretic application of the GABAA-antagonists bicuculline and gabazine on tone-evoked local field potentials in primary auditory cortex: interaction with ketamine anesthesia. Brain Res. 2008;1220:58-69 pubmed
    ..In a recent study we have demonstrated differential effects of two iontophoretically applied GABA(A)-blockers, bicuculline (BIC) and gabazine (SR 95531), on neuronal responses in primary auditory cortex (AI): Whereas the only effect ..
  20. Yoon S, Lee B, Kim H, Choi K, Yun J, Jang E, et al. Potential roles of GABA receptors in morphine self-administration in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2007;428:33-7 pubmed
    ..0 mg/kg) or an intraperitoneal injection of the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline (1.0 mg/kg), immediately followed by either an intraperitoneal injection of baclofen (1.25 or 1...
  21. Tyzio R, Holmes G, Ben Ari Y, Khazipov R. Timing of the developmental switch in GABA(A) mediated signaling from excitation to inhibition in CA3 rat hippocampus using gramicidin perforated patch and extracellular recordings. Epilepsia. 2007;48 Suppl 5:96-105 pubmed
    ..We propose that excitatory GABA contributes to enhanced excitability and ictogenesis in the neonatal rat hippocampus. ..
  22. Zendehdel M, Baghbanzadeh A, Babapour V, Cheraghi J. The effects of bicuculline and muscimol on glutamate-induced feeding behavior in broiler cockerels. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2009;195:715-20 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of bicuculline (GABA(A) receptor antagonist) and muscimol (GABA(A) receptor agonist) on glutamate-induced eating response in 24-h food-deprived (..
  23. Worbe Y, Baup N, Grabli D, Chaigneau M, Mounayar S, McCairn K, et al. Behavioral and movement disorders induced by local inhibitory dysfunction in primate striatum. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19:1844-56 pubmed publisher
    ..To extend these findings, we performed bicuculline microinjections into the different functional territories of the striatum in 6 monkeys...
  24. Chen L, Wang W, Tan T, Han H, Dong Z. GABA(A) Receptors in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Are Involved in Pain- and Itch-Related Responses. J Pain. 2016;17:181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor agonist muscimol hydrochloride (Mus; 50 ng per side), but not a selective GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (Bic; 20 ng per side) or vehicle, showed significant analgesic effects, reflected by an increase in tail-flick ..
  25. Sterley T, Howells F, Russell V. Maternal separation increases GABA(A) receptor-mediated modulation of norepinephrine release in the hippocampus of a rat model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Brain Res. 2013;1497:23-31 pubmed publisher
    ..slices using an in vitro superfusion technique, in the presence or absence of a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline. Our results show that maternal separation altered GABA(A) receptor-mediated modulation of NE release in the ..
  26. Chang W, Wu J, Lee C, Vogt B, Shyu B. Spatiotemporal organization and thalamic modulation of seizures in the mouse medial thalamic-anterior cingulate slice. Epilepsia. 2011;52:2344-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Seizure-like activities induced with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 250 ?m) and bicuculline (5-50 ?m) in ACC were attenuated by glutamate receptor antagonists, and the degree of disinhibition varied with ..
  27. Dontigny E, Patenaude C, Cyr M, Massicotte G. Sphingomyelinase selectively reduces M1 muscarinic receptors in rat hippocampal membranes. Hippocampus. 2012;22:1589-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that selective internalization of M1 muscarinic receptors can be accentuated in neurons subjected to high ceramide levels. The potential physiopathological implications of this finding are presented. ..
  28. Taccola G, Olivieri D, D Angelo G, Blackburn P, Secchia L, Ballanyi K. A? adenosine receptor modulation of chemically and electrically evoked lumbar locomotor network activity in isolated newborn rat spinal cords. Neuroscience. 2012;222:191-204 pubmed publisher
    ..bath-applied ADO slowed synchronous bursting upon blockade of anion-channel-mediated synaptic inhibition by bicuculline (20 ?M) plus strychnine (1 ?M) and this depression was countered by DPCPX (1 ?M) as tested at 100 ?M ADO...
  29. Jung S, Bullis J, Lau I, Jones T, Warner L, Poolos N. Downregulation of dendritic HCN channel gating in epilepsy is mediated by altered phosphorylation signaling. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6678-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We then found that an in vitro model of seizures (1 h in 0 Mg2+ and 50 microM bicuculline at 35-37 degrees C) reproduced the HCN channel gating change seen in vivo...
  30. Nasir M, Abdullah J, Habsah M, Ghani R, Rammes G. Inhibitory effect of asiatic acid on acetylcholinesterase, excitatory post synaptic potential and locomotor activity. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is consistent with asiatic acid having an effect on AChE, a selective GABA(B) receptor agonist and no sedative effect on locomotor. ..
  31. Vargas Perez H, Ting A Kee R, Walton C, Hansen D, Razavi R, Clarke L, et al. Ventral tegmental area BDNF induces an opiate-dependent-like reward state in naive rats. Science. 2009;324:1732-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This shift involves a switch in the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors of VTA GABAergic neurons, from inhibitory to excitatory signaling...
  32. Lisboa S, Magesto A, Aguiar J, Resstel L, Guimaraes F. Complex interaction between anandamide and the nitrergic system in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray to modulate anxiety-like behavior in rats. Neuropharmacology. 2013;75:86-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The CB1 receptor antagonist AM251, but not the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline, attenuated the effect induced by AEA+c-Ptio combination...
  33. Wang H, Wang W, Patel K, Rozanski G, Zucker I. Spinal cord GABA receptors modulate the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2013;305:R42-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed local microinjection of either the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline or the GABA(B) antagonist CGP 52432 into the ipisilateral L4/L5 dorsal horns to investigate the effect of GABA ..
  34. Holmes A, Forcelli P, Desjardin J, Decker A, Teferra M, West E, et al. Superior colliculus mediates cervical dystonia evoked by inhibition of the substantia nigra pars reticulata. J Neurosci. 2012;32:13326-32 pubmed
  35. Adams J, Robinson R, Hudgins E, Wissink E, Dudek S. NMDA receptor-independent control of transcription factors and gene expression. Neuroreport. 2009;20:1429-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that types of signaling in the nucleus previously attributed to NMDA-receptor-dependent synapse-to-nucleus signals can be initiated in the absence of NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity. ..
  36. Xiao Y, Huang X, Van Wert S, Barreto E, Wu J, Gluckman B, et al. The role of inhibition in oscillatory wave dynamics in the cortex. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;36:2201-12 pubmed publisher
    ..neocortical brain slices (including layers 3-5) of Sprague-Dawley rat, we found that GABAa disinhibition with bicuculline can progressively simplify oscillation dynamics in the presence of carbachol in a concentration-dependent ..
  37. Ring H, Mendu S, Shirazi Fard S, Birnir B, Hallböök F. GABA maintains the proliferation of progenitors in the developing chick ciliary marginal zone and non-pigmented ciliary epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36874 pubmed publisher
    ..Antagonists of the GABA(A) receptors decreased the proliferation of dissociated E12 NPE cells. Bicuculline also had effects on progenitor cell proliferation in intact E8 and E12 developing retina...
  38. Broicher T, Bidmon H, Kamuf B, Coulon P, Gorji A, Pape H, et al. Thalamic afferent activation of supragranular layers in auditory cortex in vitro: a voltage sensitive dye study. Neuroscience. 2010;165:371-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Application of bicuculline (10 microM) greatly increased cortical responses to thalamic stimulation...
  39. Jacobi S, Soriano J, Moses E. BDNF and NT-3 increase velocity of activity front propagation in unidimensional hippocampal cultures. J Neurophysiol. 2010;104:2932-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that BDNF increases the number of excitatory connections by favoring the probability to form connections between neurons, but without significantly modifying the range of the connections (connectivity footprint). ..
  40. Huang L, Yoon M, Choi J, Kim W, Lee H, Kim Y. Effect of sildenafil on neuropathic pain and hemodynamics in rats. Yonsei Med J. 2010;51:82-7 pubmed publisher
    ..After observing the effect of intravenous sildenafil on neuropathic pain, GABAA receptor antagonist (bicuculline) and GABAB receptor antagonist (saclofen) were administered prior to delivery of sildenafil to determine the ..
  41. Lalumiere R, Niehoff K, Kalivas P. The infralimbic cortex regulates the consolidation of extinction after cocaine self-administration. Learn Mem. 2010;17:168-75 pubmed publisher
  42. Choi J, Kim J. Amygdala regulates risk of predation in rats foraging in a dynamic fear environment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:21773-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the amygdala bidirectionally regulates risk behavior in rats foraging in a dynamic fear environment. ..
  43. Ransom C, Wu Y, Richerson G. Postdepolarization potentiation of GABAA receptors: a novel mechanism regulating tonic conductance in hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci. 2010;30:7672-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These properties are well suited to limit excitability during pathophysiological depolarization accompanied by rises in ambient GABA, such as occur during seizures and ischemia. ..
  44. Murphy E, Fernando A, Urcelay G, Robinson E, Mar A, Theobald D, et al. Impulsive behaviour induced by both NMDA receptor antagonism and GABAA receptor activation in rat ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;219:401-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline blocked the increase in impulsivity produced by (R)-CPP when infused in the IL...
  45. Facciolo R, Crudo M, Giusi G, Canonaco M. GABAergic influences on ORX receptor-dependent abnormal motor behaviors and neurodegenerative events in fish. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;243:77-86 pubmed publisher
    ..1 microg/g body weight) and/or its antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 1 microg/g body weight) have corroborated a GABA(A)ergic role on motor behaviors...
  46. Kohnomi S, Koshikawa N, Kobayashi M. D(2)-like dopamine receptors differentially regulate unitary IPSCs depending on presynaptic GABAergic neuron subtypes in rat nucleus accumbens shell. J Neurophysiol. 2012;107:692-703 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that activation of D(2)-like receptors facilitates outputs from MS neurons in the NAc by reducing lateral inhibition during a dormant period of FS neuron activities. ..
  47. Shin M, Wakita M, Xie D, Iwata S, Akaike N. Synergic effect of diazepam and muscimol via presynaptic GABA(A) receptors on glutamatergic evoked EPSCs. Brain Res. 2011;1416:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of amplitude and increase of failure rate (Rf) and paired-pulse ratio (PPR) of eEPSCs which are sensitive to bicuculline. DZP (10-100?M) also induced such presynaptic inhibition, but the bicuculline-insensitive effects were caused ..
  48. Lammel S, Ion D, Roeper J, Malenka R. Projection-specific modulation of dopamine neuron synapses by aversive and rewarding stimuli. Neuron. 2011;70:855-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the mesocorticolimbic DA system may be comprised of three anatomically distinct circuits, each modified by distinct aspects of motivationally relevant stimuli. ..
  49. Chintagari N, Jin N, Gao L, Wang Y, Xi D, Liu L. Role of GABA receptors in fetal lung development in rats. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14171 pubmed publisher
    ..GABA-mediated effects were blocked by the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline. GABA also increased cell proliferation and Cl- efflux in fetal distal lung epithelial cells...
  50. Yi C, Serlie M, Ackermans M, Foppen E, Buijs R, Sauerwein H, et al. A major role for perifornical orexin neurons in the control of glucose metabolism in rats. Diabetes. 2009;58:1998-2005 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypothalamic disinhibition of neuronal activity by the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist bicuculline (BIC) increased basal EGP, especially when BIC was administered in the perifornical area where orexin-..
  51. Li S, Hong S, Shepardson N, Walsh D, Shankar G, Selkoe D. Soluble oligomers of amyloid Beta protein facilitate hippocampal long-term depression by disrupting neuronal glutamate uptake. Neuron. 2009;62:788-801 pubmed publisher
    ..In accord, synaptic glutamate uptake was significantly decreased by soluble Abeta. We conclude that soluble Abeta oligomers perturb synaptic plasticity by altering glutamate recycling at the synapse and promoting synapse depression. ..
  52. Yoon S, Seo J, Ann S, Kim H, Kim H, Cho H, et al. Effects of saikosaponin A on cocaine self-administration in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2013;555:198-202 pubmed publisher
    ..different groups of rats received either the selective GABAB antagonist SCH 50911 or the GABAA antagonist bicuculline before systemic administration of SSA at dose of 2.5mg/kg...
  53. Vokoun C, Jackson M, Basso M. Intralaminar and interlaminar activity within the rodent superior colliculus visualized with voltage imaging. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10667-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, voltage imaging is a powerful technique for the study of spatiotemporal dynamics of electrical signaling across neuronal populations, providing insight into neural circuits that underlie behavior. ..