ketorolac tromethamine

Summary

Summary: A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent used for analgesia for postoperative pain and inhibits cyclooxygenase activity.

Top Publications

  1. Waterbury L, Silliman D, Jolas T. Comparison of cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity and ocular anti-inflammatory effects of ketorolac tromethamine and bromfenac sodium. Curr Med Res Opin. 2006;22:1133-40 pubmed
    ..COX) activity and anti-inflammatory effects of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ketorolac tromethamine (ketorolac) and bromfenac sodium (bromfenac)...
  2. Donnenfeld E, Perry H, Wittpenn J, Solomon R, Nattis A, Chou T. Preoperative ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% in phacoemulsification outcomes: pharmacokinetic-response curve. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006;32:1474-82 pubmed
    ..clinical benefit, relative efficacy, and pharmacokinetic-response curve of preoperative and postoperative ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% (Acular LS) to improve outcomes during and after cataract surgery. Private clinical practice...
  3. Trattler W, McDonald M. Double-masked comparison of ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% versus nepafenac sodium 0.1% for postoperative healing rates and pain control in eyes undergoing surface ablation. Cornea. 2007;26:665-9 pubmed
    Determine the degree of postoperative pain and rate of healing in eyes treated with either ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% (Acular LS) or nepafenac sodium 0...
  4. Duong H, Westfield K, Chalkley T. Ketorolac tromethamine LS 0.4% versus nepafenac 0.1% in patients having cataract surgery. Prospective randomized double-masked clinical trial. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007;33:1925-9 pubmed
    ..clinical, subjective, and objective outcomes of the use of 2 topical nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs--ketorolac tromethamine LS 0.4% (Acular) and nepafenac 0.1% (Nevanac)--in patients having cataract surgery...
  5. Campobasso C, Procacci R, Caligara M. Fatal adverse reaction to ketorolac tromethamine in asthmatic patient. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2008;29:358-63 pubmed publisher
    A case of an asthmatic woman who collapsed within a few minutes after intramuscular ketorolac tromethamine (KT) injection is reported. Autopsy findings revealed anatomic evidence of a recent asthma attack...
  6. Waterbury L, Flach A. Comparison of ketorolac tromethamine, diclofenac sodium, and loteprednol etabonate in an animal model of ocular inflammation. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2006;22:155-9 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activities of ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% and 0.1%; diclofenac sodium 0.1%; and loteprednol etabonate 0.5% suspension in an animal model of ocular inflammation...
  7. Kim A, Stark W. Are topical NSAIDs needed for routine cataract surgery?. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146:483-5 pubmed publisher
  8. Price M, Price F. Efficacy of topical ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% for control of pain or discomfort associated with cataract surgery. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004;20:2015-9 pubmed
    ..Patients received either ketorolac tromethamine 0...
  9. Trinavarat A, Atchaneeyasakul L, Surachatkumtonekul T, Kosrirukvongs P. Comparison of topical prednisolone acetate, ketorolac tromethamine and fluorometholone acetate in reducing inflammation after phacoemulsification. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003;86:143-50 pubmed
    To compare the efficacy and ocular adverse effects of topical prednisolone acetate, ketorolac tromethamine, and fluorometholone acetate in reducing inflammation after phacoemulsification...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Malhotra M, Majumdar D. Effect of preservative, antioxidant and viscolizing agents on in vitro transcorneal permeation of ketorolac tromethamine. Indian J Exp Biol. 2002;40:555-9 pubmed
    ..g. preservative, antioxidant and viscolizing agents on in vitro transcorneal permeation of ketorolac tromethamine from 0.5%(w/v) aqueous drop was studied using goat cornea...
  2. Sankar C, Mishra B. Development and in vitro evaluations of gelatin A microspheres of ketorolac tromethamine for intranasal administration. Acta Pharm. 2003;53:101-10 pubmed
    Gelatin A microspheres (MS) of ketorolac tromethamine (KT) for intranasal systemic delivery were developed with the aim to avoid gastro-intestinal complications, to improve patient compliance, to use as an alternative therapy to ..
  3. Cho Y, Gwak H. Transdermal delivery of ketorolac tromethamine: effects of vehicles and penetration enhancers. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2004;30:557-64 pubmed
    The effects of vehicles and penetration enhancers on the in vitro permeation of ketorolac tromethamine (KT) across excised hairless mouse skins were investigated...
  4. Solomon K, Donnenfeld E, Raizman M, Sandoval H, Stern K, VanDenburgh A, et al. Safety and efficacy of ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% ophthalmic solution in post-photorefractive keratectomy patients. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2004;30:1653-60 pubmed
    To evaluate the safety and analgesic efficacy of ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% ophthalmic solution in postoperative photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) patients. Fifteen clinical sites in the eastern and southern United States...
  5. Leonardi A, Busato F, Fregona I, Plebani M, Secchi A. Anti-inflammatory and antiallergic effects of ketorolac tromethamine in the conjunctival provocation model. Br J Ophthalmol. 2000;84:1228-32 pubmed
    ..05). Ketorolac proved to be effective in reducing mast cell degranulation, as indicated by significantly decreased tryptase tear levels, as well as the clinical and cytological allergic reaction. ..
  6. Vemula S, Veerareddy P. Development, evaluation and pharmacokinetics of time-dependent ketorolac tromethamine tablets. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2013;10:33-45 pubmed publisher
    The present study was intended to develop a time-dependent colon-targeted compression-coated tablets of ketorolac tromethamine (KTM) using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) that release the drug slowly but completely in the colonic ..
  7. Hirneiss C, Neubauer A, Kampik A, Schönfeld C. Comparison of prednisolone 1%, rimexolone 1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% after cataract extraction: a prospective, randomized, double-masked study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005;243:768-73 pubmed
    ..topical steroids (prednisolone 1% and rimexolone 1%) and a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) after extracapsular cataract extraction...
  8. Sinha V, Trehan A. Formulation, characterization, and evaluation of ketorolac tromethamine-loaded biodegradable microspheres. Drug Deliv. 2005;12:133-9 pubmed
    b>Ketorolac tromethamine has to be given every 6 hr intramuscularly in patients for acute pain, so to avoid frequent dosing and patient inconvenience we found it to be a suitable candidate for parenteral controlled delivery by biodegradable ..
  9. Singer A, Mynster C, McMahon B. The effect of IM ketorolac tromethamine on bleeding time: a prospective, interventional, controlled study. Am J Emerg Med. 2003;21:441-3 pubmed
    ..There were no adverse events. A standard intramuscular dose of 60 mg ketorolac resulted in prolongation of the bleeding time in healthy volunteers. The clinical significance of this prolongation in patients is unclear. ..
  10. Yaylali V, Demirlenk I, Tatlipinar S, Ozbay D, Esme A, Yildirim C, et al. Comparative study of 0.1% olopatadine hydrochloride and 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2003;81:378-82 pubmed
    To compare the therapeutic effects of two ophthalmic solutions (0.1% olopatadine hydrochloride and 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine) with different pharmacological mechanisms on the clinical signs and Symptoms of seasonal allergic ..
  11. Geisslinger G, Peskar B, Pallapies D, Sittl R, Levy M, Brune K. The effects on platelet aggregation and prostanoid biosynthesis of two parenteral analgesics: ketorolac tromethamine and dipyrone. Thromb Haemost. 1996;76:592-7 pubmed
    The pharmacokinetics and effects on platelet function of dipyrone (1.0 g; 2.5 g; i.v.) and ketorolac tromethamine (30 mg; i.m.) were studied in a three-way crossover study in twelve healthy subjects...
  12. Alexander R, El Moalem H, Gan T. Comparison of the morphine-sparing effects of diclofenac sodium and ketorolac tromethamine after major orthopedic surgery. J Clin Anesth. 2002;14:187-92 pubmed
    To compare the efficacy of diclofenac sodium with ketorolac tromethamine in reducing postoperative morphine use after major orthopedic surgery. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Major teaching institution...
  13. Holzer M, Solomon K, Sandoval H, Vroman D. Comparison of ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% and loteprednol etabonate 0.5% for inflammation after phacoemulsification: prospective randomized double-masked study. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2002;28:93-9 pubmed
    To compare the efficacy of a topical nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent (ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution 0.5%) and a topical steroid (loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic suspension 0...
  14. Sinha V, Kumar R, Singh G. Ketorolac tromethamine formulations: an overview. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2009;6:961-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that belongs to the class of heteroaryl acetic acid derivatives. It is a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, being marketed in the racemate form...
  15. Mian S, Gupta A, Pineda R. Corneal ulceration and perforation with ketorolac tromethamine (Acular) use after PRK. Cornea. 2006;25:232-4 pubmed
    To report a case of corneal ulceration and perforation after PRK connected with high doses of ketorolac tromethamine (Acula)...
  16. Lin T, Lin F, Chou W, Yeh Y, Lin C, Fan S, et al. Compatibility and stability of binary mixtures of ketorolac tromethamine and tramadol hydrochloride injection concentrate and diluted infusion solution. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan. 2010;48:117-21 pubmed publisher
    ..However, analytical confirmation of the compatibility and stability of this combination is not available. This study examined the compatibility and stability of this combination...
  17. Tiwari S, Pai R, Udupa N. Influence of ultrasound on the percutaneous absorption of ketorolac tromethamine in vitro across rat skin. Drug Deliv. 2004;11:47-51 pubmed
    The influence of ultrasound on percutaneous absorption of ketorolac tromethamine was studied in vitro across rat skin. Sonication was carried out with a continuous mode, at an intensity of 1-3 W/cm2 and a frequency of 1 MHz for 30 min...
  18. Yang J, Kim T, Lee J, Yoon S, Yang K, Shin S. Anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ketorolac tromethamine gel using pulsed ultrasound in inflamed rats. Arch Pharm Res. 2008;31:511-7 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to determine if a ketorolac tromethamine (KT) gel solution could be administered in vivo via phonophoretic transdermal delivery using pulsed ultrasound by examining its anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory ..
  19. Lowder J, Shackelford D, Holbert D, Beste T. A randomized, controlled trial to compare ketorolac tromethamine versus placebo after cesarean section to reduce pain and narcotic usage. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189:1559-62; discussion 1562 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether postcesarean section administration of ketorolac tromethamine reduces pain and narcotic usage...
  20. Price F, Price M, Zeh W, Dobbins K. Pain reduction after laser in situ keratomileusis with ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution 0.5%: a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. J Refract Surg. 2002;18:140-4 pubmed
    To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution 0.5% after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)...
  21. Kosrirukvongs P, Prabhasawat P, Srivannaboon S, Pornpanich K. Topical ketorolac tromethamine in the reduction of adverse effects of laser in situ keratomileusist. J Med Assoc Thai. 2001;84:804-10 pubmed
    To evaluate whether topical ketorolac tromethamine can reduce the adverse effect of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). A prospective randomized controlled clinical study...
  22. Solomon K, Vroman D, Barker D, Gehlken J. Comparison of ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% and rimexolone 1% to control inflammation after cataract extraction. Prospective randomized double-masked study. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2001;27:1232-7 pubmed
    To compare the efficacy of a topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) with that of a topical steroid (rimexolone 1%) to control inflammation after cataract surgery...
  23. Reis A, Vianna R, Reis R, Cardoso G. [Intravitreal injection of ketorolac tromethamine in patients with diabetic macular edema refractory to retinal photocoagulation]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2010;73:338-42 pubmed
    To evaluate the effect of a single dose of intravitreous injection of ketorolac tromethamine (500 µg/0.1 ml) in patients with diabetic macular edema refractory to retinal photocoagulation. Prospective study...
  24. Solomon K, Cheetham J, DeGryse R, Brint S, Rosenthal A. Topical ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% ophthalmic solution in ocular inflammation after cataract surgery. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:331-7 pubmed
    ..b>Ketorolac tromethamine 0...
  25. Perry H, Donnenfeld E. An update on the use of ophthalmic ketorolac tromethamine 0.4%. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2006;7:99-107 pubmed
    b>Ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% ophthalmic solution, a recent reformulation of the original ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% solution, is indicated for the reduction of ocular pain and burning/stinging following cataract and refractive surgery...
  26. Vitale M, Choe J, Hwang M, Bauer R, Hyman J, Lee F, et al. Use of ketorolac tromethamine in children undergoing scoliosis surgery. an analysis of complications. Spine J. 2003;3:55-62 pubmed
    b>Ketorolac Tromethamine (ketorolac) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with proven efficacy in decreasing postoperative pain in various surgical settings, including the treatment of spine deformities...
  27. Maldonado R, Vianna R, Cardoso G, de Magalhães A, Burnier M. Intravitreal injection of commercially available ketorolac tromethamine in eyes with diabetic macular edema refractory to laser photocoagulation. Curr Eye Res. 2011;36:768-73 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the short-term effect of a single intravitreal injection of commercially available ketorolac tromethamine (KT) in eyes with diabetic macular edema refractory to laser photocoagulation. Prospective interventional case series...
  28. Sandoval H, de Castro L, Vroman D, Solomon K. Evaluation of 0.4% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution versus 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2006;22:251-7 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and patient tolerance of 0.4% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution and 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution after routine phacoemulsification and lens implantation...
  29. Yee R. Analgesic efficacy and safety of nonpreserved ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution following radial keratotomy. Ketorolac Radial Keratotomy Study Group. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998;125:472-80 pubmed
    To compare the analgesic efficacy and safety of nonpreserved ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% with those of its vehicle in the treatment of postsurgical ocular pain following radial keratotomy.
  30. Waterbury L, Flach A. Efficacy of low concentrations of ketorolac tromethamine in animal models of ocular inflammation. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2004;20:345-52 pubmed
    To determine if topical ophthalmic application of ketorolac tromethamine concentrations below 0.5% can block the biochemical and physiological processes associated with chemically induced ocular inflammation in rabbits...
  31. Park H, Stokes J, Pirie E, Skahen J, Shtaerman Y, Yaksh T. Persistent hyperalgesia in the cisplatin-treated mouse as defined by threshold measures, the conditioned place preference paradigm, and changes in dorsal root ganglia activated transcription factor 3: the effects of gabapentin, ketorolac, and etanerc. Anesth Analg. 2013;116:224-31 pubmed publisher
  32. Luu C, Foo H, Crewther S, Crewther D. Effects of a non-steroidal (ketorolac tromethamine) and a steroidal (dexamethasone) anti-inflammatory drug on refractive state and ocular growth. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2001;29:175-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that anti-inflammatory drugs can induce changes in ocular size without affecting refractive state and, as such, have implications for the management of progressive myopia. ..
  33. Bazikian E, Ignatovich V. [Ketorol and nais efficacy in practice of surgical dentistry]. Stomatologiia (Mosk). 2005;84:49-50 pubmed
  34. DiBlasio C, Snyder M, Kattan M, Russo P. Ketorolac: safe and effective analgesia for the management of renal cortical tumors with partial nephrectomy. J Urol. 2004;171:1062-5 pubmed
    ..Ketorolac was not associated with an increased risk of acute renal failure. Ketorolac is a safe and effective supplement to opioid based analgesia for pain control after partial nephrectomy. ..
  35. Schwartz J, Sclafani S, Glass T, Sewell P. Acute gonadal vein thrombosis secondary to terminal ileitis and thrombophilia. J Urol. 2008;180:1124 pubmed publisher
  36. Morales A, Kivilcim M, Peyman G, Main M, Manzano R. Intravitreal toxicity of ketorolac tris salt and flurbiprofen. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2009;40:38-42 pubmed
    ..Intravitreal doses up to 1 mg of ketorolac tris salt and 1 mg of flurbiprofen did not cause retinal toxicity in the rabbit eye. ..
  37. Pannuti F, Robustelli della Cuna G, Ventaffrida V, Strocchi E, Camaggi C. A double-blind evaluation of the analgesic efficacy and toxicity of oral ketorolac and diclofenac in cancer pain. The TD/10 recordati Protocol Study Group. Tumori. 1999;85:96-100 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, a pronounced sequence effect was found: gastric disturbances after ketorolac were observed mainly (10 out of 15 observed events) when the drug was given to patients pretreated with diclofenac. ..
  38. Dietzel D, Hedlund E. Injections and return to play. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2004;3:310-5 pubmed
    ..This paper reviews some of the current trends regarding the use of injectable medications in athletic medicine. ..
  39. Beiter J, Simon H, Chambliss C, Adamkiewicz T, Sullivan K. Intravenous ketorolac in the emergency department management of sickle cell pain and predictors of its effectiveness. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001;155:496-500 pubmed
    To evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous (IV) ketorolac tromethamine in the treatment of children with sickle cell disease with moderate to severe acute vaso-occlusive pain (VOP) and to develop a predictive model that would determine ..
  40. Al Hezaimi K, Al Askar M, Selamhe Z, Fu J, Alsarra I, Wang H. Evaluation of novel adhesive film containing ketorolac for post-surgery pain control: a safety and efficacy study. J Periodontol. 2011;82:963-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ketorolac tromethamine (KT), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is incorporated into an adhesive film to overcome the ..
  41. Takahashi K, Saishin Y, Saishin Y, Mori K, Ando A, Yamamoto S, et al. Topical nepafenac inhibits ocular neovascularization. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:409-15 pubmed
    ..In this study, we tested the effect of topical nepafenac in three murine models of ocular neovascularization (NV)...
  42. López Bojórquez E, Castaneda Hernandez G, González de la Parra M, Namur S. Development and validation of a high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method, with densitometry, for quantitative analysis of ketorolac tromethamine in human plasma. J AOAC Int. 2008;91:1191-5 pubmed
    b>Ketorolac tromethamine is a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is widely used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain...
  43. Dsida R, Wheeler M, Birmingham P, Wang Z, Heffner C, Coté C, et al. Age-stratified pharmacokinetics of ketorolac tromethamine in pediatric surgical patients. Anesth Analg. 2002;94:266-70, table of contents pubmed
    ..Each child received 0.5 mg/kg of ketorolac tromethamine IV after completion of elective surgery...
  44. Lee R, White A, Ding D, Dursun A, Woessner K, Simon R, et al. Use of intranasal ketorolac and modified oral aspirin challenge for desensitization of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010;105:130-5 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Intranasal ketorolac challenge and desensitization followed by rapid oral aspirin challenges is effective, safe, and less time-consuming than our standard oral aspirin desensitization protocol. ..
  45. Segal B, Kuhns D, Ding L, Gallin J, Holland S. Thioglycollate peritonitis in mice lacking C5, 5-lipoxygenase, or p47(phox): complement, leukotrienes, and reactive oxidants in acute inflammation. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;71:410-6 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that LTB(4) and C5a have separate but overlapping roles in thioglycollate-elicited peritonitis, and at least the leukotriene component is, in turn, regulated by reactive oxidants...
  46. Galan Herrera J, Poo J, Maya Barrios J, de Lago A, Oliva I, González de la Parra M, et al. Bioavailability of two sublingual formulations of ketorolac tromethamine 30 mg: a randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period crossover comparison in healthy Mexican adult volunteers. Clin Ther. 2008;30:1667-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Ketorolac tromethamine (ie, ketorolac) is an NSAID that appears to have several mechanisms of action, including inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, modulatory effect on opioid receptors, and nitric oxide synthesis...
  47. Pollack C, Diercks D, Thomas S, Shapiro N, Fanikos J, Mace S, et al. Patient-reported Outcomes from A National, Prospective, Observational Study of Emergency Department Acute Pain Management With an Intranasal Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug, Opioids, or Both. Acad Emerg Med. 2016;23:331-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients were prescribed a specific NSAID (SPRIX, ketorolac tromethamine for nasal instillation) only, an oral opioid only, or both with the opioid clearly defined as rescue ..
  48. Fathalla Z, Khaled K, Hussein A, Alany R, Vangala A. Formulation and corneal permeation of ketorolac tromethamine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2016;42:514-24 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this work was to formulate chitosan (CS)-based nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with ketorolac tromethamine (KT) intended for topical ocular delivery...
  49. Novembre E, Calogero C, Mori F, Bernardini R, Pucci N, Neri P, et al. Biphasic anaphylactic reaction to Ketorolac tromethamine. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2006;19:449-50 pubmed
    b>Ketorolac tromethamine is a recent injectable non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic properties approved for short-term pain management...
  50. Marcon A, Rapuano C, Tabas J. Tissue adhesive to treat 2-site corneal melting associated with topical ketorolac use. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2003;29:393-4 pubmed
    ..He was treated successfully with tissue adhesive application. Patients receiving chronic topical ketorolac treatment, especially those with ocular surface abnormalities, can present with severe complications such as corneal melting. ..
  51. Rodriguez N, Abarzuza R, Cristobal J, Sierra J, Minguez E, Del Buey M. [Eyelid contact allergic eczema caused by topical ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2006;81:213-6 pubmed
    ..This is an unusual case because topical application of ketorolac is safe in the vast majority of ophthalmologic patients. However adverse events associated with Ketorolac are similar to that of other NSAIDs. ..
  52. Pfaffenrath V, Fenzl E, Bregman D, Farkkila M. Intranasal ketorolac tromethamine (SPRIX(R)) containing 6% of lidocaine (ROX-828) for acute treatment of migraine: safety and efficacy data from a phase II clinical trial. Cephalalgia. 2012;32:766-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This trial evaluated an intranasal formulation of ketorolac tromethamine (SPRIX®) containing 6% lidocaine (ROX-828) for the acute treatment of migraine with and without aura as ..
  53. Yang J, Yun M, Kim D, Kim M, Kim Y, Kim T, et al. Preparation and evaluation of ketorolac tromethamine gel containing genipin for periodontal diseases. Arch Pharm Res. 2007;30:871-5 pubmed
    b>Ketorolac tromethamine gel (KT gel) and ketorolac tromethamine gel containing genipin (KTG gel) were prepared and their therapeutic effects on periodontitis were evaluated...