reserpine

Summary

Summary: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.

Top Publications

  1. Okano H, Masuda H, Ohkubo C. Effects of 25 mT static magnetic field on blood pressure in reserpine-induced hypotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Bioelectromagnetics. 2005;26:36-48 pubmed
    ..the interrelated antihypotensive effects of static magnetic fields (SMF) and plasma catecholamine levels in reserpine-induced hypotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats...
  2. Garvey M, Piddock L. The efflux pump inhibitor reserpine selects multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains that overexpress the ABC transporters PatA and PatB. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:1677-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Spontaneous mutants resistant to the EPI reserpine selected from Streptococcus pneumoniae NCTC 7465 and R6 at a frequency suggestive of a single mutational event ..
  3. Al Bloushi S, Safer A, Afzal M, Mousa S. Green tea modulates reserpine toxicity in animal models. J Toxicol Sci. 2009;34:77-87 pubmed
    b>Reserpine, a natural product extracted from Rauwolfia serpintina or Rauwolfia vomitoria, is a known dopamine depleter that inhibits several neurotransmitters...
  4. Baumeister A, Hawkins M, Uzelac S. The myth of reserpine-induced depression: role in the historical development of the monoamine hypothesis. J Hist Neurosci. 2003;12:207-20 pubmed
    For five decades it has been generally accepted that reserpine, an antihypertensive and antipsychotic drug, causes depression...
  5. Stecker M, Myers S. Reserpine responsive myoclonus and hyperpyrexia in a patient with Angelman syndrome. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2003;105:183-7 pubmed
    ..It resolved with sleep induced by either lorazepam or diphenhydramine and during treatment with reserpine. Once discharged from the hospital and treated with reserpine, there were much less frequent recurrences of the ..
  6. Segovia G, Mora F, Crossman A, Brotchie J. Effects of CB1 cannabinoid receptor modulating compounds on the hyperkinesia induced by high-dose levodopa in the reserpine-treated rat model of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2003;18:138-49 pubmed
    ..In the reserpine-treated rat model of parkinsonism, administration of a high dose of L-dopa (150 mg/kg) but not of Cl-APB (0...
  7. Stork G, Tang P, Casey M, Goodman B, Toyota M. Regiospecific and stereoselective syntheses of (+/-)-reserpine and (-)-reserpine. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:16255-62 pubmed
    Full details of three approaches to an entirely regio- and stereoselective synthesis of the well-known target reserpine are described, culminating in a total synthesis which efficiently meets these requirements.
  8. Shi W, Jiang J, Xu N, Huang Z, Wang Y. Inhibitory effects of reserpine and carbonyl cyanide m-chloro-phenylhydrazone on fluoroquinolone resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii. Chin Med J (Engl). 2005;118:340-3 pubmed
  9. Verheij M, Cools A. Differential contribution of storage pools to the extracellular amount of accumbal dopamine in high and low responders to novelty: effects of reserpine. J Neurochem. 2007;100:810-21 pubmed
    The present study examined the effects of reserpine on the extracellular concentration of accumbal dopamine in high responders (HR) and low responders (LR) to novelty rats...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Naidu P, Singh A, Kulkarni S. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia and cognitive dysfunction. Phytother Res. 2006;20:140-6 pubmed
    ..Repeated treatment with reserpine (1...
  2. Dluzen D, Bhatt S, McDermott J. Differences in reserpine-induced striatal dopamine output and content between female and male mice: implications for sex differences in vesicular monoamine transporter 2 function. Neuroscience. 2008;154:1488-96 pubmed publisher
    In this report a series of six in vitro experiments in which reserpine-evoked dopamine output and two in vivo experiments in which the effects of reserpine injections upon dopamine content from striatal tissue of female and male mice ..
  3. Mandela P, Chandley M, Xu Y, Zhu M, Ordway G. Reserpine-induced reduction in norepinephrine transporter function requires catecholamine storage vesicles. Neurochem Int. 2010;56:760-7 pubmed publisher
    Treatment of rats with reserpine, an inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), depletes norepinephrine (NE) and regulates NE transporter (NET) expression...
  4. Naidu P, Singh A, Kulkarni S. Reversal of reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia and cognitive dysfunction by quercetin. Pharmacology. 2004;70:59-67 pubmed
    ..Quercetin is a bioflavonoid with strong antioxidant properties. Repeated treatment with reserpine (1...
  5. Taki N, Tanaka T, Zhang L, Suzuki F, Israilova M, Taniguchi T, et al. Alpha-1D adrenoceptors are involved in reserpine-induced supersensitivity of rat tail artery. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;142:647-56 pubmed
    1. We examined reserpine-induced chemical denervation supersensitivity with special reference to alpha-1 adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes. 2...
  6. Varchi G, Battaglia A, Samorì C, Baldelli E, Danieli B, Fontana G, et al. Synthesis of deserpidine from reserpine. J Nat Prod. 2005;68:1629-31 pubmed
    The Rauwolfia alkaloids reserpine (1) and deserpidine (2), two alkaloids from Rauwolfia species, have been widely used for their antihypertensive action...
  7. Cantarella G, Martinez G, Cutuli V, Loreto C, D Alcamo M, Prato A, et al. Adrenomedullin modulates COX-2 and HGF expression in reserpine-injuried gastric mucosa in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;518:221-6 pubmed
    ..growth factor (HGF) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in gastric mucosa of rats which have developed a reserpine-induced ulcer. Such an increase of HGF and COX-2 expression was blunted in rats pretreated with adrenomedullin...
  8. Peixoto M, Araujo N, Silva R, Castro J, Fukushiro D, Faria R, et al. Effects of gabaergic drugs on reserpine-induced oral dyskinesia. Behav Brain Res. 2005;160:51-9 pubmed
    Recently we have described the antidyskinetic property of the GABA mimetic drugs valproic acid and topiramate on reserpine-induced oral dyskinesia. In this respect, oral dyskinesia has been associated with important neuropathologies...
  9. Begum S, Naqvi S, Ahmed A, Tauseef S, Siddiqui B. Antimycobacterial and antioxidant activities of reserpine and its derivatives. Nat Prod Res. 2012;26:2084-8 pubmed publisher
    In view of the attributed medicinal properties of reserpine, a number of acyl reserpine derivatives were prepared and tested for antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, strain H(37)Rv and antioxidant activities...
  10. Lee J, Di Marzo V, Brotchie J. A role for vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and endocannabinnoid signalling in the regulation of spontaneous and L-DOPA induced locomotion in normal and reserpine-treated rats. Neuropharmacology. 2006;51:557-65 pubmed
    ..Motor activity was assessed in normal, in reserpine-treated, and in reserpine-treated rats treated with L-DOPA...
  11. Arora V, Kuhad A, Tiwari V, Chopra K. Curcumin ameliorates reserpine-induced pain-depression dyad: behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical and molecular evidences. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011;36:1570-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was designed to investigate the effect of curcumin on reserpine-induced pain-depression dyad in rats...
  12. Preskorn S. The evolution of antipsychotic drug therapy: reserpine, chlorpromazine, and haloperidol. J Psychiatr Pract. 2007;13:253-7 pubmed
  13. Sparks S, Gutierrez A, Shea K. Preparation of perhydroisoquinolines via the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of N-3,5-hexadienoyl ethyl acrylimidates: a formal synthesis of (+/-)-reserpine. J Org Chem. 2003;68:5274-85 pubmed
    ..the stereochemical control offered by this cycloaddition, two approaches to the construction of the DE rings of reserpine are reported...
  14. Sanghavi C, Barhate S, Mahajan M, Mohan M, Kasture S. Korean ginseng extract attenuates reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia and improves cognitive dysfunction in rats. Nat Prod Res. 2011;25:704-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats is an animal model of tardive dyskinesia that has been linked with free radical generation and oxidative stress. In the present study, reserpine (1 mg kg(-1), s.c...
  15. Fernandes V, Ribeiro A, Melo T, Godinho M, Barbosa F, Medeiros D, et al. Memory impairment induced by low doses of reserpine in rats: possible relationship with emotional processing deficits in Parkinson disease. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32:1479-83 pubmed publisher
    We have recently verified that the monoamine-depleting drug reserpine--at doses that do not modify motor function--impairs memory in a rodent model of aversive discrimination. In this study, the effects of reserpine (0.1-0...
  16. Kristiansen M, Leandro C, Ordway D, Martins M, Viveiros M, Pacheco T, et al. Thioridazine reduces resistance of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus by inhibiting a reserpine-sensitive efflux pump. In Vivo. 2006;20:361-6 pubmed
    ..b>Reserpine, an inhibitor of efflux pumps, was also shown to reduce the resistance of MRSA strains to oxacillin in a ..
  17. Chen F, Huang J. Reserpine: a challenge for total synthesis of natural products. Chem Rev. 2005;105:4671-706 pubmed
  18. Buznikov G, Nikitina L, Rakic L, Milosević I, Bezuglov V, Lauder J, et al. The sea urchin embryo, an invertebrate model for mammalian developmental neurotoxicity, reveals multiple neurotransmitter mechanisms for effects of chlorpyrifos: therapeutic interventions and a comparison with the monoamine depleter, reserpine. Brain Res Bull. 2007;74:221-31 pubmed
    ..of the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos in sea urchin embryos with those of the monoamine depleter, reserpine, so as to investigate multiple neurotransmitter mechanisms involved in developmental toxicity and to evaluate ..
  19. Busanello A, Barbosa N, Peroza L, Farias L, Burger M, Barreto K, et al. Resveratrol protects against a model of vacuous chewing movements induced by reserpine in mice. Behav Pharmacol. 2011;22:71-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Reserpine treatment is a putative animal model of orofacial dyskinesia, tremor, and Parkinsonism...
  20. Fernandes V, Santos J, Leão A, Medeiros A, Melo T, Izídio G, et al. Repeated treatment with a low dose of reserpine as a progressive model of Parkinson's disease. Behav Brain Res. 2012;231:154-63 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Reserpine administration in rodents has been suggested as a pharmacological model of PD based on the effects of this ..
  21. Konieczny J, Przegalinski E, Pokorski M. N-oleoyl-dopamine decreases muscle rigidity induced by reserpine in rats. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2009;22:21-8 pubmed
    ..study we seek to determine whether OLDA would affect muscle tone and akinesia in two rat models of PD: the reserpine-evoked muscle rigidity and the reserpine- and haloperidol-induced catalepsy...
  22. Alachkar A, Brotchie J, Jones O. Locomotor response to L-DOPA in reserpine-treated rats following central inhibition of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase: further evidence for non-dopaminergic actions of L-DOPA and its metabolites. Neurosci Res. 2010;68:44-50 pubmed publisher
    ..the hypothesis that exogenous L-DOPA can induce behavioural effects without being converted to dopamine in the reserpine-treated rat-model of Parkinson's disease. A parkinsonian state was induced with reserpine (3 mg/kg s.c.)...
  23. Zhao N, Zhang W, Guo Y, Jia H, Zha Q, Liu Z, et al. Effects on neuroendocrinoimmune network of Lizhong Pill in the reserpine induced rats with spleen deficiency in traditional Chinese medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;133:454-9 pubmed publisher
    ..is a classical herbal product for curing spleen deficiency in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and reserpine treated rats show similar signs to TCM spleen deficiency pattern...
  24. Prediger R, Da Cunha C, Takahashi R. Antagonistic interaction between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors modulates the social recognition memory in reserpine-treated rats. Behav Pharmacol. 2005;16:209-18 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we evaluated whether reserpine-treated rats (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibit altered social recognition memory abilities...
  25. Frempong Manso E, Raygada J, DeMarco C, Seo S, Kaatz G. Inability of a reserpine-based screen to identify strains overexpressing efflux pump genes in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009;33:360-3 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Reserpine is commonly used as an inhibitor of MDR efflux pumps and previous work from our laboratory using a reserpine-..
  26. Beckstead M, Grandy D, Wickman K, Williams J. Vesicular dopamine release elicits an inhibitory postsynaptic current in midbrain dopamine neurons. Neuron. 2004;42:939-46 pubmed
  27. Wang P, Sun H, Lv H, Sun W, Yuan Y, Han Y, et al. Thyroxine and reserpine-induced changes in metabolic profiles of rat urine and the therapeutic effect of Liu Wei Di Huang Wan detected by UPLC-HDMS. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;53:631-45 pubmed publisher
    ..mass metabolites in the male Wistar-derived rat model of kidney yin deficiency induced with thyroxine and reserpine as well as the therapeutic effect of Liu Wei Di Huang Wan (LW) and its separated prescriptions, a classic ..
  28. Cantarella G, Martinez G, Di Benedetto G, Loreto C, Musumeci G, Prato A, et al. Protective effects of amylin on reserpine-induced gastric damage in the rat. Pharmacol Res. 2007;56:27-34 pubmed
    Here we show that the vasoactive peptide amylin protects against reserpine-induced gastric injury in the rat, resulting in lower score of gastric lesions...
  29. Pereira R, Fachinetto R, de Souza Prestes A, Wagner C, Sudati J, Boligon A, et al. Valeriana officinalis ameliorates vacuous chewing movements induced by reserpine in rats. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2011;118:1547-57 pubmed publisher
    ..a phytotherapic that has GABAergic and antioxidant properties, in vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) induced by reserpine in rats. Adult male rats were treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) and/or with V...
  30. Ji J, McDermott J, Dluzen D. Sex differences in K+-evoked striatal dopamine output from superfused striatal tissue fragments of reserpine-treated CD-1 mice. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:725-31 pubmed
    b>Reserpine inhibits vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) function and thereby impairs vesicular dopamine (DA) storage within nerve terminals...
  31. Martínez Olivares R, Villanueva I, Racotta R, Piñón M. Depletion and recovery of catecholamines in several organs of rats treated with reserpine. Auton Neurosci. 2006;128:64-9 pubmed
    Chemical sympathectomy with reserpine depletes catecholamines in every neuronal or nonneuronal cell producing a nonspecific temporal sympathectomy...
  32. Cantarella G, Di Benedetto G, Martinez G, Loreto C, Clementi G, Cantarella A, et al. Amylin prevents TRAIL-mediated apoptotic effects of reserpine in the rat gastric mucosa. Peptides. 2009;30:1466-72 pubmed publisher
    ..cytokine TNF-related-apoptosis-inducing-ligand (TRAIL) were tested in the rat gastric mucosa damaged by reserpine administration in vivo...
  33. Verheij M, Cools A. Reserpine differentially affects cocaine-induced behavior in low and high responders to novelty. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011;98:43-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The response to cocaine has also been found to depend on monoamines inside reserpine-sensitive storage vesicles...
  34. Carvalho R, Patti C, Takatsu Coleman A, Kameda S, Souza C, Garcez do Carmo L, et al. Effects of reserpine on the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task: dissociation between memory and motor impairments. Brain Res. 2006;1122:179-83 pubmed
    We investigated the effects of reserpine (0.1-0.5 mg/kg) on the performance of mice in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (DAVT), which simultaneously evaluates memory and motor activity...
  35. Bru Mercier G, Deroubaix E, Capuano V, Ruchon Y, Rucker Martin C, Coulombe A, et al. Expression of heart K+ channels in adrenalectomized and catecholamine-depleted reserpine-treated rats. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2003;35:153-63 pubmed
    ..We induced endogenous catecholamine depletion by reserpine treatment and used adrenalectomized rats as a model of plasma catecholamine depletion...
  36. Wardas J. Synergistic effect of SCH 58261, an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, and L-DOPA on the reserpine-induced muscle rigidity in rats. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003;55:155-64 pubmed
    ..Muscle rigidity was produced by reserpine (5 mg/kg ip) injected in combination with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (alpha-MT, 250 mg/kg ip)...
  37. Carlsson A, Lindqvist M, Magnusson T. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan as reserpine antagonists. Nature. 1957;180:1200 pubmed
  38. Spadoni F, Martella G, Martorana A, Lavaroni F, D Angelo V, Bernardi G, et al. Opioid-mediated modulation of calcium currents in striatal and pallidal neurons following reserpine treatment: focus on kappa response. Synapse. 2004;51:194-205 pubmed
    ..mu, delta, and kappa agonists on Ca2+ currents in striatal and GP neurons isolated from either control or reserpine-treated rats...
  39. Berger S, Winhusen T, Somoza E, Harrer J, Mezinskis J, Leiderman D, et al. A medication screening trial evaluation of reserpine, gabapentin and lamotrigine pharmacotherapy of cocaine dependence. Addiction. 2005;100 Suppl 1:58-67 pubmed
    To conduct a preliminary evaluation of the safety and efficacy of reserpine, gabapentin or lamotrigine versus an unmatched placebo control as a treatment for cocaine dependence...
  40. Srivastava D, Arya U, SoundaraRajan T, Dwivedi H, Kumar S, Subramaniam J. Reserpine can confer stress tolerance and lifespan extension in the nematode C. elegans. Biogerontology. 2008;9:309-16 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans to mice, a viable pharmacological intervention is not yet feasible. Here, we report that reserpine largely known as an antipsychotic-antihypertensive drug, can extend C. elegans lifespan...
  41. Arya U, Dwivedi H, Subramaniam J. Reserpine ameliorates Abeta toxicity in the Alzheimer's disease model in Caenorhabditis elegans. Exp Gerontol. 2009;44:462-6 pubmed publisher
    Earlier we have reported that reserpine, an antihypertensive drug, known to downregulate biogenic amines through inhibition of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), increases longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans with a high quality ..
  42. Lopez Munoz F, Bhatara V, Alamo C, Cuenca E. [Historical approach to reserpine discovery and its introduction in psychiatry]. Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2004;32:387-95 pubmed
    b>Reserpine, an alkaloid of the Rauwolfia serpentina plant isolated during the middle of the 20th Century, represented a highly important clinical advance in the treatment of schizophrenia whose pharmacological tools were limited to ..
  43. Macinnes N, Messenger M, Duty S. Activation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in selected regions of the basal ganglia alleviates akinesia in the reserpine-treated rat. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;141:15-22 pubmed
    ..c.v.) could reverse reserpine-induced akinesia in the rat. 2...
  44. Isbil Buyukcoskun N, Gulec G, Ozluk K. Protective effect of centrally-injected glucagon-like peptide-1 on reserpine-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rat: possible mechanisms. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2006;17:1-6 pubmed
    ..glucagon-like peptide- 1 (GLP-1) has been shown to prevent the gastric mucosal lesions induced by reserpine. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the contribution of 1- the cholinergic pathway, 2- the ..
  45. Saharia K, Arya U, Kumar R, Sahu R, Das C, Gupta K, et al. Reserpine modulates neurotransmitter release to extend lifespan and alleviate age-dependent A? proteotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Exp Gerontol. 2012;47:188-97 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans is well established and has provided valuable insights. Earlier, we have reported that Reserpine, an FDA-approved antihypertensive drug, increases C...
  46. Maneuf Y, Crossman A, Brotchie J. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 reduces D2, but not D1, dopamine receptor-mediated alleviation of akinesia in the reserpine-treated rat model of Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 1997;148:265-70 pubmed
    ..receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 on dopamine receptor-mediated alleviation of akinesia were evaluated in the reserpine-treated rat model of parkinsonism. The dopamine D2 receptor agonist quinpirole (0...
  47. Erickson J, Eiden L, Hoffman B. Expression cloning of a reserpine-sensitive vesicular monoamine transporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:10993-7 pubmed
    ..The rank order of potency to inhibit uptake was reserpine > tetrabenazine > serotonin > dopamine > norepinephrine > epinephrine...
  48. Ribera A, Jurado A, Ruiz J, Marco F, del Valle O, Mensa J, et al. In vitro activity of clinafloxacin in comparison with other quinolones against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia clinical isolates in the presence and absence of reserpine. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002;42:123-8 pubmed
    ..1% of strains showing resistance. When the MICs were determined in the presence of 25 microg/ml of reserpine, the MIC(90) of trovafloxacin and moxifloxacin did not change, whereas decreased 2-fold for clinafloxacin, ..
  49. Silverdale M, McGuire S, McInnes A, Crossman A, Brotchie J. Striatal cannabinoid CB1 receptor mRNA expression is decreased in the reserpine-treated rat model of Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 2001;169:400-6 pubmed
    ..We investigated CB1 cannabinoid receptor mRNA expression in the reserpine-treated rat model of Parkinson's disease using in situ hybridization...
  50. Dringenberg H, Diavolitsis P, Noseworthy P. Effect of tacrine on EEG slowing in the rat: enhancement by concurrent monoamine therapy. Neurobiol Aging. 2000;21:135-43 pubmed
    ..EEG changes resulted from administering the anti-cholinergic scopolamine (1 mg/kg) and the monoamine depletor reserpine (10 mg/kg); amplitude increases between 0.5-20 Hz, with the delta (0...
  51. Kannari K, Tanaka H, Maeda T, Tomiyama M, Suda T, Matsunaga M. Reserpine pretreatment prevents increases in extracellular striatal dopamine following L-DOPA administration in rats with nigrostriatal denervation. J Neurochem. 2000;74:263-9 pubmed
    The influence of L-DOPA and reserpine on extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the striatum of intact and dopaminergic denervated rats was studied using the brain microdialysis technique. In intact rats, reserpine (5 mg/kg s.c...
  52. Markham P. Inhibition of the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae by the multidrug efflux inhibitor reserpine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999;43:988-9 pubmed
    ..In this paper I show that reserpine, an inhibitor of multidrug transporters in gram-positive bacteria, dramatically suppresses the in vitro ..
  53. McMahon A, Geertman R, Sabban E. Rat dopamine beta-hydroxylase: molecular cloning and characterization of the cDNA and regulation of the mRNA by reserpine. J Neurosci Res. 1990;25:395-404 pubmed
    ..5 and 2.7 kb. The relative abundance of the 2.7 vs. 2.5 kb mRNAs was differentially regulated in PC12 cells and adrenals. DBH mRNA levels were induced in vivo in rat adrenals upon treatment with reserpine.