harmine

Summary

Summary: Alkaloid isolated from seeds of Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllaceae. It is identical to banisterine, or telepathine, from Banisteria caapi and is one of the active ingredients of hallucinogenic drinks made in the western Amazon region from related plants. It has no therapeutic use, but (as banisterine) was hailed as a cure for postencephalitic Parkinson disease in the 1920's.

Top Publications

  1. Fortunato J, Réus G, Kirsch T, Stringari R, Fries G, Kapczinski F, et al. Effects of beta-carboline harmine on behavioral and physiological parameters observed in the chronic mild stress model: further evidence of antidepressant properties. Brain Res Bull. 2010;81:491-6 pubmed publisher
    ..present study was aimed to evaluate the behavioral and physiological effects of administration of beta-carboline harmine in rats exposed to CMS procedure...
  2. Chen Q, Chao R, Chen H, Hou X, Yan H, Zhou S, et al. Antitumor and neurotoxic effects of novel harmine derivatives and structure-activity relationship analysis. Int J Cancer. 2005;114:675-82 pubmed
    Beta-carboline alkaloids such as harmine are present in medicinal plants such as Peganum harmala that have been used as folk medicine in anticancer therapy...
  3. Boeira J, Viana A, Picada J, Henriques J. Genotoxic and recombinogenic activities of the two beta-carboline alkaloids harman and harmine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutat Res. 2002;500:39-48 pubmed
    The cytotoxical beta-carboline alkaloids harman and harmine occur in medical plants and in a variety of foods, alcoholic beverages, and industrial waste...
  4. Boeira J, da Silva J, Erdtmann B, Henriques J. Genotoxic effects of the alkaloids harman and harmine assessed by comet assay and chromosome aberration test in mammalian cells in vitro. Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;89:287-94 pubmed
    Harman and harmine are beta-carboline alkaloids which are present in plants widely used in medical practice, in beverages used for religious purposes in Brazil, as well as in tobacco smoke and over cooked food...
  5. Hara E, Ono M, Kubota S, Sonoyama W, Oida Y, Hattori T, et al. Novel chondrogenic and chondroprotective effects of the natural compound harmine. Biochimie. 2013;95:374-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study screened a compound library and identified the ?-carboline alkaloid harmine as a novel inducer of CCN2 in human chondrocytic HCS-2/8 cells and osteoarthritic articular chondrocytes...
  6. Göckler N, Jofre G, Papadopoulos C, Soppa U, Tejedor F, Becker W. Harmine specifically inhibits protein kinase DYRK1A and interferes with neurite formation. FEBS J. 2009;276:6324-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we characterize the beta-carboline alkaloid harmine as a potent and specific inhibitor of DYRK1A both in vitro and in cultured cells...
  7. Cao R, Peng W, Chen H, Ma Y, Liu X, Hou X, et al. DNA binding properties of 9-substituted harmine derivatives. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;338:1557-63 pubmed
    ..The underlying mechanisms of harmine and its derivatives were investigated by DNA binding assay and Topoisomerase (Topo) inhibition assay...
  8. Song Y, Kesuma D, Wang J, Deng Y, Duan J, Wang J, et al. Specific inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases and cell proliferation by harmine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;317:128-32 pubmed
    ..In the present study, harmine was identified from a collection of herbal compounds to be a specific inhibitor of Cdk1/cyclin B, Cdk2/cyclin A, ..
  9. Herraiz T, Gonzalez D, Ancín Azpilicueta C, Arán V, Guillen H. beta-Carboline alkaloids in Peganum harmala and inhibition of human monoamine oxidase (MAO). Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:839-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Harmaline, harmine, harmalol, harmol and tetrahydroharmine were identified and quantified as the main beta-carboline alkaloids in P...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Yonezawa T, Hasegawa S, Asai M, Ninomiya T, Sasaki T, Cha B, et al. Harmine, a ?-carboline alkaloid, inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;650:511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that harmine, a ?-carboline alkaloid, inhibited multinucleated osteoclast formation induced by receptor activator of nuclear ..
  2. Kartal M, Altun M, Kurucu S. HPLC method for the analysis of harmol, harmalol, harmine and harmaline in the seeds of Peganum harmala L. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2003;31:263-9 pubmed
    A simple and sensitive method for separation and determination of harmol, harmalol, harmine and harmaline has been developed and validated...
  3. Ma Y, Wink M. The beta-carboline alkaloid harmine inhibits BCRP and can reverse resistance to the anticancer drugs mitoxantrone and camptothecin in breast cancer cells. Phytother Res. 2010;24:146-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The beta-carboline alkaloid harmine inhibited BCRP in a BCRP overexpressing breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231)...
  4. Di Giorgio C, Delmas F, Ollivier E, Elias R, Balansard G, Timon David P. In vitro activity of the beta-carboline alkaloids harmane, harmine, and harmaline toward parasites of the species Leishmania infantum. Exp Parasitol. 2004;106:67-74 pubmed
    Harmane, harmine, and harmaline were investigated for their in vitro antileishmanial activity toward parasites of the species Leishmania infantum...
  5. Pérez Martín J, Labrador V, Fernández Freire P, Molero M, Hazen M. Ultrastructural changes induced in HeLa cells after phototoxic treatment with harmine. J Appl Toxicol. 2004;24:197-201 pubmed
    In the present work, we have continued our studies on harmine phototoxicity in human tumour cells...
  6. Frost D, Meechoovet B, Wang T, Gately S, Giorgetti M, Shcherbakova I, et al. ?-carboline compounds, including harmine, inhibit DYRK1A and tau phosphorylation at multiple Alzheimer's disease-related sites. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19264 pubmed publisher
    b>Harmine, a ?-carboline alkaloid, is a high affinity inhibitor of the dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) protein...
  7. Park K, Waki H, Villanueva C, Monticelli L, Hong C, Kang S, et al. Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 is a small molecule-inducible modulator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression and adipocyte differentiation. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:2038-48 pubmed publisher
    We previously identified the small molecule harmine as a regulator of peroxisome proliferator activated-receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and adipocyte differentiation...
  8. Shahinas D, Macmullin G, Benedict C, Crandall I, Pillai D. Harmine is a potent antimalarial targeting Hsp90 and synergizes with chloroquine and artemisinin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:4207-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We independently observed that the beta-carboline alkaloid harmine obtained from a natural product library screen inhibited Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 90 (PfHsp90) ..
  9. Hamsa T, Kuttan G. Harmine inhibits tumour specific neo-vessel formation by regulating VEGF, MMP, TIMP and pro-inflammatory mediators both in vivo and in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;649:64-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Harmine is a beta-carboline alkaloid present in medicinal plants such as Peganum harmala that have been used as folk medicine in anticancer therapy...
  10. Réus G, Stringari R, de Souza B, Petronilho F, Dal Pizzol F, Hallak J, et al. Harmine and imipramine promote antioxidant activities in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2010;3:325-31 pubmed
    ..Evidence has pointed to the ?-carboline harmine as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of depression...
  11. Fortunato J, Réus G, Kirsch T, Stringari R, Fries G, Kapczinski F, et al. Chronic administration of harmine elicits antidepressant-like effects and increases BDNF levels in rat hippocampus. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2010;117:1131-7 pubmed publisher
    A growing body of evidence has pointed to the ?-carboline harmine as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of major depression...
  12. Ginovart N, Meyer J, Boovariwala A, Hussey D, Rabiner E, Houle S, et al. Positron emission tomography quantification of [11C]-harmine binding to monoamine oxidase-A in the human brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2006;26:330-44 pubmed
    This article describes the kinetic modeling of [(11)C]-harmine binding to monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) binding sites in the human brain using positron emission tomography (PET)...
  13. Arib O, Rat P, Molimard R, Chait A, Faure P, de Beaurepaire R. Electrophysiological characterization of harmane-induced activation of mesolimbic dopamine neurons. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;629:47-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study support the hypothesis that harmane could be a tobacco (or smoke) component other than nicotine involved in tobacco dependence. ..
  14. Volk R, Furkert F. Antialgal, antibacterial and antifungal activity of two metabolites produced and excreted by cyanobacteria during growth. Microbiol Res. 2006;161:180-6 pubmed
    ..The natural function as allelopathic chemicals and a possible applicability as antifouling agents or leads for the development of new antifouling chemicals are discussed. ..
  15. Cao M, Li Q, Liu Z, Liu H, Wang W, Liao X, et al. Harmine induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells via mitochondrial signaling pathway. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2011;10:599-604 pubmed
    b>Harmine has antitumor and antinociceptive effects, and inhibits human DNA topoisomerase. However, no detailed data are available on the mechanisms of action of harmine in hepatocellular carcinoma...
  16. Yang Y, Lee J, Jin C, Lim S, Lee M. Effects of harman and norharman on dopamine biosynthesis and L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;587:57-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that harman and norharman inhibit dopamine biosynthesis by reducing TH activity and enhance L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. ..
  17. Li Y, Sattler R, Yang E, Nunes A, Ayukawa Y, Akhtar S, et al. Harmine, a natural beta-carboline alkaloid, upregulates astroglial glutamate transporter expression. Neuropharmacology. 2011;60:1168-75 pubmed publisher
    ..When screening a library of 1040 FDA approved compounds and natural products, we identified harmine, a naturally occurring beta-carboline alkaloid, as one of the top hits for activating the EAAT2 promoter...
  18. Nakagawa Y, Suzuki T, Ishii H, Ogata A, Nakae D. Mitochondrial dysfunction and biotransformation of ?-carboline alkaloids, harmine and harmaline, on isolated rat hepatocytes. Chem Biol Interact. 2010;188:393-403 pubmed publisher
    The cytotoxic effects and biotransformation of harmine and harmaline, which are known ?-carboline alkaloids and potent hallucinogens, were studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes...
  19. Aassila H, Bourguet Kondracki M, Rifai S, Fassouane A, Guyot M. Identification of harman as the antibiotic compound produced by a tunicate-associated bacterium. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2003;5:163-6 pubmed
    ..It exhibited antibacterial activity (MIC, 0.017 mM) against the ichthyopathogenic strain Vibrio anguillarum. ..
  20. Waki H, Park K, Mitro N, Pei L, Damoiseaux R, Wilpitz D, et al. The small molecule harmine is an antidiabetic cell-type-specific regulator of PPARgamma expression. Cell Metab. 2007;5:357-70 pubmed
    ..This molecule, harmine, is not a ligand for the receptor; rather, it acts as a cell-type-specific regulator of PPARgamma expression...
  21. Murthy R, Erlandsson K, Kumar D, Van Heertum R, Mann J, PARSEY R. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 11C-harmine in baboons. Nucl Med Commun. 2007;28:748-54 pubmed
    ..This study describes the biodistribution and dosimetry of 11C-harmine, a tracer designed to specifically bind to monoamine oxidase A for positron emission tomography imaging...
  22. El Gendy M, Soshilov A, Denison M, El Kadi A. Transcriptional and posttranslational inhibition of dioxin-mediated induction of CYP1A1 by harmine and harmol. Toxicol Lett. 2012;208:51-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously demonstrated that harmine inhibits the dioxin-mediated induction of Cyp1a1 activity in murine hepatoma cells...
  23. Yang X, Wang W, Qin J, Wang M, Sharma H, Buolamwini J, et al. JKA97, a novel benzylidene analog of harmine, exerts anti-cancer effects by inducing G1 arrest, apoptosis, and p53-independent up-regulation of p21. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34303 pubmed publisher
    JKA97, a benzylidene analog of harmine, has been found to be a promising drug candidate for human cancer therapy, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully demonstrated...
  24. Wang X, Geng Y, Wang D, Shi X, Liu J. Separation and purification of harmine and harmaline from Peganum harmala using pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. J Sep Sci. 2008;31:3543-7 pubmed publisher
    ..From 1.2 g of the crude extract, 554 mg harmine and 325 mg harmaline were obtained each with a purity of over 96% as determined by HPLC...
  25. Seifert A, Allan L, Clarke P. DYRK1A phosphorylates caspase 9 at an inhibitory site and is potently inhibited in human cells by harmine. FEBS J. 2008;275:6268-80 pubmed publisher
    ..DYRK1A-dependent phosphorylation of Thr125 is also blocked by harmine, confirming the use of this beta-carboline alkaloid as a potent inhibitor of DYRK1A in cells...
  26. Dai F, Chen Y, Song Y, Huang L, Zhai D, Dong Y, et al. A natural small molecule harmine inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumour growth through activation of p53 in endothelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52162 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified harmine (?-carboline alkaloid) as a novel activator of p53 signaling involved in inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor ..
  27. Lala S, Pramanick S, Mukhopadhyay S, Bandyopadhyay S, Basu M. Harmine: evaluation of its antileishmanial properties in various vesicular delivery systems. J Drug Target. 2004;12:165-75 pubmed
    b>Harmine, a beta-carboline amine alkaloid isolated from Peganum harmala, was tested for its antileishmanial properties both in vitro and in vivo...
  28. Jimenez J, Riverón Negrete L, Abdullaev F, Espinosa Aguirre J, Rodriguez Arnaiz R. Cytotoxicity of the beta-carboline alkaloids harmine and harmaline in human cell assays in vitro. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2008;60:381-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study the toxicities of one full aromatic beta-carboline alkaloid (harmine) and one dihydro-beta-carboline alkaloid (harmaline) were evaluated by means of two in vitro human cell assays: ..
  29. Zheng W, Wang S, Barnes L, Guan Y, Louis E. Determination of harmane and harmine in human blood using reversed-phased high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Anal Biochem. 2000;279:125-9 pubmed
    ..an effective analytical method to determine blood levels of two major beta-carboline derivatives, harmane and harmine. Human blood was extracted with ethyl acetate and methyl-t-butyl ether (2:98) under an alkaline condition...
  30. Guan Y, Louis E, Zheng W. Toxicokinetics of tremorogenic natural products, harmane and harmine, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2001;64:645-60 pubmed
    ..This study was performed to evaluate toxicokinetics of harmane and harmine, two major beta-carboline alkaloids, in rats...
  31. Bei Y, Zhou X, You B, Yuan Z, Chen W, Xia P, et al. Application of the central composite design to optimize the preparation of novel micelles of harmine. Int J Nanomedicine. 2013;8:1795-808 pubmed publisher
    ..The central composite design was used to study the preparation technique of harmine (HM)-loaded self-assembled micelles based on Lac-TPCS (Lac-TPCS/HM)...
  32. Yu A, Idle J, Krausz K, Küpfer A, Gonzalez F. Contribution of individual cytochrome P450 isozymes to the O-demethylation of the psychotropic beta-carboline alkaloids harmaline and harmine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;305:315-22 pubmed
    ..5), CYP1A2 (35), CYP2C9 (16), CYP2C19 (30), and CYP2D6 (115) catalyzed that of harmine (relative activities)...
  33. Orlefors H, Sundin A, Fasth K, Oberg K, Langstrom B, Eriksson B, et al. Demonstration of high monoaminoxidase-A levels in neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumors in vitro and in vivo-tumor visualization using positron emission tomography with 11C-harmine. Nucl Med Biol. 2003;30:669-79 pubmed
    ..The in vitro results initiated PET studies with (11)C-Harmine in 4 patients with MGC and 7 patients with EPT (one insulinoma, two glucagonomas and four non-functioning EPT)...
  34. Adayev T, Wegiel J, Hwang Y. Harmine is an ATP-competitive inhibitor for dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A). Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011;507:212-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Harmine is a ?-carboline alkaloid. The compound is a potent inhibitor of dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A), a kinase implicated in Down syndrome...
  35. Onishi Y, Oishi K, Kawano Y, Yamazaki Y. The harmala alkaloid harmine is a modulator of circadian Bmal1 transcription. Biosci Rep. 2012;32:45-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effects of the alkaloid harmine, contained in Hoasca, which has a wide spectrum of pharmacological actions, on circadian rhythms using the ..
  36. Fortunato J, Réus G, Kirsch T, Stringari R, Stertz L, Kapczinski F, et al. Acute harmine administration induces antidepressive-like effects and increases BDNF levels in the rat hippocampus. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009;33:1425-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Harmine is a beta-carboline alkaloid that inhibits monoamine reuptake systems. Findings point to an antidepressant effect of the compounds that increases the levels of monoamines after monoamine oxidase inhibition...
  37. Kuhn C, Frank D, Will R, Jaschinski C, Frauen R, Katus H, et al. DYRK1A is a novel negative regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:17320-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, treatment of cardiomyocytes with harmine, a specific inhibitor of DYRK1A, revealed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy on morphological and molecular level...
  38. Berrougui H, Martín Cordero C, Khalil A, Hmamouchi M, Ettaib A, Marhuenda E, et al. Vasorelaxant effects of harmine and harmaline extracted from Peganum harmala L. seeds in isolated rat aorta. Pharmacol Res. 2006;54:150-7 pubmed
    The present work describes the mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effect of harmine and harmaline. These alkaloids induce in a dose-dependent manner the relaxation in the aorta precontracted with noradrenaline or KCl...
  39. Siderhurst M, James D, Rithner C, Dick D, Bjostad L. Isolation and characterization of norharmane from Reticulitermes termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J Econ Entomol. 2005;98:1669-78 pubmed
    ..Mechanisms that may account for fluorescent differences are discussed as are the possible ecological implications of norharmane in termites. ..
  40. Galceran M, Moyano E, Puignou L, Pais P. Determination of heterocyclic amines by pneumatically assisted electrospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 1996;730:185-94 pubmed
    ..Detection limits of 5.4-44 pg were obtained for standard solutions of these amines. Analysis of a meat extract was performed by HPLC-MS using single-ion monitoring after a solid-phase extraction clean-up. ..
  41. Fekkes D, Bernard B, Cappendijk S. Norharman and alcohol-dependency in male Wistar rats. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2004;14:361-6 pubmed
    ..The mechanism behind the increased norharman levels in alcohol-dependent rats may be inhibition of the synthesis and/or activity of liver enzyme(s) responsible for the breakdown of norharman. ..
  42. Parker C, Anderson N, Robinson E, Price R, Tyacke R, Husbands S, et al. Harmane and harmalan are bioactive components of classical clonidine-displacing substance. Biochemistry. 2004;43:16385-92 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose that the beta-carbolines harmane and harmalan represent active components of classical CDS. The identification of these compounds will allow us to establish clear physiological roles for CDS. ..
  43. Begum S, Imran Hassan S, Siddiqui B, Ifzal R, Perwaiz S, Kiran T, et al. Preparation, structure and spasmolytic activities of some derivatives of harmine series of alkaloids. Nat Prod Res. 2006;20:213-27 pubmed
    Keeping in view the interesting chemistry and pharmacological importance of harmine series of bases -- the beta-carboline alkaloids, a number of new derivatives of tetrahydroharmine and harmalol have been prepared and characterized ..
  44. Shao H, Huang X, Zhang Y, Zhang C. Main alkaloids of Peganum harmala L. and their different effects on dicot and monocot crops. Molecules. 2013;18:2623-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation led to the isolation of harmaline and harmine as the main active ingredients in the total alkaloids of P. harmala seeds...
  45. Dos Santos R, Osório F, Crippa J, Hallak J. Antidepressive and anxiolytic effects of ayahuasca: a systematic literature review of animal and human studies. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2016;38:65-72 pubmed publisher
    To conduct a systematic literature review of animal and human studies reporting anxiolytic or antidepressive effects of ayahuasca or some of its isolated alkaloids (dimethyltryptamine, harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline).
  46. Gonzalo Lumbreras R, Rosales Conrado N, León González M, Pérez Arribas L, Polo Díez L. Capillary liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometry detection for heterocyclic aromatic amine determination in ready-to-eat food treated with electron-beam irradiation. J Chromatogr A. 2010;1217:6778-84 pubmed publisher
    ..for the determination at ngg?¹ levels of four heterocyclic aromatic amines (MeIQx, norharman, harman and harmine), a group of mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds that can potentially be produced in protein-rich food during ..
  47. Bonnet U, Scherbaum N, Wiemann M. The endogenous alkaloid harmane: acidifying and activity-reducing effects on hippocampal neurons in vitro. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32:362-7 pubmed
    ..Harmane may modulate neuronal functions via altered pH(i)-regulation. Implications of these findings for neuronal survival are discussed. ..
  48. Santos R, Landeira Fernandez J, Strassman R, Motta V, Cruz A. Effects of ayahuasca on psychometric measures of anxiety, panic-like and hopelessness in Santo Daime members. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;112:507-13 pubmed
    ..Ayahuasca ingestion did not modify state- or trait-anxiety. The results are discussed in terms of the possible use of ayahuasca in alleviating signs of hopelessness and panic-like related symptoms...
  49. Talalaenko A, Krivobok G, Pankrat ev D, Goncharenko N. Neurochemical mechanisms of the dorsal pallidum in the antiaversive effects of anxiolytics in various models of anxiety. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2006;36:749-54 pubmed
  50. Farzin D, Mansouri N. Antidepressant-like effect of harmane and other beta-carbolines in the mouse forced swim test. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2006;16:324-8 pubmed
    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of harmane, norharmane and harmine on the immobility time in the mouse forced swim test (FST) - an animal model of depression...
  51. Balikova M. Collective poisoning with hallucinogenous herbal tea. Forensic Sci Int. 2002;128:50-2 pubmed
    ..A portion of the herbal infusion was found to contain atropine (hyoscyamine), scopolamine (hyoscine), harmine, and other alkaloids...
  52. Totsuka Y, Hada N, Matsumoto K, Kawahara N, Murakami Y, Yokoyama Y, et al. Structural determination of a mutagenic aminophenylnorharman produced by the co-mutagen norharman with aniline. Carcinogenesis. 1998;19:1995-2000 pubmed
  53. Tupper K. The globalization of ayahuasca: harm reduction or benefit maximization?. Int J Drug Policy. 2008;19:297-303 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; Issues of harm reduction with respect to ayahuasca use are explored, but so too is the corollary notion of "benefit maximization."..