gliotoxin

Summary

Summary: A fungal toxin produced by various species of Trichoderma, Gladiocladium fimbriatum, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium. It is used as an immunosuppressive agent.

Top Publications

  1. Comera C, André K, Laffitte J, Collet X, Galtier P, Maridonneau Parini I. Gliotoxin from Aspergillus fumigatus affects phagocytosis and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton by distinct signalling pathways in human neutrophils. Microbes Infect. 2007;9:47-54 pubmed
    b>Gliotoxin is a mycotoxin having a considerable number of immuno-suppressive actions and is produced by several moulds such as Aspergillus fumigatus...
  2. Reeves E, Murphy T, Daly P, Kavanagh K. Amphotericin B enhances the synthesis and release of the immunosuppressive agent gliotoxin from the pulmonary pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. J Med Microbiol. 2004;53:719-25 pubmed
    ..Amphotericin B exposure for periods of 2-4 h also leads to increased release of the immunosuppressive agent gliotoxin into the surrounding culture medium...
  3. Anselmi K, Stolz D, Nalesnik M, Watkins S, Kamath R, Gandhi C. Gliotoxin causes apoptosis and necrosis of rat Kupffer cells in vitro and in vivo in the absence of oxidative stress: exacerbation by caspase and serine protease inhibition. J Hepatol. 2007;47:103-13 pubmed
    A potential application of gliotoxin therapy for liver fibrosis was suggested by its apoptotic effect on fibrogenic activated stellate cells. We investigated if gliotoxin exerts similar effects on hepatic macrophage Kupffer cells...
  4. Forseth R, Fox E, Chung D, Howlett B, Keller N, Schroeder F. Identification of cryptic products of the gliotoxin gene cluster using NMR-based comparative metabolomics and a model for gliotoxin biosynthesis. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:9678-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Gliotoxin, a major product of the gli non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene cluster, is strongly associated with virulence of the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus...
  5. Bertling A, Niemann S, Uekötter A, Fegeler W, Lass Florl C, von Eiff C, et al. Candida albicans and its metabolite gliotoxin inhibit platelet function via interaction with thiols. Thromb Haemost. 2010;104:270-8 pubmed publisher
    ..But in contrast to other microorganisms the fungus does not aggregate platelets. Gliotoxin (GT), which possesses immunosuppressive properties, is produced by various fungi, including the opportunistic ..
  6. Srinivasan U, Bala A, Jao S, Starke D, Jordan T, Mieyal J. Selective inactivation of glutaredoxin by sporidesmin and other epidithiopiperazinediones. Biochemistry. 2006;45:8978-87 pubmed
    ..This study implicates selective modification of sulfhydryls of target proteins in some of the cytotoxic effects of the ETP fungal toxins and their synthetic analogues. ..
  7. Dekel R, Zvibel I, Brill S, Brazovsky E, Halpern Z, Oren R. Gliotoxin ameliorates development of fibrosis and cirrhosis in a thioacetamide rat model. Dig Dis Sci. 2003;48:1642-7 pubmed
    Activation of hepatic stellate cells causes most of the pathological changes in cirrhosis. The fungal metabolite gliotoxin was shown to induce apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells in vitro...
  8. Kweon Y, Paik Y, Schnabl B, Qian T, Lemasters J, Brenner D. Gliotoxin-mediated apoptosis of activated human hepatic stellate cells. J Hepatol. 2003;39:38-46 pubmed
    ..b>Gliotoxin induces apoptosis of activated human and rat HSCs by an unknown mechanism...
  9. Hagens W, Olinga P, Meijer D, Groothuis G, Beljaars L, Poelstra K. Gliotoxin non-selectively induces apoptosis in fibrotic and normal livers. Liver Int. 2006;26:232-9 pubmed
    ..Recently, it was shown that gliotoxin (GTX) induces apoptosis of HSC...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Puri A, Ahmad A, Panda B. Development of an HPTLC-based diagnostic method for invasive aspergillosis. Biomed Chromatogr. 2010;24:887-92 pubmed publisher
    ..high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for determination of gliotoxin in Aspergillus infected immunocompromised patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA)...
  2. Bruns S, Seidler M, Albrecht D, Salvenmoser S, Remme N, Hertweck C, et al. Functional genomic profiling of Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm reveals enhanced production of the mycotoxin gliotoxin. Proteomics. 2010;10:3097-107 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, proteins of the gliotoxin secondary metabolite gene cluster were induced in biofilm cultures...
  3. Hurne A, Chai C, Moerman K, Waring P. Influx of calcium through a redox-sensitive plasma membrane channel in thymocytes causes early necrotic cell death induced by the epipolythiodioxopiperazine toxins. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31631-8 pubmed
    b>Gliotoxin, a member of the epipolythiodioxopiperazine (ETP) class of toxins, induces both apoptotic and necrotic cell death in a concentration-dependent manner...
  4. Dhingra S, Andes D, Calvo A. VeA regulates conidiation, gliotoxin production, and protease activity in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Eukaryot Cell. 2012;11:1531-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our studies revealed that veA is a positive regulator in the production of gliotoxin, a secondary metabolite known to be a virulent factor in A. fumigatus...
  5. Murayama T, Amitani R, Ikegami Y, Nawada R, Lee W, Kuze F. Suppressive effects of Aspergillus fumigatus culture filtrates on human alveolar macrophages and polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Eur Respir J. 1996;9:293-300 pubmed
  6. Davis C, Carberry S, Schrettl M, Singh I, Stephens J, Barry S, et al. The role of glutathione S-transferase GliG in gliotoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus. Chem Biol. 2011;18:542-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Gliotoxin, a redox-active metabolite, is produced by the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, and its biosynthesis is directed by the gli gene cluster...
  7. Herfarth H, Brand K, Rath H, Rogler G, Scholmerich J, Falk W. Nuclear factor-kappa B activity and intestinal inflammation in dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice is suppressed by gliotoxin. Clin Exp Immunol. 2000;120:59-65 pubmed
    ..Here we examined the effects of gliotoxin, a fungal metabolite known to inhibit NF-kappaB activity, on cytokine production by a mouse cell system in vitro ..
  8. Vigushin D, Mirsaidi N, Brooke G, Sun C, Pace P, Inman L, et al. Gliotoxin is a dual inhibitor of farnesyltransferase and geranylgeranyltransferase I with antitumor activity against breast cancer in vivo. Med Oncol. 2004;21:21-30 pubmed
    b>Gliotoxin is a natural mycotoxin with immunosuppressive and antimicrobial activity...
  9. Choi H, Shim J, Kim J, Kang S, Kwon H. Discovery of gliotoxin as a new small molecule targeting thioredoxin redox system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;359:523-8 pubmed
    ..From high content screening of small molecules targeting the system, gliotoxin, a fungal metabolite, was identified as an active compound...
  10. Speth C, Kupfahl C, Pfaller K, Hagleitner M, Deutinger M, Wurzner R, et al. Gliotoxin as putative virulence factor and immunotherapeutic target in a cell culture model of cerebral aspergillosis. Mol Immunol. 2011;48:2122-9 pubmed publisher
    The mycotoxin gliotoxin is an important metabolite produced by Aspergillus fumigatus, but its precise role in the pathogenesis of cerebral aspergillosis is not yet determined...
  11. Gallagher L, Owens R, Dolan S, O Keeffe G, Schrettl M, Kavanagh K, et al. The Aspergillus fumigatus protein GliK protects against oxidative stress and is essential for gliotoxin biosynthesis. Eukaryot Cell. 2012;11:1226-38 pubmed publisher
    The function of a number of genes in the gliotoxin biosynthetic cluster (gli) in Aspergillus fumigatus remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that gliK deletion from two strains of A. fumigatus completely abolished gliotoxin biosynthesis...
  12. Bok J, Chung D, Balajee S, Marr K, Andes D, Nielsen K, et al. GliZ, a transcriptional regulator of gliotoxin biosynthesis, contributes to Aspergillus fumigatus virulence. Infect Immun. 2006;74:6761-8 pubmed
    b>Gliotoxin is a nonribosomal peptide produced by Aspergillus fumigatus. This compound has been proposed as an A. fumigatus virulence factor due to its cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic properties...
  13. Pena G, Pereyra C, Armando M, Chiacchiera S, Magnoli C, Orlando J, et al. Aspergillus fumigatus toxicity and gliotoxin levels in feedstuff for domestic animals and pets in Argentina. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2010;50:77-81 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate gliotoxin production by Aspergillus fumigatus strains isolated from feedstuff intended for domestic animals and pets, and to determine the amount of gliotoxin in these substrates.
  14. Ben Ami R, Lewis R, Leventakos K, Kontoyiannis D. Aspergillus fumigatus inhibits angiogenesis through the production of gliotoxin and other secondary metabolites. Blood. 2009;114:5393-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the global regulator of secondary metabolism, laeA, and to a lesser extent by deletion of gliP, which controls gliotoxin production. Moreover, pure gliotoxin potently inhibited angiogenesis in vitro in a dose-dependent manner...
  15. Kupfahl C, Geginat G, Hof H. Gliotoxin-mediated suppression of innate and adaptive immune functions directed against Listeria monocytogenes. Med Mycol. 2006;44:591-9 pubmed
    b>Gliotoxin is an immunosuppressive apoptogenic mycotoxin produced by a number of fungi including important human pathogens as Aspergillus fumigatus...
  16. Geissler A, Haun F, Frank D, Wieland K, Simon M, Idzko M, et al. Apoptosis induced by the fungal pathogen gliotoxin requires a triple phosphorylation of Bim by JNK. Cell Death Differ. 2013;20:1317-29 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported that gliotoxin (GT), the major virulence factor of the mold Aspergillus fumigatus causing invasive aspergillosis (IA) in immunocompromised patients, induces apoptosis in a Bak-dependent manner...
  17. Gardiner D, Waring P, Howlett B. The epipolythiodioxopiperazine (ETP) class of fungal toxins: distribution, mode of action, functions and biosynthesis. Microbiology. 2005;151:1021-32 pubmed
    Epipolythiodioxopiperazines (ETPs) are toxic secondary metabolites made only by fungi. The best-known ETP is gliotoxin, which appears to be a virulence factor associated with invasive aspergillosis of immunocompromised patients...
  18. Nishida S, Yoshida L, Shimoyama T, Nunoi H, Kobayashi T, Tsunawaki S. Fungal metabolite gliotoxin targets flavocytochrome b558 in the activation of the human neutrophil NADPH oxidase. Infect Immun. 2005;73:235-44 pubmed
    Fungal gliotoxin (GT) is a potent inhibitor of the O(2)(-)-generating NADPH oxidase of neutrophils...
  19. Nieminen S, Mäki Paakkanen J, Hirvonen M, Roponen M, von Wright A. Genotoxicity of gliotoxin, a secondary metabolite of Aspergillus fumigatus, in a battery of short-term test systems. Mutat Res. 2002;520:161-70 pubmed
    The genotoxic effects of gliotoxin, a known fungal secondary metabolite, were studied. Gliotoxin was purified from cultivation medium of Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from the indoor air of a moisture problem house...
  20. Bernardo P, Brasch N, Chai C, Waring P. A novel redox mechanism for the glutathione-dependent reversible uptake of a fungal toxin in cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:46549-55 pubmed
    The fungal metabolite gliotoxin is characterized by an internal disulfide bridge and can exist in either disulfide or dithiol forms...
  21. Waring P, Khan T, Sjaarda A. Apoptosis induced by gliotoxin is preceded by phosphorylation of histone H3 and enhanced sensitivity of chromatin to nuclease digestion. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:17929-36 pubmed
    The fungal toxin gliotoxin induces apoptotic cell death in a variety of cells. Apoptosis induced in thymocytes by gliotoxin is rapid, and DNA fragmentation is observable within 4 h treatment...
  22. Waring P, Beaver J. Gliotoxin and related epipolythiodioxopiperazines. Gen Pharmacol. 1996;27:1311-6 pubmed
    1. Gliotoxin belongs to the epipolythiodioxopiperazine class of secondary metabolites. These compounds show a diverse range of biological activity including antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral properties...
  23. Carberry S, Molloy E, Hammel S, O Keeffe G, Jones G, Kavanagh K, et al. Gliotoxin effects on fungal growth: mechanisms and exploitation. Fungal Genet Biol. 2012;49:302-12 pubmed publisher
    Although initially investigated for its antifungal properties, little is actually known about the effect of gliotoxin on Aspergillus fumigatus and other fungi. We have observed that exposure of A...
  24. Scharf D, Heinekamp T, Remme N, Hortschansky P, Brakhage A, Hertweck C. Biosynthesis and function of gliotoxin in Aspergillus fumigatus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;93:467-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Gliotoxin (GT) is the prototype of the epidithiodioxopiperazine (ETP)-type fungal toxins. GT plays a critical role in the pathobiology of Aspergillus fumigatus...
  25. Zhou X, Zhao A, Goping G, Hirszel P. Gliotoxin-induced cytotoxicity proceeds via apoptosis and is mediated by caspases and reactive oxygen species in LLC-PK1 cells. Toxicol Sci. 2000;54:194-202 pubmed
    Renal failure associated with aspergillosis is caused by pathogenic fungi. Gliotoxin is a toxic epipolythiodioxopiperazine metabolite produced by the pathogens...
  26. Wright M, Issa R, Smart D, Trim N, Murray G, Primrose J, et al. Gliotoxin stimulates the apoptosis of human and rat hepatic stellate cells and enhances the resolution of liver fibrosis in rats. Gastroenterology. 2001;121:685-98 pubmed
    ..Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a pivotal role in liver fibrosis and stimulating their apoptosis could be an effective treatment for liver fibrosis...
  27. Watanabe A, Kamei K, Sekine T, Waku M, Nishimura K, Miyaji M, et al. Effect of aeration on gliotoxin production by Aspergillus fumigatus in its culture filtrate. Mycopathologia. 2004;157:19-27 pubmed
    b>Gliotoxin, one of the mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus fumigatus, has various, potent bioactivities. However, it has not been considered to be a toxic (or virulence) factor because of its slow production...
  28. Fox E, Howlett B. Biosynthetic gene clusters for epipolythiodioxopiperazines in filamentous fungi. Mycol Res. 2008;112:162-9 pubmed publisher
    ..analyses have confirmed the role of such gene clusters in the biosynthesis of two ETPs, sirodesmin PL and gliotoxin. The creation of mutants unable to produce these ETPs has facilitated the assessment of these molecules as ..
  29. Jun C, Kim Y, Choi E, Kim M, Park B, Youn B, et al. Gliotoxin reduces the severity of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice: evidence of the connection between heme oxygenase-1 and the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway in vitro and in vivo. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006;12:619-29 pubmed
    b>Gliotoxin, a fungal metabolite, has been known to show strong immunosuppressive properties, although its mechanisms are not completely understood...
  30. Orr J, Leel V, Cameron G, Marek C, Haughton E, Elrick L, et al. Mechanism of action of the antifibrogenic compound gliotoxin in rat liver cells. Hepatology. 2004;40:232-42 pubmed
    b>Gliotoxin has been shown to promote a reversal of liver fibrosis in an animal model of the disease although its mechanism of action in the liver is poorly defined...
  31. Scharf D, Remme N, Habel A, Chankhamjon P, Scherlach K, Heinekamp T, et al. A dedicated glutathione S-transferase mediates carbon-sulfur bond formation in gliotoxin biosynthesis. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:12322-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Gliotoxin is a virulence factor of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus , the leading cause of invasive aspergillosis...
  32. Nagase T, Kawata S, Tamura S, Matsuda Y, Inui Y, Yamasaki E, et al. Manumycin and gliotoxin derivative KT7595 block Ras farnesylation and cell growth but do not disturb lamin farnesylation and localization in human tumour cells. Br J Cancer. 1997;76:1001-10 pubmed
    ..We have tested the effect of the FPTase inhibitors manumycin, an analogue of farnesyl diphosphate, and KT7595, a gliotoxin derivative, on Ras farnesylation, DNA synthesis and the anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of human ..
  33. Li X, Kim S, Nam K, Kang J, Choi H, Son B. A new antibacterial dioxopiperazine alkaloid related to gliotoxin from a marine isolate of the fungus Pseudallescheria. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2006;59:248-50 pubmed
    A new antibacterial dioxopiperazine, dehydroxybisdethiobis(methylthio)gliotoxin (1), and the previously described bisdethiobis(methylthio)gliotoxin (2) and gliotoxin (3), have been isolated from the broth of a marine-derived fungus of ..
  34. Domingo M, Colmenarejo C, Martinez Lostao L, Mullbacher A, Jarne C, Revillo M, et al. Bis(methyl)gliotoxin proves to be a more stable and reliable marker for invasive aspergillosis than gliotoxin and suitable for use in diagnosis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;73:57-64 pubmed publisher
    The virulence factor gliotoxin (GT) and its inactive derivative, bis(methylthio)gliotoxin (bmGT), are produced by pathogens of the genus Aspergillus...
  35. Paugam A, Creuzet C, Dupouy Camet J, Roisin P. In vitro effects of gliotoxin, a natural proteasome inhibitor, on the infectivity and proteolytic activity of Toxoplasma gondii. Parasitol Res. 2002;88:785-7 pubmed
    We examined the in vitro effect of increasing gliotoxin concentrations on the infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii for NIH-3T3 murine fibroblasts and on Toxoplasma chymotrypsin-like activity, which is specific to the proteasome...
  36. Ramirez Ortiz Z, Lee C, Wang J, Boon L, Specht C, Levitz S. A nonredundant role for plasmacytoid dendritic cells in host defense against the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;9:415-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Incubation with hyphae resulted in pDC cytotoxicity, partly due to fungal gliotoxin secretion...
  37. Sun Y, Takada K, Takemoto Y, Yoshida M, Nogi Y, Okada S, et al. Gliotoxin analogues from a marine-derived fungus, Penicillium sp., and their cytotoxic and histone methyltransferase inhibitory activities. J Nat Prod. 2012;75:111-4 pubmed publisher
    Seven gliotoxin-related compounds were isolated from the fungus Penicillium sp. strain JMF034, obtained from deep sea sediments of Suruga Bay, Japan...
  38. Pardo J, Urban C, Galvez E, Ekert P, Muller U, Kwon Chung J, et al. The mitochondrial protein Bak is pivotal for gliotoxin-induced apoptosis and a critical host factor of Aspergillus fumigatus virulence in mice. J Cell Biol. 2006;174:509-19 pubmed
    Aspergillus fumigatus infections cause high levels of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Gliotoxin (GT), a secondary metabolite, is cytotoxic for mammalian cells, but the molecular basis and biological relevance of ..
  39. Jain R, Valiante V, Remme N, Docimo T, Heinekamp T, Hertweck C, et al. The MAP kinase MpkA controls cell wall integrity, oxidative stress response, gliotoxin production and iron adaptation in Aspergillus fumigatus. Mol Microbiol. 2011;82:39-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides genes involved in cell wall remodelling, protection against ROS and secondary metabolism such as gliotoxin, pyomelanin and pseurotin A, also genes involved in siderophore biosynthesis were regulated by MpkA...
  40. Kupfahl C, Heinekamp T, Geginat G, Ruppert T, Härtl A, Hof H, et al. Deletion of the gliP gene of Aspergillus fumigatus results in loss of gliotoxin production but has no effect on virulence of the fungus in a low-dose mouse infection model. Mol Microbiol. 2006;62:292-302 pubmed
    b>Gliotoxin is a secondary metabolite produced by several fungi including the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus...
  41. Suen Y, Fung K, Lee C, Kong S. Gliotoxin induces apoptosis in cultured macrophages via production of reactive oxygen species and cytochrome c release without mitochondrial depolarization. Free Radic Res. 2001;35:1-10 pubmed
    The cytotoxicity and its underlying mechanisms induced by gliotoxin (GT), an immunosuppressive agent, in macrophages are poorly understood...
  42. Xiao P, Shin K, Wang T, Yu J. Aspergillus fumigatus flbB encodes two basic leucine zipper domain (bZIP) proteins required for proper asexual development and gliotoxin production. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:1711-23 pubmed publisher
    ..development in liquid submerged culture, altered expression of AfubrlA and AfuabaA, and blocked production of gliotoxin. While introduction of the wild-type (WT) AfuflbB allele fully complemented these defects, disruption of the ATG ..
  43. Upperman J, Potoka D, Zhang X, Wong K, Zamora R, Ford H. Mechanism of intestinal-derived fungal sepsis by gliotoxin, a fungal metabolite. J Pediatr Surg. 2003;38:966-70 pubmed
    Gut barrier dysfunction resulting from fungal overgrowth may be caused by the interaction of gliotoxin (GT), a fungal metabolite, with enterocytes...
  44. Pan X, Harday J. Electromicroscopic observations on gliotoxin-induced apoptosis of cancer cells in culture and human cancer xenografts in transplanted SCID mice. In Vivo. 2007;21:259-65 pubmed
    b>Gliotoxin belongs to a group of compounds produced by fungi, all of them having a bridged polysulfide piperazine ring in their chemical structure...
  45. Sugui J, Pardo J, Chang Y, M llbacher A, Zarember K, Galvez E, et al. Role of laeA in the Regulation of alb1, gliP, Conidial Morphology, and Virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:1552-61 pubmed publisher
    ..fumigatus strain AF293. laeA has also been reported to regulate the synthesis of secondary metabolites, such as gliotoxin. We compared the role of laeA in the regulation of conidial morphology and the expression of alb1 and gliP in ..
  46. Sugui J, Pardo J, Chang Y, Zarember K, Nardone G, Galvez E, et al. Gliotoxin is a virulence factor of Aspergillus fumigatus: gliP deletion attenuates virulence in mice immunosuppressed with hydrocortisone. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:1562-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Gliotoxin is an immunosuppressive mycotoxin long suspected to be a potential virulence factor of Aspergillus fumigatus...
  47. Tsunawaki S, Yoshida L, Nishida S, Kobayashi T, Shimoyama T. Fungal metabolite gliotoxin inhibits assembly of the human respiratory burst NADPH oxidase. Infect Immun. 2004;72:3373-82 pubmed
    ..In the present study, A. fumigatus-produced mycotoxins (fumagillin, gliotoxin [GT], and helvolic acid) are examined for their effects on the NADPH oxidase activity in human PMN...
  48. Bok J, Balajee S, Marr K, Andes D, Nielsen K, Frisvad J, et al. LaeA, a regulator of morphogenetic fungal virulence factors. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:1574-82 pubmed
    ..reduces virulence in a murine model; impaired virulence is associated with decreased levels of pulmonary gliotoxin and multiple changes in conidial and hyphal susceptibility to host phagocytes ex vivo...
  49. Lewis R, Wiederhold N, Chi J, Han X, Komanduri K, Kontoyiannis D, et al. Detection of gliotoxin in experimental and human aspergillosis. Infect Immun. 2005;73:635-7 pubmed
    b>Gliotoxin was measured in the lungs (mean, 3,976 +/- 1,662 ng/g of tissue) and sera (mean, 36.5 +/- 30.28 ng/ml) of mice with experimentally induced invasive aspergillosis (IA), and levels decreased with antifungal therapy...
  50. Stanzani M, Orciuolo E, Lewis R, Kontoyiannis D, Martins S, St John L, et al. Aspergillus fumigatus suppresses the human cellular immune response via gliotoxin-mediated apoptosis of monocytes. Blood. 2005;105:2258-65 pubmed
    ..Subsequently, we confirmed that gliotoxin, the most abundant mycotoxin produced by AF, was able to suppress functional T-cell responses following CMV or ..
  51. Aljofan M, Sganga M, Lo M, Rootes C, Porotto M, Meyer A, et al. Antiviral activity of gliotoxin, gentian violet and brilliant green against Nipah and Hendra virus in vitro. Virol J. 2009;6:187 pubmed publisher
    ..Lead compounds were then further characterised to determine the median efficacy (IC50), cytotoxicity (CC50) and the in vitro therapeutic index in live virus and pseudotype assay formats...
  52. Kwon Chung K, Sugui J. What do we know about the role of gliotoxin in the pathobiology of Aspergillus fumigatus?. Med Mycol. 2009;47 Suppl 1:S97-103 pubmed publisher
    b>Gliotoxin is a member of the epipolythiodioxopiperazine class of toxins and is both the major and the most potent toxin produced by Aspergillus fumigatus...
  53. Kupfahl C, Michalka A, Lass Fl rl C, Fischer G, Haase G, Ruppert T, et al. Gliotoxin production by clinical and environmental Aspergillus fumigatus strains. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008;298:319-27 pubmed publisher
    The mycotoxin gliotoxin is produced by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, including the important human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus...