cytochalasin d


Summary: A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.

Top Publications

  1. Yourek G, Hussain M, Mao J. Cytoskeletal changes of mesenchymal stem cells during differentiation. ASAIO J. 2007;53:219-28 pubmed
    ..Human MSCs were differentiated into chondrocytes and osteoblasts as per previous approaches. Cytochalasin D (CytD) was used to temporarily disrupt cytoskeleton in hMSCs, hMSC-chondrocytes (hMSC-Cys) and hMSC-..
  2. Małecki J, Bentke A, Ostrowska B, Laidler P. Cytochalasin D, LY294002 and olomoucine synergize in promoting death of melanoma cells through activation of caspase-3 and apoptosis. Melanoma Res. 2010;20:52-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested cell viability, terminal dUTP nick-end labeling and activation of caspase-3 upon exposure to cytochalasin D, LY294002 and olomoucine, added either alone or in various combinations...
  3. Khan A, Pickl Herk A, Gajdzik L, Marlovits T, Fuchs R, Blaas D. Human rhinovirus 14 enters rhabdomyosarcoma cells expressing icam-1 by a clathrin-, caveolin-, and flotillin-independent pathway. J Virol. 2010;84:3984-92 pubmed publisher
    ..entry was strongly sensitive to the Na(+)/H(+) ion exchange inhibitor amiloride and moderately sensitive to cytochalasin D. Thus, cellular uptake of HRV14 occurs via a pathway exhibiting some, but not all, characteristics of ..
  4. Raghu H, Sharma Walia N, Veettil M, Sadagopan S, Chandran B. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus utilizes an actin polymerization-dependent macropinocytic pathway to enter human dermal microvascular endothelial and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. J Virol. 2009;83:4895-911 pubmed publisher macropinocytosis inhibitors (EIPA [5-N-ethyl-N-isoproamiloride] and rottlerin [C(30)H(28)O(8)]) and by cytochalasin D, which affects actin polymerization...
  5. Haberzettl P, Duffin R, Kramer U, Höhr D, Schins R, Borm P, et al. Actin plays a crucial role in the phagocytosis and biological response to respirable quartz particles in macrophages. Arch Toxicol. 2007;81:459-70 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate an active involvement of the cytoskeleton in uptake of quartz particles and suggest a role of the actin framework and/or the particle uptake in DQ12-induced ROS generation and cytokine release. ..
  6. Shoji K, Ohashi K, Sampei K, Oikawa M, Mizuno K. Cytochalasin D acts as an inhibitor of the actin-cofilin interaction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;424:52-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, cytochalasin D (CytoD), a widely used inhibitor of actin dynamics, was found to act as an inhibitor of the G-actin-cofilin ..
  7. Tian Q, Pahlavan S, Oleinikow K, Jung J, Ruppenthal S, Scholz A, et al. Functional and morphological preservation of adult ventricular myocytes in culture by sub-micromolar cytochalasin D supplement. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012;52:113-24 pubmed publisher
    In cardiac myocytes, cytochalasin D (CytoD) was reported to act as an actin disruptor and mechanical uncoupler...
  8. Feng Z, Chen B, Tang S, Liao K, Chen W, Chan V. Effect of cytoskeleton inhibitors on deadhesion kinetics of HepG2 cells on biomimetic surface. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2010;75:67-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our biophysical approaches have been proven as a highly quantitative platform for elucidating the interfacial properties of adherent cells on biomimetic surfaces under cytoskeleton disruption. ..
  9. Buono C, Anzinger J, Amar M, Kruth H. Fluorescent pegylated nanoparticles demonstrate fluid-phase pinocytosis by macrophages in mouse atherosclerotic lesions. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:1373-81 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Nair U, Joel P, Wan Q, Lowey S, Rould M, Trybus K. Crystal structures of monomeric actin bound to cytochalasin D. J Mol Biol. 2008;384:848-64 pubmed publisher
    The fungal toxin cytochalasin D (CD) interferes with the normal dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton by binding to the barbed end of actin filaments...
  2. Ujihara Y, Miyazaki H, Wada S. Morphological study of fibroblasts treated with cytochalasin D and colchicine using a confocal laser scanning microscopy. J Physiol Sci. 2008;58:499-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Fibroblasts were treated with cytochalasin D or colchicine to disrupt the actin filaments or microtubules, respectively, and the structure and distribution ..
  3. Sugita T, Yoshikawa T, Mukai Y, Yamanada N, Imai S, Nagano K, et al. Comparative study on transduction and toxicity of protein transduction domains. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153:1143-52 pubmed publisher
    ..that the uptake of PTD-fluorescein conjugate was dose-dependently inhibited by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, cytochalasin D and amiloride, indicating that all four PTDs were internalized by the macropinocytotic pathway...
  4. Hubner W, McNerney G, Chen P, Dale B, Gordon R, Chuang F, et al. Quantitative 3D video microscopy of HIV transfer across T cell virological synapses. Science. 2009;323:1743-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Continuous time-lapse monitoring showed preferential infection through synapses. Thus, HIV dissemination may be enhanced by virological synapse-mediated cell adhesion coupled to viral endocytosis. ..
  5. Lovy Wheeler A, Cardenas L, Kunkel J, Hepler P. Differential organelle movement on the actin cytoskeleton in lily pollen tubes. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2007;64:217-32 pubmed
    ..The ER, which has been labeled with mGFP5-HDEL or cytochalasin D tetramethylrhodamine, displays an oscillatory motion in the pollen tube apex...
  6. Jog N, Rane M, Lominadze G, Luerman G, Ward R, McLeish K. The actin cytoskeleton regulates exocytosis of all neutrophil granule subsets. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;292:C1690-700 pubmed
    ..Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by latrunculin A and cytochalasin D induced a decrease in FMLP-stimulated CD35 expression after an initial increase...
  7. Fu D, Roufogalis B. Actin disruption inhibits endosomal traffic of P-glycoprotein-EGFP and resistance to daunorubicin accumulation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;292:C1543-52 pubmed
  8. Eswarappa S, Pareek V, Chakravortty D. Role of actin cytoskeleton in LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation and nitric oxide production in murine macrophages. Innate Immun. 2008;14:309-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Using murine macrophages, we show that disruption of actin cytoskeleton by either cytochalasin D (CytD) or latrunculin B (LanB) does not affect LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation and the expression of iNOS, a ..
  9. Noh M, Smith J, Huh Y, Sherley J. A resource for discovering specific and universal biomarkers for distributed stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22077 pubmed publisher
    ..Z, display unique asymmetric patterns of expression that have a high potential for universal and specific DSC identification. ..
  10. Huang F, Mei W, Li Y, Tan G, Dai H, Guo J, et al. The antitumour activities induced by pegylated liposomal cytochalasin D in murine models. Eur J Cancer. 2012;48:2260-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytochalasin D targets actin and is ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells. When cytochalasin D is used as a cytotoxic agent in cancer therapy, it causes significant side effects...
  11. Poulsen C, Vereb G, Geshi N, Schulz A. Inhibition of cytoplasmic streaming by cytochalasin D is superior to paraformaldehyde fixation for measuring FRET between fluorescent protein-tagged Golgi components. Cytometry A. 2013;83:830-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the actin inhibitor Cytochalasin D (CytD) is superior to PFA for immobilization of Golgi stacks in plant cells...
  12. Ponti A, Machacek M, Gupton S, Waterman Storer C, Danuser G. Two distinct actin networks drive the protrusion of migrating cells. Science. 2004;305:1782-6 pubmed
    ..Productive cell advance was a function of the second colocalized network, the lamella, where actomyosin contraction was integrated with substrate adhesion. ..
  13. Hayduk E, Lee K. Cytochalasin D can improve heterologous protein productivity in adherent Chinese hamster ovary cells. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005;90:354-64 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that an alteration of the actin cytoskeleton using cytochalasin D as a mimic for actin-capping protein could have a beneficial effect on heterologous protein secretion...
  14. Schwamborn J, Püschel A. The sequential activity of the GTPases Rap1B and Cdc42 determines neuronal polarity. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:923-9 pubmed
    ..Using GTPase mutants and RNA interference, we found that Rap1B is necessary and sufficient to initiate the development of axons upstream of Cdc42 and the Par complex. ..
  15. Audoly G, Popoff M, Gluschankof P. Involvement of a small GTP binding protein in HIV-1 release. Retrovirology. 2005;2:48 pubmed
  16. Corrêa G, Benchimol M. Giardia lamblia behavior under cytochalasins treatment. Parasitol Res. 2006;98:250-6 pubmed
    ..These findings are discussed. ..
  17. Elwell C, Engel J. Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells: a model system to study Chlamydia interaction with host cells. Cell Microbiol. 2005;7:725-39 pubmed
    ..As in mammalian cells, C. trachomatis entry was greatly reduced by heparin and cytochalasin D. Inclusions were formed in S2 cells, acquired Golgi-derived sphingolipids, and avoided phagolysosomal fusion...
  18. Kustermans G, El Benna J, Piette J, Legrand Poels S. Perturbation of actin dynamics induces NF-kappaB activation in myelomonocytic cells through an NADPH oxidase-dependent pathway. Biochem J. 2005;387:531-40 pubmed
    ..present study, we have shown that actin cytoskeleton disruption induced by actin-depolymerizing agents such as cytochalasin D and latrunculin B and actin-polymerizing compounds such as jasplakinolide induced NF-kappaB activation in ..
  19. Titushkin I, Cho M. Distinct membrane mechanical properties of human mesenchymal stem cells determined using laser optical tweezers. Biophys J. 2006;90:2582-91 pubmed
    ..We postulate that whereas fibroblasts use both the membrane rigidity and membrane-cytoskeleton association to regulate their membrane reservoir, hMSC cytoskeleton has only a minor impact on stem cell membrane mechanics. ..
  20. Sakai T. Cytochalasin D as the depressant of contraction for the optical monitoring of action potentials in isolated rat atrium. J Physiol Sci. 2006;56:385-8 pubmed
    We used cytochalasin D to reduce contraction-related optical signals by inhibiting muscle contraction for the optical monitoring of action potentials, using a voltage-sensitive dye in isolated rat atrium preparations...
  21. Rodríguez J, Gonzalez M, Ríos S, Cambiazo V. Cytoskeletal organization of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) changes during their osteogenic differentiation. J Cell Biochem. 2004;93:721-31 pubmed
    ..b>Cytochalasin D and nocodazole were used to alter reversibly the cytoskeleton dynamic...
  22. Lázaro Diéguez F, Jimenez N, Barth H, Koster A, Renau Piqueras J, Llopis J, et al. Actin filaments are involved in the maintenance of Golgi cisternae morphology and intra-Golgi pH. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2006;63:778-91 pubmed
    ..To this end, we have used toxins that depolymerize (cytochalasin D, latrunculin B, mycalolide B, and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin) or stabilize (jasplakinolide) filamentous ..
  23. Lehmann M, Sherer N, Marks C, Pypaert M, Mothes W. Actin- and myosin-driven movement of viruses along filopodia precedes their entry into cells. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:317-25 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal another example of viruses hijacking host machineries for efficient infection by using the inherent ability of filopodia to transport ligands to the cell body...
  24. von Delwig A, Hilkens C, Altmann D, Holmdahl R, Isaacs J, Harding C, et al. Inhibition of macropinocytosis blocks antigen presentation of type II collagen in vitro and in vivo in HLA-DR1 transgenic mice. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8:R93 pubmed
    ..Treatment of dendritic cells and macrophages with cytochalasin D or amiloride prevented the intracellular appearance of CII and blocked antigen presentation of CII259-273 to ..
  25. Lamprou I, Tsakas S, Theodorou G, Karakantza M, Lampropoulou M, Marmaras V. Uptake of LPS/E. coli/latex beads via distinct signalling pathways in medfly hemocytes: the role of MAP kinases activation and protein secretion. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1744:1-10 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of specific MAPK signalling pathways, with manumycin A, toxin A, cytochalasin D and latrunculin A, revealed activation of p38 via Ras/Rho/actin remodelling pathway and activation of JNK that ..
  26. Pica Mattoccia L, Valle C, Basso A, Troiani A, Vigorosi F, Liberti P, et al. Cytochalasin D abolishes the schistosomicidal activity of praziquantel. Exp Parasitol. 2007;115:344-51 pubmed
    ..channels in a number of different systems, we also pre-exposed schistosomes to the actin depolymerizing agent cytochalasin D. This treatment rendered the parasites completely refractory to the effects of very high praziquantel levels (..
  27. Plusa B, Hadjantonakis A, Gray D, Piotrowska Nitsche K, Jedrusik A, Papaioannou V, et al. The first cleavage of the mouse zygote predicts the blastocyst axis. Nature. 2005;434:391-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, the first cleavage contributes to breaking the symmetry of the embryo, generating blastomeres with different developmental characteristics. ..
  28. Young D, Choi Y, Engler A, Christman K. Stimulation of adipogenesis of adult adipose-derived stem cells using substrates that mimic the stiffness of adipose tissue. Biomaterials. 2013;34:8581-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data imply that as with other lineages, mechanical cues are capable of regulating adipogenesis in ASCs. ..
  29. Linden J, Maccani M, Laforce Nesbitt S, Bliss J. High efficiency opsonin-independent phagocytosis of Candida parapsilosis by human neutrophils. Med Mycol. 2010;48:355-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the interaction between neutrophils and Candida species is not uniform and may partially account for differences observed in the epidemiology and natural history of infections caused by these species. ..
  30. Roy S, Thacher T, Silacci P, Stergiopulos N. Arterial biomechanics after destruction of cytoskeleton by Cytochalasin D. J Biomech. 2009;42:2562-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effects of cytoskeleton destruction, after administration of Cytochalasin D, on the biomechanical properties of porcine common carotids...
  31. Kölsch A, Windoffer R, Leube R. Actin-dependent dynamics of keratin filament precursors. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2009;66:976-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism allows extension of the KF network toward the leading edge in migrating cells and may be of relevance for tissue development and regeneration. ..
  32. Pelling A, Veraitch F, Chu C, Mason C, Horton M. Mechanical dynamics of single cells during early apoptosis. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2009;66:409-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, the consequences of mechanical disregulation during apoptosis may be a contributing factor to several human pathologies through the poorly timed release of dead cells and cell debris. ..
  33. Schulze C, Müller K, KAS J, Gerdelmann J. Compaction of cell shape occurs before decrease of elasticity in CHO-K1 cells treated with actin cytoskeleton disrupting drug cytochalasin D. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2009;66:193-201 pubmed publisher
    ..We treated CHO-K1 cells with different concentrations of the actin cytoskeleton disrupting drug cytochalasin D. Then investigating the cells' elastic behaviour by scanning force microscopy-based rheology we confirmed for ..
  34. Kaushansky A, Rezakhani N, Mann H, Kappe S. Development of a quantitative flow cytometry-based assay to assess infection by Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2012;183:100-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This methodology will aid in assessing functional antibody responses to vaccination and novel drugs that prevent mosquito-to-man transmission of malaria...
  35. Kim S, Kang J, Yang M. Fucoidan directly regulates the chemotaxis of canine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells by activating F-actin polymerization. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013;151:124-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased chemotactic activity of fucoidan-treated PMNs was suppressed by cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of F-actin polymerization...
  36. Shibasaki M, Mizuno K, Ohkuma S. [Mechanism of withdrawal syndrome in alcohol dependence]. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2011;46:413-23 pubmed preference was enhanced, which was blocked by the treatment with an actin polymerization inhibitor, cytochalasin D, and anactin depolymerization inhibitor, phalloidin, during 3 days after ethanol withdrawal...
  37. Gilbert S, Loranger A, Lavoie J, Marceau N. Cytoskeleton keratin regulation of FasR signaling through modulation of actin/ezrin interplay at lipid rafts in hepatocytes. Apoptosis. 2012;17:880-94 pubmed publisher
  38. Wang Y, Teng H, Huang Z. Intrinsic migratory properties of cultured Schwann cells based on single-cell migration assay. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51824 pubmed publisher
    ..Local disruption of F-actin polymerization at leading front by a Cytochalasin D or Latrunculin A gradient induced collapse of leading front, and then inhibited soma translocation...
  39. Gao M, Wu S, Ji J, Zhang J, Liu Q, Yue Y, et al. The influence of actin depolymerization induced by Cytochalasin D and mechanical stretch on interleukin-8 expression and JNK phosphorylation levels in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:43 pubmed publisher
    This study explores the role of actin cytoskeleton depolymerization induced by Cytochalasin D and mechanical stretch on the interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation levels in human retinal pigment ..
  40. Pad nyi R, Xiong Y, Antalffy G, L r K, P szty K, Strehler E, et al. Apical scaffolding protein NHERF2 modulates the localization of alternatively spliced plasma membrane Ca2+ pump 2B variants in polarized epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:31704-12 pubmed publisher with the actin-binding protein ezrin even after disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by cytochalasin D or latrunculin B...
  41. Mantzur L, Joels G, Lamprecht R. Actin polymerization in lateral amygdala is essential for fear memory formation. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2009;91:85-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Microinfusion of cytochalasin D, an actin polymerization inhibitor, into rat LA immediately before fear conditioning training impaired the ..
  42. Takahashi N, Kobayashi M, Takaki T, Takano K, Miyata M, Okamatsu Y, et al. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide stimulates collagen phagocytosis by human gingival fibroblasts. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2008;23:259-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the PI3K/Akt signaling is thought to partially mediate the LPS/LBP-stimulated collagen phagocytic pathway, which may be dependent on actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. ..
  43. Ondrej V, Lukasova E, Falk M, Kozubek S. The role of actin and microtubule networks in plasmid DNA intracellular trafficking. Acta Biochim Pol. 2007;54:657-63 pubmed
    ..Our findings show an indispensable but different role of both types of cytoskeleton, actin and microtubular, in the processes of gene delivery. ..
  44. Walsh C. The role of actin, actomyosin and microtubules in defining cell shape during the differentiation of Naegleria amebae into flagellates. Eur J Cell Biol. 2007;86:85-98 pubmed
    ..Treatment of flagellates with cytochalasin D produced a rapid loss of flagellate shape and the appearance of phalloidin staining while latrunculin A ..
  45. Foissner I, Menzel D, Wasteneys G. Microtubule-dependent motility and orientation of the cortical endoplasmic reticulum in elongating characean internodal cells. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2009;66:142-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We show further that the ER has an inherent, NEM-sensitive dynamics which can be altered via interaction with the cytoskeleton and that tubule formation and fusion events are cytoskeleton-independent...
  46. Jensen N, Gerth K, Grotjohann T, Kapp D, Keck M, Niehaus K. Establishment of a high content assay for the identification and characterisation of bioactivities in crude bacterial extracts that interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle. J Biotechnol. 2009;140:124-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with the reference substances blasticidin, colchicine, paclitaxel, and cytochalasin D induced changes in ploidy and vitality, which were characteristic for the respective bioactive substance...
  47. Chaidee A, Foissner I, Pfeiffer W. Cell-specific association of heat shock-induced proton flux with actin ring formation in Chenopodium cells: comparison of auto- and heterotroph cultures. Protoplasma. 2008;234:33-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytoskeleton inhibitors latrunculin B, cytochalasin D and 2,3-butanedione monoxime inhibited ring formation but not alkalinization...
  48. Mertl M, Daniel H, Kottra G. Substrate-induced changes in the density of peptide transporter PEPT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C1332-43 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cytochalasin D inhibited all changes evoked by either dipeptide or PKC stimulation, whereas the PKC-selective inhibitor ..
  49. Vanoverberghe K, Lehen kyi V, Thebault S, Raphaël M, Vanden Abeele F, Slomianny C, et al. Cytoskeleton reorganization as an alternative mechanism of store-operated calcium entry control in neuroendocrine-differentiated cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45615 pubmed publisher
    ..The disruption of F-actin polymerization by Cytochalasin D in NED cells restored SOCE, while the induction of F-actin polymerization by jasplakinolide or calyculin A ..
  50. Zhong W, Tian K, Zheng X, Li L, Zhang W, Wang S, et al. Mesenchymal stem cell and chondrocyte fates in a multishear microdevice are regulated by Yes-associated protein. Stem Cells Dev. 2013;22:2083-93 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cytochalasin D not only repressed nuclear YAP accumulation in the flow state, but also abrogated flow-induced effects on MSC ..
  51. Wang Z, Wann A, Thompson C, Hassen A, Wang W, Knight M. IFT88 influences chondrocyte actin organization and biomechanics. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2016;24:544-54 pubmed publisher
    ..acto-myosin stress fibre organisation relative to wild-type (WT) cells in monolayer and an altered response to cytochalasin D. Rounded IFT88(orpk) cells cultured in suspension exhibited reduced cortical actin expression with reduced ..
  52. Srisawang P, Chatsudthipong A, Chatsudthipong V. Modulation of succinate transport in Hep G2 cell line by PKC. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1768:1378-88 pubmed
    ..The inhibition by PMA was partially prevented by cytochalasin D, suggesting that PKC reduces the hNaDC-3 activity, at least in part, by increased endocytosis...
  53. Gerecht S, Bettinger C, Zhang Z, Borenstein J, Vunjak Novakovic G, Langer R. The effect of actin disrupting agents on contact guidance of human embryonic stem cells. Biomaterials. 2007;28:4068-77 pubmed
    ..These findings further demonstrate the importance of interplay between cytoskeleton and substrate interactions as a key modulator of morphological and proliferative cellular response in hESCs on nanotopography. ..