cytochalasin b


Summary: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.

Top Publications

  1. Hwang J, Yi M, Zhang X, Xu Y, Jung J, Kim D. Cytochalasin B induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells. Oncol Rep. 2013;30:1929-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytochalasin B (CB) is a cell-permeable mycotoxin. It inhibits cytoplasmic division by blocking the formation of contractile microfilaments, it inhibits cell movement and induces nuclear extrusion...
  2. Beebe L, McIlfatrick S, Nottle M. Cytochalasin B and trichostatin a treatment postactivation improves in vitro development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. Cloning Stem Cells. 2009;11:477-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the effect of two postactivation treatments, cytochalasin B (CB) and trichostatin A (TSA), on the in vitro development of porcine SCNT embryos...
  3. Yi Y, Park C. Parthenogenetic development of porcine oocytes treated by ethanol, cycloheximide, cytochalasin B and 6-dimethylaminopurine. Anim Reprod Sci. 2005;86:297-304 pubmed
    ..calcium elevating agents, and a sequential combination of ethanol (8%), cycloheximide (CHX, 10 microg/ml), cytochalasin B (CCB, 7...
  4. Canel N, Bevacqua R, Fernandez Martin R, Salamone D. Activation with ionomycin followed by dehydroleucodine and cytochalasin B for the production of parthenogenetic and cloned bovine embryos. Cell Reprogram. 2010;12:491-9 pubmed publisher
    ..5 microM Ionomycin (Io) and exposed for 3 h to 1 or 5 microM DhL alone (Io-Dhl1 or Io-DhL5) or combined with Cytochalasin B (Io-DhL1/CB; Io-DhL5/CB). Control groups were Io (Io), Io followed by 1...
  5. Westphal G, Asgari S, Schulz T, Bünger J, Muller M, Hallier E. Thimerosal induces micronuclei in the cytochalasin B block micronucleus test with human lymphocytes. Arch Toxicol. 2003;77:50-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we reinvestigated thimerosal in the cytochalasin B block micronucleus test...
  6. Liu X, Huang H, Wang W, Wang J, Sachs F, Niu W. Stretch-activated potassium channels in hypotonically induced blebs of atrial myocytes. J Membr Biol. 2008;226:17-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We recorded from blebs that have minimal cytoskeleton and cells treated with cytochalasin B (cyto-B) to disrupt filamentous actin...
  7. Jiménez Trigos E, Naturil Alfonso C, Vicente J, Marco Jimenez F. Post-warming competence of in vivo matured rabbit oocytes treated with cytoskeletal stabilization (Taxol) and cytoskeletal relaxant (Cytochalasin B) before vitrification. Reprod Domest Anim. 2013;48:15-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Taxol and Cytochalasin B on the spindle, chromosome configuration and development to blastocyst stage after parthenogenesis activation of in vivo matured rabbit oocytes after ..
  8. Banville N, Fallon J, McLoughlin K, Kavanagh K. Disruption of haemocyte function by exposure to cytochalasin b or nocodazole increases the susceptibility of Galleria mellonella larvae to infection. Microbes Infect. 2011;13:1191-8 pubmed publisher
    Administration of non-toxic concentrations (10 ?M) of cytochalasin b and nocodazole to larvae of Galleria mellonella increased their susceptibility to infection by the yeast Candida albicans...
  9. Liu J, Li L, Du S, Bai X, Zhang H, Tang S, et al. Effects of interval between fusion and activation, cytochalasin B treatment, and number of transferred embryos, on cloning efficiency in goats. Theriogenology. 2011;76:1076-83 pubmed publisher
    ..transfer (SCNT) in goats, we evaluated the effects of the interval between fusion and activation (1 to 5 h), cytochalasin B (CB) treatment after electrofusion, and the number of transferred embryos on the in vivo and in vitro ..

More Information


  1. Bai C, Liu H, Liu Y, Wu X, Cheng L, Bou S, et al. Diploid oocyte formation and tetraploid embryo development induced by cytochalasin B in bovine. Cell Reprogram. 2011;13:37-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to investigate the effects of cytochalasin B (CB) on bovine oocyte meiosis, and to induce the formation of diploid oocytes and tetraploid embryos...
  2. Bylund J, Björstad A, Granfeldt D, Karlsson A, Woschnagg C, Dahlgren C. Reactivation of formyl peptide receptors triggers the neutrophil NADPH-oxidase but not a transient rise in intracellular calcium. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:30578-86 pubmed
    ..formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) can be reactivated/resensitized by the cytoskeleton-disrupting drug cytochalasin B. Such cytoskeleton-dependent receptor reactivation occurs also with the closely related receptors FPR-like-1 ..
  3. Bylund J, Pellmé S, Fu H, Mellqvist U, Hellstrand K, Karlsson A, et al. Cytochalasin B triggers a novel pertussis toxin sensitive pathway in TNF-alpha primed neutrophils. BMC Cell Biol. 2004;5:21 pubmed
    b>Cytochalasin B does not directly activate the oxygen-radical-producing NADPH oxidase activity of neutrophils but transfers desensitized G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) into an active signaling state by uncoupling GCPR from the ..
  4. Chao J, Liu H. The blockage of survivin and securin expression increases the cytochalasin B-induced cell death and growth inhibition in human cancer cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2006;69:154-64 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the roles of survivin and securin on cytochalasin B, a cytokinesis blocker mediating the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition in human cancer cells...
  5. Ma T, Hoa N, Tran D, Bui V, Pedram A, Mills S, et al. Cytochalasin B modulation of Caco-2 tight junction barrier: role of myosin light chain kinase. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000;279:G875-85 pubmed
    ..b>Cytochalasin B (Cyto B) (5 microg/ml) produced an increase in Caco-2 MLCK activity, which correlated with the increase in ..
  6. Nowak D. Hydrogen peroxide release from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes measured with horseradish peroxidase and o-dianisidine. Effect of various stimulators and cytochalasin B. Biomed Biochim Acta. 1990;49:353-62 pubmed
    ..release by PMNL, the dependence of H2O2 release on cell number, the agonist concentration and the presence of cytochalasin B (4.8 micrograms/ml) were studied. The maximal PMNL H2O2 response was found for PMA at 10 ng/ml...
  7. Tsai M, Frank R, Waugh R. Passive mechanical behavior of human neutrophils: effect of cytochalasin B. Biophys J. 1994;66:2166-72 pubmed
    ..The reagent cytochalasin B (CTB) was used to disrupt the F-actin structure, and the neutrophil cortical tension and cytoplasmic viscosity ..
  8. Andreassen P, Lohez O, Lacroix F, Margolis R. Tetraploid state induces p53-dependent arrest of nontransformed mammalian cells in G1. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:1315-28 pubmed
    ..As such, the tetraploidy checkpoint may be a critical activity of p53 in its role of ensuring genomic integrity. ..
  9. Diaz Ricart M, Arderiu G, Estebanell E, Perez Pujol S, Lozano M, White J, et al. Inhibition of cytoskeletal assembly by cytochalasin B prevents signaling through tyrosine phosphorylation and secretion triggered by collagen but not by thrombin. Am J Pathol. 2002;160:329-37 pubmed
    ..of procoagulant activity, and tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins, in both the absence and the presence of cytochalasin B. Activation of platelets with collagen and thrombin induced morphological changes and increased the expression ..
  10. Dobrinsky J, Pursel V, Long C, Johnson L. Birth of piglets after transfer of embryos cryopreserved by cytoskeletal stabilization and vitrification. Biol Reprod. 2000;62:564-70 pubmed
    ..After transfer, vitrified embryos can produce live, healthy piglets that grow normally and when mature are of excellent fecundity. ..
  11. Minissi S, Gustavino B, Degrassi F, Tanzarella C, Rizzoni M. Effect of cytochalasin B on the induction of chromosome missegregation by colchicine at low concentrations in human lymphocytes. Mutagenesis. 1999;14:43-9 pubmed
    The aim of the present work was to investigate the possible interference of cytochalasin B (cyt B) with low concentration treatment with colchicine in the induction of chromosome/chromatid loss and micronuclei in human lymphocytes ..
  12. Sobhon P, Apinhasmit W. Opisthorchis viverrini: the effects of colchicine and cytochalasin B on the adult tegument. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1996;27:312-8 pubmed
    The roles of the tegumental cytoskeleton were tested by treating adult flukes with colchicine and cytochalasin B. Following a short incubation period (10-20 minutes), colchicine disrupted microtubules in the tegumental cells' processes ..
  13. McDonald T, Walmsley A, Henderson P. Asparagine 394 in putative helix 11 of the galactose-H+ symport protein (GalP) from Escherichia coli is associated with the internal binding site for cytochalasin B and sugar. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:15189-99 pubmed
    ..protein, GLUT1, and both contain a highly conserved Asn residue in predicted helix 11 that is different in a cytochalasin B-resistant member of this sugar transport family (XylE)...
  14. Martineau S, Andreassen P, Margolis R. Delay of HeLa cell cleavage into interphase using dihydrocytochalasin B: retention of a postmitotic spindle and telophase disc correlates with synchronous cleavage recovery. J Cell Biol. 1995;131:191-205 pubmed
    ..The protocol we describe should now enable development of a model system for the study of mammalian cell cleavage as a synchronous event independent of mitosis. ..
  15. Opp D, Wafula B, Lim J, Huang E, Lo J, Lo C. Use of electric cell-substrate impedance sensing to assess in vitro cytotoxicity. Biosens Bioelectron. 2009;24:2625-9 pubmed publisher
    ..sensing (ECIS) to evaluate dose-dependent responses of human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to cytochalasin B. To detect subtle changes in cell morphology, the frequency-dependent impedance data of the cell monolayer ..
  16. Wakata A, Matsuoka A, Yamakage K, Yoshida J, Kubo K, Kobayashi K, et al. SFTG international collaborative study on in vitro micronucleus test IV. Using CHL cells. Mutat Res. 2006;607:88-124 pubmed
    ..protocol on CHL cells, short and long treatment periods followed by various recovery times, with or without cytochalasin B, were compared...
  17. Chen S, Lee T, Lien Y, Tsai Y, Chang L, Yang Y. Microsuction of blastocoelic fluid before vitrification increased survival and pregnancy of mouse expanded blastocysts, but pretreatment with the cytoskeletal stabilizer did not increase blastocyst survival. Fertil Steril. 2005;84 Suppl 2:1156-62 pubmed
    ..In experiment 3, cytochalasin B (CCB) was used to treat embryos during vitrification...
  18. Rodriguez Enriquez S, Marin Hernandez A, Gallardo Pérez J, Moreno Sanchez R. Kinetics of transport and phosphorylation of glucose in cancer cells. J Cell Physiol. 2009;221:552-9 pubmed publisher
    ..7 and 9.3 +/- 3 mM for hepatoma and HeLa cells, respectively. GLUT activity was partially inhibited by cytochalasin B (IC(50) = 0.44 +/- 0.1; K(i) = 0.3 +/- 0.1 microM) and phloretin (IC(50) = 8...
  19. Haidle A, Myers A. An enantioselective, modular, and general route to the cytochalasins: synthesis of L-696,474 and cytochalasin B. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:12048-53 pubmed
    ..We illustrate the route with the synthesis of the 14-membered macrolactone cytochalasin B (1, an inhibitor of the formation of actin filaments) and the 11-membered macrocarbocyclic cytochalasin L-696,..
  20. Scarfi S, Magnone M, Ferraris C, Pozzolini M, Benvenuto F, Benatti U, et al. Ascorbic acid pre-treated quartz stimulates TNF-alpha release in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages through ROS production and membrane lipid peroxidation. Respir Res. 2009;10:25 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together these data suggest that an impairment of pulmonary macrophage phagocytosis, i.e. in the case of alcoholic subjects, could potentiate lung disease in silica-exposed individuals. ..
  21. Robichaud T, Appleyard A, Herbert R, Henderson P, Carruthers A. Determinants of ligand binding affinity and cooperativity at the GLUT1 endofacial site. Biochemistry. 2011;50:3137-48 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytochalasin B (CB) and forskolin (FSK) inhibit GLUT1-mediated sugar transport in red cells by binding at or close to the GLUT1 endofacial sugar binding site...
  22. Nakao H, Harada T, Nakao K, Kiyonari H, Inoue K, Furuta Y, et al. A possible aid in targeted insertion of large DNA elements by CRISPR/Cas in mouse zygotes. Genesis. 2016;54:65-77 pubmed publisher
  23. Drew L, Wood J, Cesare P. Distinct mechanosensitive properties of capsaicin-sensitive and -insensitive sensory neurons. J Neurosci. 2002;22:RC228 pubmed
    ..Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by acute application of 10 microm cytochalasin B inhibited currents much more effectively in capsaicin-insensitive (61%) than capsaicin-sensitive neurons (20%)...
  24. Bailey C, Crystal R, Leopold P. Association of adenovirus with the microtubule organizing center. J Virol. 2003;77:13275-87 pubmed the microtubule-depolymerizing agent nocodazole, but not to the microfilament-depolymerizing agent cytochalasin B, indicating that intact microtubules were required to maintain the localization with the MTOC...
  25. Zalacain M, Sierrasesumaga L, Patino A. [The cytogenetic assay as a measure of genetic instability induced by genotoxic agents]. An Sist Sanit Navar. 2005;28:227-36 pubmed
    ..The micronuclei assay is considered a practical, universally validated and technically feasible protocol which is useful to evaluate the genetic instability induced by genotoxic agents. ..
  26. Gravett C, Theron A, Steel H, Tintinger G, Cockeran R, Feldman C, et al. Interactive inhibitory effects of formoterol and montelukast on activated human neutrophils. Eur Respir J. 2010;36:1417-24 pubmed publisher
    ..with the chemoattractant N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP) (1 ?M) in combination with cytochalasin B (CB; 3 ?M)...
  27. Sánchez Chávez G, Peña Rangel M, Riesgo Escovar J, Martinez Martinez A, Salceda R. Insulin stimulated-glucose transporter Glut 4 is expressed in the retina. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52959 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of Glut 4 was not modified in retinas of a type 1 diabetic rat model. To our knowledge, our results provide the first evidence of Glut4 expression in the retina, suggesting it as an insulin- responsive tissue. ..
  28. Uma Mahesh Y, Rao B, Katari V, Komjeti S, Christo D, Lakshmikantan U, et al. Cell cycle synchronization of bison (Bos gaurus) fibroblasts derived from ear piece collected post-mortem. Reprod Domest Anim. 2012;47:799-805 pubmed publisher
    ..5%). In conclusion, this study shows that cells subjected to serum starvation for 24-48 h or confluent monolayer, or cycling cells treated with 1.0% DMSO or 2.0 mm NaBu for 24 h showed best synchronization in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle. ..
  29. Roskens H, Erlandsen S. Inhibition of in vitro attachment of Giardia trophozoites by mucin. J Parasitol. 2002;88:869-73 pubmed
    ..cochicine and nocodazole, were ineffective in blocking attachment, although the actin-disrupting agent cytochalasin B produced significant inhibition of attachment...
  30. Schäfer J, Bachtler J, Engling A, Little J, Weber K, Wenz F. Suppression of apoptosis and clonogenic survival in irradiated human lymphoblasts with different TP53 status. Radiat Res. 2002;158:699-706 pubmed
    ..The cytochalasin B micronucleus assay revealed identical levels of residual damage in the first postirradiation mitosis of these ..
  31. Mitsui Saito M, Ohkubo S, Obara Y, Yanagisawa T, Kobayashi J, Ohizumi Y, et al. Theonezolide A, a novel marine macrolide, induces drastic shape change in rabbit platelets by reorganization of microtubules. Thromb Res. 2002;108:133-8 pubmed
    ..change was inhibited by a microtubule-stabilizing agent, taxol, but not by an actin-depolymerizing agent, cytochalasin B. In contrast, thrombin-induced shape change was inhibited by cytochalasin B but not by taxol...
  32. Wei M, Ma W, Song Y, Mao X, Li L, Zheng W. [Screening differentially expressed genes in denucleated K562 cells with restriction display technique]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2006;26:162-5 pubmed
    To screen differentially expressed genes in cytochalasin B (CB)-induced denucleated K562 cells by restriction display (RD) technique. The total RNA was isolated and purified from K562 cells before and after CB (10 mug/ml) treatment...
  33. Aardema M, Snyder R, Spicer C, Divi K, Morita T, Mauthe R, et al. SFTG international collaborative study on in vitro micronucleus test III. Using CHO cells. Mutat Res. 2006;607:61-87 pubmed
    ..following a variety of different protocols (short and long exposures, varying recovery times, with and without cytochalasin B) in order to help determine a standard protocol for routine testing in Chinese hamster ovary cells...
  34. Barros L, Bittner C, Loaiza A, Ruminot I, Larenas V, Moldenhauer H, et al. Kinetic validation of 6-NBDG as a probe for the glucose transporter GLUT1 in astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2009;109 Suppl 1:94-100 pubmed publisher
    ..The high binding affinity of 6-NBDG also explains why cytochalasin B is less effective at inhibiting 6-NBDG uptake than at inhibiting glucose uptake...
  35. Mace O, Schindler M, Patel S. The regulation of K- and L-cell activity by GLUT2 and the calcium-sensing receptor CasR in rat small intestine. J Physiol. 2012;590:2917-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The response was completely abolished in the presence of the GLUT2 inhibitors phloretin or cytochalasin B. Given that GLUT2 modified gut peptide secretion stimulated by glucose, we investigated whether it was ..
  36. Brown S, Georgatos M, Reifel C, Song J, Shin S, Hong M. Recycling processes of cellular ascorbate generate oxidative stress in pancreatic tissues in in vitro system. Endocrine. 2002;18:91-6 pubmed
    ..The elevations in TBARS concentrations were blocked by cytochalasin B, a GLUT inhibitor. To confirm further the prooxidative action, changes in glutathione content were quantified...
  37. Correa L, Thomas A, Meyers S. The macaque sperm actin cytoskeleton reorganizes in response to osmotic stress and contributes to morphological defects and decreased motility. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:942-53 pubmed
    ..b>Cytochalasin b treatment also resulted in curled and looped tails, a phenomenon of hyposmotic stress, and CB and CD caused ..
  38. Somfai T, Dinnyes A, Sage D, Marosán M, Carnwath J, Ozawa M, et al. Development to the blastocyst stage of parthenogenetically activated in vitro matured porcine oocytes after solid surface vitrification (SSV). Theriogenology. 2006;66:415-22 pubmed
    ..Cumulus-free IVM porcine oocytes were subjected either to SSV or SSV combined with a cytochalasin B (CB) pre-treatment (SSV+CB) or all steps of SSV but without cooling (toxicity control=TC; toxicity control ..
  39. Tso S, Taghon G. Protozoan grazing increases mineralization of naphthalene in marine sediment. Microb Ecol. 2006;51:460-9 pubmed
    ..times greater in treatments with actively grazing protozoa than in treatments containing the grazing inhibitor cytochalasin B. Control experiments confirmed that the grazing inhibitor was not toxic to ciliates but did prevent them from ..
  40. Fenech M. In vitro micronucleus technique to predict chemosensitivity. Methods Mol Med. 2005;111:3-32 pubmed
    ..The basic principles and methods (including detailed scoring criteria for all the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity end points) of the CBMN assay are described and areas for future development identified. ..
  41. Huang Y, Hwang T, Chang C, Yang Y, Shen C, Liao W, et al. Anti-inflammatory flavonoids from the rhizomes of Helminthostachys zeylanica. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:1273-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, and 11 showed inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (FMLP/CB).
  42. Prager Khoutorsky M, Spira M. Neurite retraction and regrowth regulated by membrane retrieval, membrane supply, and actin dynamics. Brain Res. 2009;1251:65-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The actin-perturbing drugs cytochalasin B, latrunculin A, or jasplakinolide block constitutive membrane retrieval...
  43. Galat V, Zhou Y, Taborn G, Garton R, Iannaccone P. Overcoming MIII arrest from spontaneous activation in cultured rat oocytes. Cloning Stem Cells. 2007;9:303-14 pubmed
    ..PBII extrusion was achieved by affecting microtubules with demecolcine or nocodazole or actin filaments with cytochalasin B (CB) and cytochalasin D (CD)...
  44. Meng Q, Wu X, Bunch T, White K, Sessions B, Davies C, et al. Enucleation of demecolcine-treated bovine oocytes in cytochalasin-free medium: mechanism investigation and practical improvement. Cell Reprogram. 2011;13:411-8 pubmed publisher
    ..we investigated the microtubule and microfilament alterations in bovine oocytes after demecolcine and/or cytochalasin B (CB) treatments by immunocytochemical staining...
  45. Knowles M, Guenza M, Capaldi R, Marcus A. Cytoskeletal-assisted dynamics of the mitochondrial reticulum in living cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:14772-7 pubmed
    ..This study quantitatively characterizes organelle dynamics in terms of collective cytoskeletal interactions in living cells. ..
  46. Sauter E, Buckwalter J, McKinley T, Martin J. Cytoskeletal dissolution blocks oxidant release and cell death in injured cartilage. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:593-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this we investigated the effects of agents that promote the dissolution of microfilaments (cytochalasin B) or microtubules (nocodazole) on oxidant production and chondrocyte death following impact injury...
  47. Tano T, Okamoto M, Oshikawa T, Ahmed S, Sato M. [Analysis of the immuno-activation mechanism of OK-432--phagocytosis, release of active components and TLR4 signaling]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2004;31:1767-9 pubmed
    ..OK-432-induced cytokine production by dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages was significantly inhibited by cytochalasin B, a phagocytosis inhibitor...
  48. Guardia Clausi M, Paez P, Campagnoni A, Pasquini L, Pasquini J. Intranasal administration of aTf protects and repairs the neonatal white matter after a cerebral hypoxic-ischemic event. Glia. 2012;60:1540-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data suggest that iN administration of aTf has the potential to be used for clinical treatment to protect myelin and to induce remyelination in demyelinating hypoxic-ischemic events in the neonatal brain. ..
  49. Liaw C, Lin Y, Lin Y, Chen C, Hwang T, Shen Y. Four new briarane diterpenoids from Taiwanese gorgonian Junceella fragilis. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:2042-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In the anti-inflammatory test, compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate inhibition on superoxide anion generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to formylmethionylleucyl-phenylalanine/dihydrocytochalasin B (fMLP/CB). ..
  50. Rahat M, Marom B, Bitterman H, Weiss Cerem L, Kinarty A, Lahat N. Hypoxia reduces the output of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in monocytes by inhibiting its secretion and elevating membranal association. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;79:706-18 pubmed
    ..Thus, hypoxia post-translationally reduced the secreted amounts of proMMP-9 by using two mutually nonexclusive mechanisms: mostly, inhibition of cellular trafficking and to a lesser extent, attachment to the membrane. ..
  51. Bogliolo L, Ariu F, Fois S, Rosati I, Zedda M, Leoni G, et al. Morphological and biochemical analysis of immature ovine oocytes vitrified with or without cumulus cells. Theriogenology. 2007;68:1138-49 pubmed
    ..cells; (ii) the viability and functional status of cumulus cells after cryopreservation; (iii) the effect of cytochalasin B treatment before vitrification; (iv) chromatin and spindle organization; (v) the maturation promoting factor (..
  52. Wang C, Swanson W, Herrick J, Lee K, Machaty Z. Analysis of cat oocyte activation methods for the generation of feline disease models by nuclear transfer. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009;7:148 pubmed publisher
    ..of the most promising treatments (with or without subsequent incubation in the presence of cycloheximide and cytochalasin B) to stimulate oocyte activation and support development of the resultant parthenogenetic embryos was then ..
  53. Thomas T, Jordan K, Laird D. Role of cytoskeletal elements in the recruitment of Cx43-GFP and Cx26-YFP into gap junctions. Cell Commun Adhes. 2001;8:231-6 pubmed
    ..However, disruption of microfilaments with cytochalasin B inhibited the recruitment and assembly of both Cx26-YFP and Cx43-GFP into gap junctions within photobleached ..