alcian blue


Summary: A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.

Top Publications

  1. Brunetti B, Sarli G, Marcato P, Benazzi C. Histochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of canine mammary mucinous carcinoma. J Comp Pathol. 2003;129:131-6 pubmed
    ..samples were examined (1) histochemically by the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and PAS-diastase methods, and with alcian blue (pH 2.5 and pH 1...
  2. Lee C, Seol S, Lee B, Hong Y, Je J, Soh K. Alcian blue staining method to visualize bonghan threads inside large caliber lymphatic vessels and x-ray microtomography to reveal their microchannels. Lymphat Res Biol. 2006;4:181-90 pubmed
    ..authors put forward a hypothesis to test that the Bonghan threads can be visualized in vivo by HA-staining dye, Alcian blue, and that the channels may be revealed by using X-ray microtomography...
  3. Kingsmill V, Boyde A, Davis G, Howell P, Rawlinson S. Changes in bone mineral and matrix in response to a soft diet. J Dent Res. 2010;89:510-4 pubmed publisher
    ..density by quantitative backscattered electron microscopy, and sulphated glycosaminoglycan levels with alcian blue staining were measured by microdensitometry...
  4. Han H, Sung B, Ogay V, Soh K. The flow path of alcian blue from the acupoint BL23 to the surface of abdominal organs. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2009;2:182-9 pubmed publisher
    Two hours after Alcian Blue (AB) dye was injected at the rat acupoint BL23, the abdominal cavity was examined and AB-stained threadlike structures were observed on the right abdominal cavity...
  5. Yoo J, Kim M, Ogay V, Soh K. In vivo visualization of bonghan ducts inside blood vessels of mice by using an Alcian blue staining method. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008;46:336-9 pubmed
    An in vivo method using Alcian blue (AB) was developed for visualizing floating threadlike tissues inside blood vessels of mice...
  6. Lee H, Lee B. Visualization of the network of primo vessels and primo nodes above the pia mater of the brain and spine of rats by using Alcian blue. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2012;5:218-25 pubmed publisher
    By spraying and injecting Alcian blue into the lateral ventricle, we were able to visualize the network of the nerve primo vascular system above the pia mater of the brain and spine of rats...
  7. Karlyshev A, Wren B. Detection and initial characterization of novel capsular polysaccharide among diverse Campylobacter jejuni strains using alcian blue dye. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:279-84 pubmed
    ..Microbiol. 35:529-541, 2000). In this report, we describe a universal and rapid staining procedure using Alcian blue for C. jejuni CPS, which does not rely on the availability of antisera and identifies CPS in untypeable strains...
  8. Driemeier D, Faccini G, de Oliveira R, Colodel E, Traverso S, Cattani C. Silver staining combined with alcian blue and hematoxylin-eosin for the detection of Lawsonia intracelullaris in swine proliferative enteropathy. Acta Histochem. 2002;104:285-7 pubmed
    ..The method is a combination of the following 3 well-known methods, the Warthin-Starry method, alcian blue and hematoxylin-eosin...
  9. Yoon J, Brooks R, Halper J. Immunoblotting assays for keratan sulfate. Anal Biochem. 2002;306:298-304 pubmed
    ..The first assay detects total GAGs. It is a modified Alcian blue dye precipitation assay in which the dye binds to the negatively charged GAGs in CsCl-fractionated extracts ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Yoshimi N, Morioka T, Kinjo T, Inamine M, Kaneshiro T, Shimizu T, et al. Histological and immunohistochemical observations of mucin-depleted foci (MDF) stained with Alcian blue, in rat colon carcinogenesis induced with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride. Cancer Sci. 2004;95:792-7 pubmed
    ..The resected colons were fixed in 10% formalin, and stained with Alcian blue for observation of ACF and MDF...
  2. Bai C, Xu X, Chan F, Lee R, Wang Y. MNN5 encodes an iron-regulated alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase important for protein glycosylation, cell wall integrity, morphogenesis, and virulence in Candida albicans. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:238-47 pubmed
    ..Of particular interest was the observed role of iron in regulating the enzymatic activity, suggesting an underlying relationship between Mnn5 activity and cellular iron homeostasis. ..
  3. Redfern B, David Wise L, Spence S. An alternative Alcian Blue dye variant for the evaluation of fetal cartilage. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2007;80:171-6 pubmed
    ..The dye used most widely to stain fetal cartilage in rodents and rabbits is Alcian Blue 8GX. However, the global supply of this specific dye has been exhausted...
  4. Odani T, Shimma Y, Wang X, Jigami Y. Mannosylphosphate transfer to cell wall mannan is regulated by the transcriptional level of the MNN4 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 1997;420:186-90 pubmed
    ..This type of transcriptional regulation is observed in many stress response genes, implying that mannosylphosphate transfer is involved in the cellular response to a variety of stresses. ..
  5. Morris Wiman J, Brinkley L. The role of the mesenchyme in mouse neural fold elevation. II. Patterns of hyaluronate synthesis and distribution in embryos developing in vitro. Am J Anat. 1990;188:133-47 pubmed
    ..Using standard image-processing techniques, the digitized images of Alcian blue-stained or 3H-glucosamine-labeled sections digested with an enzyme specific for HA, were subtracted from ..
  6. López Fernández L, Ruiz Roldán C, Pareja Jaime Y, Prieto A, Khraiwesh H, Roncero M. The Fusarium oxysporum gnt2, encoding a putative N-acetylglucosamine transferase, is involved in cell wall architecture and virulence. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e84690 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that N-acetylglucosaminyl transferases are key components for cell wall structure and influence interactions of F. oxysporum with both plant and animal hosts during pathogenicity. ..
  7. Tao J, Zhu M, Wang H, Afelik S, Vasievich M, Chen X, et al. SEC23B is required for the maintenance of murine professional secretory tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E2001-9 pubmed publisher
  8. Reichert S, Randall R, Hill C. A BMP regulatory network controls ectodermal cell fate decisions at the neural plate border. Development. 2013;140:4435-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data define a BMP regulatory network that controls cell fate decisions at the neural plate border. ..
  9. Fujiwara K, Ochiai M, Ohta T, Ohki M, Aburatani H, Nagao M, et al. Global gene expression analysis of rat colon cancers induced by a food-borne carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25:1495-505 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Alcian blue/periodic acid Schiff base (AB-PAS) staining and immunohistochemical analysis with an anti-lysozyme antibody ..
  10. Leong N, Hurng J, Djomehri S, Gansky S, Ryder M, Ho S. Age-related adaptation of bone-PDL-tooth complex: Rattus-Norvegicus as a model system. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35980 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher levels of glycosaminoglycans were identified at PDL-bone and PDL-cementum entheses using alcian blue stain...
  11. Hart C, Chase L, Hajivandi M, AGNEW B. Metabolic labeling and click chemistry detection of glycoprotein markers of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;698:459-84 pubmed publisher
    ..One of these identified proteins, Galectin 1, is validated and shown for the first time to be posttranslationally modified by O-glycosylation, most likely by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). ..
  12. Tootian Z, Sadeghinezhad J, Sheibani M, Fazelipour S, De Sordi N, Chiocchetti R. Histological and mucin histochemical study of the small intestine of the Persian squirrel (Sciurus anomalus). Anat Sci Int. 2013;88:38-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The mucin histochemistry, which was examined using the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and alcian blue (AB) (pH 1.0 and 2.5) and also PAS-AB (pH 2.5) and aldehyde fuchsin-AB (pH 2...
  13. Yenice O, Kazokoglu H, Ozcan E, Yuksel M, Adigüzel G, Haklar G, et al. Erythrocyte membrane anionic content and urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion in type 1 diabetes: association with retinopathy. Curr Eye Res. 2006;31:975-81 pubmed
    ..Erythrocyte anionic charge (EAC) was determined by the binding of cationic dye, alcian blue, and urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion and (UGAG) was determined spectrophotometrically...
  14. Yamashita M, Yamauchi K, Chiba R, Iwama N, Date F, Shibata N, et al. The definition of fibrogenic processes in fibroblastic foci of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis based on morphometric quantification of extracellular matrices. Hum Pathol. 2009;40:1278-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of glycosaminoglycans was detected by Alcian blue staining, and type I collagen was detected by immunohistochemical analysis with a primary antibody specific to ..
  15. Steininger H, Pfofe D, Muller H, Haag Sunjic G, Fratianu V. Expression of CDX2 and MUC2 in Barrett's mucosa. Pathol Res Pract. 2005;201:573-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, alcian blue (pH 2,5)/PAS staining was done...
  16. Weiss S, Hennig T, Bock R, Steck E, Richter W. Impact of growth factors and PTHrP on early and late chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. J Cell Physiol. 2010;223:84-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Within a developmental window of collagen type II(+)/collagen type X(-) cells, bFGF and PTHrP may allow inhibition of further differentiation toward hypertrophy to obtain stable chondrocytes for transplantation purposes. ..
  17. Dubrovsky J, Contreras Burciaga L. A squash preparation method for root meristem field studies. Biotech Histochem. 1998;73:92-6 pubmed
    ..The method is based on the use of a weak gelatin solution as a stabilizing agent to prevent cell loss. Alcian blue 8GX was used as a counterstain for better recognition of cell shapes...
  18. Fallon J, Blevins F, Vogel K, Trotter J. Functional morphology of the supraspinatus tendon. J Orthop Res. 2002;20:920-6 pubmed the greater tuberosity, consisted of a complex basket-weave of collagen fibers, and stained diffusely with alcian blue. The densely packed unidirectional collagen fibers of the rotator cable extended from the coracohumeral (CH) ..
  19. Hong S, Kim M, Lee J, Hwang C, Baek S, Han D, et al. Novel findings in inhibition of mast cell-dependent immediate-type cutaneous reactions by Gahmi-Shini-San. Clin Chim Acta. 2001;309:85-90 pubmed
    ..The mast cells in mouse ear tissue were stained by alcian blue/nuclear fast red...
  20. Young A, Phipps D, Astroff A. Large-scale double-staining of rat fetal skeletons using Alizarin Red S and alcian blue. Teratology. 2000;61:273-6 pubmed
    ..Current methods to double-stain the fetal skeleton using Alizarin Red S and Alcian Blue are typically described for small sample sizes or using time allotments for each processing step that are ..
  21. Ishizeki K, Nawa T. Further evidence for secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-1 by Meckel's chondrocytes during degradation of the extracellular matrix. Tissue Cell. 2000;32:207-15 pubmed
    ..Not only staining with toluidine blue and alcian blue but also immunostaining for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) revealed that levels of glycoproteins are ..
  22. Krug D, Klinger M, Haller R, Hargus G, Büning J, Rohwedel J, et al. Minor cartilage collagens type IX and XI are expressed during embryonic stem cell-derived in vitro chondrogenesis. Ann Anat. 2013;195:88-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Chondrogenic differentiation of murine ES cells combined with monolayer culture of embryonic rib chondrocytes is a valuable tool to study changes in the expression pattern during differentiation and dedifferentiation of chondrocytes. ..
  23. Maurya N, Mittal A. Applicability of immobilized wood-rotting fungal biomass for biosorption of basic dye Alcian Blue. Water Sci Technol. 2009;59:2073-9 pubmed publisher
    ..biomass of a wood-rotting dead macro-fungus Fomitopsis carnea are explored for the removal of the basic dye Alcian Blue. Effect of several parameters viz., temperature, pH and salt were studied in batch mode...
  24. Patel D, Harocopos G, Chang S, Vora S, Lubniewski A, HUANG A. Novel CHST6 gene mutations in 2 unrelated cases of macular corneal dystrophy. Cornea. 2011;30:664-9 pubmed publisher
    ..keratan sulfate (KS), antitransforming growth factor beta 1-induced protein (TGFBIp), thioflavin-T, alcian blue, and Masson trichrome...
  25. Meyerholz D, Rodgers J, Castilow E, Varga S. Alcian Blue and Pyronine Y histochemical stains permit assessment of multiple parameters in pulmonary disease models. Vet Pathol. 2009;46:325-8 pubmed publisher
    Utilization of a combined Alcian Blue and Pyronine Y histochemical method for the assessment of multiple parameters in the respiratory tract of various species is described...
  26. Barbosa L, Ramos H, Neves L, Biase N, Oshima C, Pedroso J, et al. Detection of hyaluronic acid receptor in human vocal folds by immunohistochemistry. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;74:201-6 pubmed
    ..immunohistochemistry, used to assess the distribution of hyaluronic acid receptors in the central portion of the vocal fold, proved it to be present in the vocal fold epithelium and it prevailed in its middle third. ..
  27. Luo Y, Kostetskii I, Radice G. N-cadherin is not essential for limb mesenchymal chondrogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2005;232:336-44 pubmed
    ..We postulate that another cell adhesion molecule, possibly cadherin-11, is responsible for chondrogenesis in the N-cadherin-deficient limb. ..
  28. Balcan E, Gümüş A, Sahin M. The glycosylation status of murine [corrected] postnatal thymus: a study by histochemistry and lectin blotting. J Mol Histol. 2008;39:417-26 pubmed publisher
    ..With alcian blue (AB) at pH 5...
  29. Meinert M, Eriksen G, Petersen A, Helmig R, Laurent C, Uldbjerg N, et al. Proteoglycans and hyaluronan in human fetal membranes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;184:679-85 pubmed
    ..Guanidinium extracts were analyzed for proteoglycans with alcian blue precipitation, sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and Western blotting and for ..
  30. Wagner B. Correspondence: Chromotrope 2R. Toxicol Pathol. 2003;31:717 pubmed
  31. Yamazaki Y, Yuguchi M, Kubota S, Isokawa K. Whole-mount bone and cartilage staining of chick embryos with minimal decalcification. Biotech Histochem. 2011;86:351-8 pubmed publisher
    Whole-mount staining with Alcian blue for cartilage and alizarin red for bone has been widely used for visualizing the skeletal patterns of embryos and small adult vertebrates...
  32. Le Maitre C, Hoyland J, Freemont A. Studies of human intervertebral disc cell function in a constrained in vitro tissue culture system. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29:1187-95 pubmed
    ..It will be a useful tool for a wide range of investigations of intervertebral disc biology that have not hitherto been possible. ..
  33. Wang S, Bao Y, Rosenberger C, Tesfaigzi Y, Stark J, Harrod K. IL-12p40 and IL-18 modulate inflammatory and immune responses to respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Immunol. 2004;173:4040-9 pubmed
    ..These findings implicate a role for IL-12 and IL-18 in modulating respiratory syncytial virus-induced airway inflammation distinct from that of viral clearance. ..
  34. Han X, Leng X, Zhao M, Wu M, Chen A, Hong G, et al. Resveratrol increases nucleus pulposus matrix synthesis through activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway under mechanical compression in a disc organ culture. Biosci Rep. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
    ..compression significantly decreased NP matrix content, indicated by the decreased staining intensity of Alcian Blue and biochemical content (GAG and HYP), and the down-regulated expression of NP matrix macromolecules (aggrecan ..
  35. Qing X, Petrie B, Buslon V, French S. Adenomyoma of the jejunum. Exp Mol Pathol. 2009;86:127-30 pubmed publisher
    ..However, new histopathological and immunohistochemistry features are described here, providing evidence that adenomyoma of the jejunum is a form of intestinal epithelial hamartoma...
  36. Ponce De Leon P, Di Vita S, Racca L, Biondi C, Valverde J. [Change of erythrocyte charge with the use of Alcian blue method in Ascaris lumbricoides extracts]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 2011;63:263-7 pubmed study the effect of adult parasite extracts on the erythrocyte charge using the Alcian Blue method and to compare its sensitivity with the Polybrene method: fifty five adult parasite extracts and Group O ..
  37. Clements K, Price J, Chambers M, Visco D, Poole A, Mason R. Gene deletion of either interleukin-1beta, interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase, or stromelysin 1 accelerates the development of knee osteoarthritis in mice after surgical transection of the medial collateral ligament . Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:3452-63 pubmed
    ..Proteoglycan depletion was assessed by Alcian blue staining and chondrocyte cell death, with the TUNEL technique...
  38. Rosa Molinar E, Proskocil B, Ettel M, Fritzsch B. Whole-mount procedures for simultaneous visualization of nerves, neurons, cartilage and bone. Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 1999;4:115-23 pubmed
    ..clearing and staining procedure for the simultaneous visualization of bone (alizarin red S) and cartilage (alcian blue) in whole-mount preparations...
  39. Suarez S, Brockman K, Lefebvre R. Distribution of mucus and sperm in bovine oviducts after artificial insemination: the physical environment of the oviductal sperm reservoir. Biol Reprod. 1997;56:447-53 pubmed
    ..Sections were alternately stained with periodic acid-Schiff stain (PAS) or alcian blue/PAS...
  40. Mesallati T, Buckley C, Nagel T, Kelly D. Scaffold architecture determines chondrocyte response to externally applied dynamic compression. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2013;12:889-99 pubmed publisher
    ..This system also provides a novel approach to investigate how chondrocytes respond to altered levels of biophysical stimulation. ..
  41. González Robles A, Castañón G, Cristóbal Ramos A, Hernández Ramírez V, Omaña Molina M, Martinez Palomo A. Cell surface differences of Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria lovaniensis exposed with surface markers. Exp Parasitol. 2007;117:399-404 pubmed
    ..components in the cell coat of the two species was detected by selective staining with ruthenium red and alcian blue. Using both markers, N. fowleri presented a thicker deposit than N. lovaniensis...
  42. Ovchinnikov D. Alcian blue/alizarin red staining of cartilage and bone in mouse. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2009;2009:pdb.prot5170 pubmed publisher
  43. Luca T, Privitera G, Lo Monaco M, Prezzavento C, Castorina S. Validation study of a cell culture model of colorectal cancer. Ital J Anat Embryol. 2007;112:81-92 pubmed
    ..This will be done by studying the expression of specific proteins in the tumor and analysing mutations of specific genes in each patient to relate each genetic signature to a precise pharmacological response. ..
  44. Burdan F, Szumiło J, Dudka J, Klepacz R, Błaszczak M, Solecki M, et al. Morphological studies in modern teratological investigations. Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2005;64:1-8 pubmed
    ..A single alizarin red S and double alcian blue followed by alizarin red S staining, as well as various methods of soft tissue examination are discussed.
  45. Ueno T, Kagawa T, Kanou M, Fujii T, Fukunaga J, Mizukawa N, et al. Immunohistochemical observations of cellular differentiation and proliferation in endochondral bone formation from grafted periosteum: expression and localization of BMP-2 and -4 in the grafted periosteum. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2003;31:356-61 pubmed
    ..BMP-2, -4, proliferative cell nucleus antigen (PCNA) immunoreaction and Alcian blue staining in grafted periosteum was then sought microscopically...
  46. Mark M, Butler W, Ruch J. Transient expression of a chondroitin sulfate-related epitope during cartilage histomorphogenesis in the axial skeleton of fetal rats. Dev Biol. 1989;133:475-88 pubmed
    ..Also, the perinotochordal matrix was intensely immunostained. ..
  47. Batran S, Zakout Y. Evaluation of improved zirconyl hematoxylin compared to the classical pH 2.5 Alcian blue method for demonstrating acid mucins. Biotech Histochem. 2012;87:226-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the classical pH 2.5 Alcian blue method to a new, improved zirconyl hematoxylin (IZH) method for demonstrating acid mucins using two fixatives: ..
  48. Irvanloo G, Fallahi B, Ensani F, Azmi M, Morteza A. Endoscopic versus histological diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus: a cross-sectional survey. Pol J Pathol. 2011;62:152-6 pubmed
    ..Sections of blocks were stained with Mixed Alcian Blue (PH 2.5)/PAS and haematoxylin-eosin stainings for the diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (complete vs...
  49. Yang Z, Schmitt J, Lee E. Immunohistochemical analysis of human mesenchymal stem cells differentiating into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;698:353-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In this chapter, the protocols for the differentiation of MSC to chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages and histological and immunostaining protocols for confirming trilineage differentiation of the MSC cells are described. ..
  50. Okajima M, Miyazato S, Kaneko T. Cyanobacterial megamolecule sacran efficiently forms LC gels with very heavy metal ions. Langmuir. 2009;25:8526-31 pubmed
    ..Gel bead formation may be closely correlated to the liquid-crystalline organization of sacran. ..
  51. Michaloudi H, Batzios C, Chiotelli M, Papadopoulos G. Developmental changes of mast cell populations in the cerebral meninges of the rat. J Anat. 2007;211:556-66 pubmed
    ..In contrast, pial mast cells are comparatively very few in the first day of the postnatal life, and despite a transient significant increase in the following two weeks, they reach almost zero levels from postnatal day 21. ..
  52. Liu C, Prazak L, Fajardo M, Yu S, Tyagi N, Di Cesare P. Leukemia/lymphoma-related factor, a POZ domain-containing transcriptional repressor, interacts with histone deacetylase-1 and inhibits cartilage oligomeric matrix protein gene expression and chondrogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:47081-91 pubmed
    ..lack of expression of other chondrocytic markers, such as aggrecan and collagen types II, IX, X, and XI, and by Alcian blue staining...
  53. Tuncel N, Erkasap N, Sahinturk V. The effect of stress and in vivo vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) treatment on the response of isolated rat aorta to norepinephrine, angiotensin II and vasopressin, and adventitial mast cells. Stress. 2000;3:299-308 pubmed
    ..the number and changed the granular content of mast cells; all degranulated mast cells were stained with alcian blue, and the percentage of safranin staining cells was decreased...