Summary: A derivative of COUMARIN with molecular formula C15H16O9.

Top Publications

  1. Figueras M, Inza I, Polo F, Guarro J. Evaluation of the oxolinic acid--esculin--azide medium for the isolation and enumeration of faecal streptococci in a routine monitoring programme for bathing waters. Can J Microbiol. 1998;44:998-1002 pubmed
    ..In this sense, the recently described oxolinic acid--esculin--azide agar medium (OAA) and m-enterococcus agar (m-Ent) were comparatively evaluated for the detection of faecal ..
  2. Peix A, Rivas R, Trujillo M, Vancanneyt M, Velázquez E, Willems A. Reclassification of Agrobacterium ferrugineum LMG 128 as Hoeflea marina gen. nov., sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005;55:1163-6 pubmed
    ..nov., for which the name Hoeflea marina sp. nov. is proposed. ..
  3. Rios E, Rocha N, Venâncio E, Moura B, Feitosa M, Cerqueira G, et al. Mechanisms involved in the gastroprotective activity of esculin on acute gastric lesions in mice. Chem Biol Interact. 2010;188:246-54 pubmed publisher
    This work describes the gastroprotective actions of esculin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin-6-o-glucoside) against indomethacin- or ethanol-induced lesions and verifies the role of nitric oxide, ATP-dependent K(+) channels, prostaglandins, ..
  4. Buszewski B, Kawka S, Suprynowicz Z, Wolski T. Simultaneous isolation of Rutin and Esculin from plant material and drugs using solid-phase extraction. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1993;11:211-5 pubmed
    Simultaneous isolation of Rutin and Esculin from pharmaceutical materials (plant--Flos hippocastani and drugs--Venescin, Venacorn) using solid-phase extraction (SPE) have been made...
  5. Kaneko T, Tahara S, Takabayashi F. Inhibitory effect of natural coumarin compounds, esculetin and esculin, on oxidative DNA damage and formation of aberrant crypt foci and tumors induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rat colons. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30:2052-7 pubmed
    The effects of esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) and its 6-glycoside, esculin, on 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation and carcinogenesis induced by a chemical carcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), were examined in the colons ..
  6. Cote C, Cvitkovitch D, Bleiweis A, Honeyman A. A novel beta-glucoside-specific PTS locus from Streptococcus mutans that is not inhibited by glucose. Microbiology. 2000;146 ( Pt 7):1555-63 pubmed
    ..When a plasmid containing the 8 kb beta-glucoside-specific regulon was transformed into E. coli CC118, the transformed strain was able to break down the beta-glucoside arbutin. ..
  7. Cote C, Honeyman A. The transcriptional regulation of the Streptococcus mutans bgl regulon. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2002;17:1-8 pubmed
    ..results illustrate that these genes are not repressed by glucose in the presence of an inducing beta-glucoside, esculin, to the levels of expression observed in the absence of esculin...
  8. Duncan S, Leitch E, Stanley K, Richardson A, Laven R, Flint H, et al. Effects of esculin and esculetin on the survival of Escherichia coli O157 in human faecal slurries, continuous-flow simulations of the rumen and colon and in calves. Br J Nutr. 2004;91:749-55 pubmed
    ..The present study investigated the effects of the plant coumarin esculin and its aglycone esculetin on the survival of a strain of E. coli O157 under gut conditions...
  9. Qamer S, Sandoe J, Kerr K. Use of colony morphology to distinguish different enterococcal strains and species in mixed culture from clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:2644-6 pubmed
    Colony morphology on kanamycin esculin azide agar was investigated as a means of selecting different species and strains of enterococci from clinical specimens...

More Information


  1. Ahn Y, Shimizu B, Sakata K, Gantulga D, Zhou C, Zhou Z, et al. Scopolin-hydrolyzing beta-glucosidases in roots of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2010;51:132-43 pubmed publisher
    ..g. esculin and 4-MU-glucoside)...
  2. Ma Z, Zhao Z. [Studies on chemical constituents from stem barks of Fraxinus paxiana]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008;33:1990-3 pubmed
    ..Fifteen compounds were obtained from the methanol extract of F. paxiana and their structures were elucidated as esculin (1), esculetin (2), fraxin (3), fraxetin (4), salidroside (5), osmanthuside H (6), liriodendrin (7), 3-(4-beta-D-..
  3. Kaneko T, Tahara S, Takabayashi F, Harada N. Suppression of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine formation and carcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl)amine in hamsters by esculetin and esculin. Free Radic Res. 2004;38:839-46 pubmed
    Effects of esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) and its glycoside, esculin, on 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation and carcinogenesis induced by a chemical carcinogen, N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP), were examined in the ..
  4. Martin P, Gundersen Rindal D, Blackburn M. Distribution of phenotypes among Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2010;33:204-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5% of isolates), hydrolysis of esculin (E; 32.3% of isolates), acid production from salicin (A; 37.4% of isolates), acid production from sucrose (S; 34...
  5. Ohadi R M, Alvari A, Samim M, Abdin M. Plant bio-transformable HMG-CoA reductase gene loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticle: in vitro characterization and stability study. Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2013;10:25-34 pubmed
    ..Compared to wild type C. intybus, transformation efficiency and enhanced biosynthesis of esculin with the DNA nanoparticles in C. intybus were about 10% and 71%, respectively...
  6. Wang Y, Zhao M, Ou Y, Zeng B, Lou X, Wang M, et al. Metabolic profile of esculin in rats by ultra high performance liquid chromatography combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2016;1020:120-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Esculin, a coumarin derivative found in Fraxinus rhynchophylla, has been reported to possess multiple biological activities...
  7. Jiang Z, Qu X, Li X, Liu Y, Shen N, Zhang L, et al. [The clinical efficacy and safety study of Esculin and Digitalis glycosides Eye Drops in treating ametropic asthenopia]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2010;46:1099-103 pubmed
    To study the clinical efficacy and safety of the Esculin and Digitalis glycosides Eye Drops used in the patients of ametropic asthenopia. Multicenter clinical trial...
  8. Smith P, Mellors D, Holroyd A, Gray C. A new chromogenic medium for the isolation of Listeria spp. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2001;32:78-82 pubmed
  9. Helsel L, Hollis D, Steigerwalt A, Morey R, Jordan J, Aye T, et al. Identification of "Haematobacter," a new genus of aerobic Gram-negative rods isolated from clinical specimens, and reclassification of Rhodobacter massiliensis as "Haematobacter massiliensis comb. nov.". J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:1238-43 pubmed
    ..and H(2)S (lead acetate paper) but did not produce indole, reduce nitrate or nitrite, or hydrolyze gelatin or esculin. No acid production was observed in a King's oxidation-fermentation base containing d-glucose, d-xylose, d-..
  10. Yang X, Xu B, Ran F, Wang R, Wu J, Cui J. [Inhibitory effects of 11 coumarin compounds against growth of human bladder carcinoma cell line E-J in vitro]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2007;5:56-60 pubmed
    ..30x10(-6) mol/L, respectively, were stronger than those of the other tested compounds. However, xanthotoxin, esculin and sphondin did not inhibit the growth of human bladder carcinoma cell line E-J in this assay condition...
  11. Ardhaoui M, Falcimaigne A, Ognier S, Engasser J, Moussou P, Pauly G, et al. Effect of acyl donor chain length and substitutions pattern on the enzymatic acylation of flavonoids. J Biotechnol. 2004;110:265-71 pubmed
    Rutin and esculin were enzymatically acylated with different aliphatic acids as acyl donors (fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids and omega-substituted fatty acids) by an immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica...
  12. Zhao X, Chen L, Wang Z. Aesculin modulates bone metabolism by suppressing receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and transduction signals. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;488:15-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that AES can modulate bone metabolism by suppressing osteoclastogenesis and related transduction signals. AES therefore could be a promising agent for the treatment of osteoporosis. ..
  13. Schreckenberger P, Blazevic D. Rapid methods for biochemical testing of anaerobic bacteria. Appl Microbiol. 1974;28:759-62 pubmed
    Rapid biochemical tests for nitrate, indole, gelatin, starch, esculin, and o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside were performed on 112 strains of anaerobic bacteria...
  14. Chen Q, Zeng Y, Kuang J, Li Y, Li X, Zheng Y, et al. Quantification of aesculin in rabbit plasma and ocular tissues by high performance liquid chromatography using fluorescent detection: application to a pharmacokinetic study. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2011;55:161-7 pubmed publisher
    ..59ng/mL for aqueous humor, and 6.55ng/g for iris and 1.66ng/g for retina. The method was used in the study of AL concentrations in plasma and ocular tissues after topical administration of AL eye drops. ..
  15. Chen Z, Zhang L, Chen G. Carbon nanotube/poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) composite electrode for capillary electrophoretic determination of esculin and esculetin in Cortex Fraxini. Electrophoresis. 2009;30:3419-26 pubmed publisher
    ..It was coupled with CE for the separation and detection of esculin and esculetin in Cortex Fraxini, a traditional Chinese medicine, to demonstrate its feasibility and performance...
  16. Sarpietro M, Giuffrida M, Ottimo S, Micieli D, Castelli F. Evaluation of the interaction of coumarins with biomembrane models studied by differential scanning calorimetry and Langmuir-Blodgett techniques. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:790-5 pubmed publisher
    Three coumarins, scopoletin (1), esculetin (2), and esculin (3), were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and Langmuir-Blodgett techniques to gain information about the interaction of these compounds with cellular membranes...
  17. Rasmussen M, Klausen C, Ekstrand B. Regulation of cytochrome P450 mRNA expression in primary porcine hepatocytes by selected secondary plant metabolites from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). Food Chem. 2014;146:255-63 pubmed publisher
    ..artemisinin, scoparone, lactucin and esculetin all induced increased expression of specific CYPs, while esculin showed no effect...
  18. Zhang M, Xin X, Lai F, Zhang X, Li X, Wu H. Cellular Transport of Esculin and Its Acylated Derivatives in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers and Their Antioxidant Properties in Vitro. J Agric Food Chem. 2017;65:7424-7432 pubmed publisher
    b>Esculin has many pharmacological effects, but these are difficult to observe after oral administration owing to poor lipid solubility...
  19. Kaneko T, Tahara S, Takabayashi F, Harada N. Inhibitory effect of esculin on oxidative DNA damage and carcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine in hamster pancreas. Biofactors. 2004;22:83-5 pubmed
    The effects of esculin, a natural coumarin compound, on the formation of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and carcinogenesis induced by a chemical carcinogen, N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP), were examined in the pancreas of female ..
  20. Duncan S, Flint H, Stewart C. Inhibitory activity of gut bacteria against Escherichia coli O157 mediated by dietary plant metabolites. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1998;164:283-8 pubmed
    ..12,900 was inhibited by the coumarins esculetin, umbelliferone and scopoletin, but not by the coumarin glycoside esculin. Esculin-hydrolysing bacteria from the rumen, the pig gut and the human gut inhibited growth of E...
  21. Rafsanjani M, Alvari A, Mohammad A, Abdin M, Hejazi M. In vitro propagation of Cichorium intybus L. and quantification of enhanced secondary metabolite (esculin). Recent Pat Biotechnol. 2011;5:227-34 pubmed
    ..Enhanced production of esculin in developed C. intybus L. was evaluated using leaf extract...
  22. Feng W, Wang Z, Zhang Q, Liu L, Wang J, Yang F. [Quantitative method for simultaneous assay of four coumarins with one marker in Fraxini Cortex]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2011;36:1782-9 pubmed
    ..5%-3.9%). Significant differences were not observed between the quantitative results of two methods. It is feasible and suitable to evaluate the quality of Fraxini Cortex and its Yinpian by QAMS. ..
  23. Rivas R, Gutierrez C, Abril A, Mateos P, Martínez Molina E, Ventosa A, et al. Paenibacillus rhizosphaerae sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of Cicer arietinum. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005;55:1305-9 pubmed
    ..nov. is proposed. The type strain is CECAP06(T) (=LMG 21955(T) = CECT 5831(T))...
  24. Viskupicova J, Danihelova M, Majekova M, Liptaj T, Sturdik E. Polyphenol fatty acid esters as serine protease inhibitors: a quantum-chemical QSAR analysis. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2012;27:800-9 pubmed publisher
    ..esterified with medium and long chain, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (1e-m), followed by phloridzin and esculin esters with medium and long fatty acid chain length (2a-d, 3a-d), while unmodified compounds showed only little ..
  25. Wang G, Yan H, Hou Q, Lu Y, Gong N, Lin R. [Chemical constituents from Alyxia sinensis (II)]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2002;27:199-201 pubmed
    ..scopletin(19), liriodendrin(20), pinoresinol-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(21), daucosterol(22), flaxetin(23), esculin(24), aseculin(25)...
  26. Laosee O, Pathanapornpandh N, Sitthi Amorn C, Khiewyoo J, Somrongthong R, Dulyavoranun N. Prescription pattern for treatment of hemorrhoids under the universal coverage policy of Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2005;36:1020-4 pubmed
    ..During the study period, the trend of modern medicine use and the treatment cost was decreased (p < 0.01). The ratio of traditional/modern medicine increased 0.2 times (p = 0.02)...
  27. Shi Z, Zhu X, Zhang H. Micelle-mediated extraction and cloud point preconcentration for the analysis of aesculin and aesculetin in Cortex fraxini by HPLC. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;44:867-73 pubmed
    ..Compared with methanol, which was used in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2005 edition) for the extraction of C. fraxini, the extraction efficiency of 5% Genapol X-080 reached higher value. ..
  28. Salazar M, Furlan R. A rapid TLC autographic method for the detection of glucosidase inhibitors. Phytochem Anal. 2007;18:209-12 pubmed
    ..Enzyme activity was detected using esculin as the substrate to produce esculetin, which reacts with ferric ion to form a brown complex.
  29. Li Y, Song Y, Liu C, Huang X, Zheng X, Li N, et al. Simultaneous determination of esculin and its metabolite esculetin in rat plasma by LC-ESI-MS/MS and its application in pharmacokinetic study. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2012;907:27-33 pubmed publisher
    ..ionization (ESI) switching mode has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of esculin and its metabolite esculetin in rat plasma...
  30. Lee B, Lee S, Lee H, Sim G, Kim J, Kim J, et al. Anti-oxidative and photo-protective effects of coumarins isolated from Fraxinus chinensis. Arch Pharm Res. 2007;30:1293-301 pubmed
    ..Two of the major components of FCE were found to be esculin (11.2%) and esculetin (1.9%). FCE (IC50: 50.0 microg/mL 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); 19...
  31. Falcão J, Falcão D, Pitondo Silva A, Malaspina A, Brocchi M. Molecular typing and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica strains from human, animal and food origins isolated between 1968 and 2000 in Brazil. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:1539-48 pubmed
    ..enterocolitica for human infections in Brazil, an epidemiological aspect that has not been investigated in this country, confirming data from other parts of the world...
  32. Stamper P, Shulder S, Bekalo P, Manandhar D, Ross T, Speser S, et al. Evaluation of BBL CHROMagar VanRE for detection of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci in rectal swab specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:4294-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to BBL Enterococcosel agar, a bile-esculin-azide-vancomycin (BEAV) agar, the initial overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive ..
  33. Kang K, Lee W, Jung Y, Lee J, Lee S, Eom D, et al. Protective effect of esculin on streptozotocin-induced diabetic renal damage in mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2014;62:2069-76 pubmed publisher
    The present study investigated the presence and mechanism of esculin-mediated renoprotection to assess its therapeutic potential...
  34. Kaneko T, Tahara S, Takabayashi F. Suppression of lipid hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage to cellular DNA by esculetin. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003;26:840-4 pubmed
    ..Pretreatment with esculin, the 6-glucoside of esculetin, was effective, but to a lesser extent...
  35. Sakamoto M, Huang Y, Umeda M, Ishikawa I, Benno Y. Prevotella multiformis sp. nov., isolated from human subgingival plaque. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005;55:815-9 pubmed
    ..denticola JCM 8528. On the basis of these data, a novel Prevotella species, Prevotella multiformis sp. nov., is proposed, with PPPA21(T) (=JCM 12541(T)=DSM 16608(T)) as the type strain. ..
  36. Guo J, Li H, Teng J, Peng Z, He Q, Liu R. [Study on the extracting and dried process of Qinxiangzhixie enteric-coated tablet]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2007;30:1016-9 pubmed
    ..5 h, 1.0 h respectively. The optimum decompression dried process conditions was as follows :60 degrees C, -0.08 pa. The experimental results provide the basis for the ascertainment of extraction process of Qinxiang enteric-coated tablet. ..
  37. Zhang L, Tong P, Chen G. Determination of the hydrolysis rate constants and activation energy of aesculin with capillary electrophoresis end-column amperometric detection. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1098:194-8 pubmed
    ..1mol/L KOH were obtained as 1.45x10(-2)min(-1), 2.01x10(-2)min(-1), 2.93x10(-2)min(-1), 3.76x10(-2)min(-1) and 5.05x10(-2)min(-1), respectively. It was calculated that the activation energy for aesculin hydrolysis was 49.4kJ/mol. ..
  38. Rivas R, Abril A, Trujillo M, Velázquez E. Sphingomonas phyllosphaerae sp. nov., from the phyllosphere of Acacia caven in Argentina. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004;54:2147-50 pubmed
    ..adhaesiva DSM 7418(T). Based upon phenotypic and molecular evidence, a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas is proposed, Sphingomonas phyllosphaerae sp. nov., with strain FA2(T) (=LMG 21958(T)=CECT 5832(T)) as the type strain. ..
  39. Wang W, Tang J, Wang S, Zhou L, Hu Z. Method development for the determination of coumarin compounds by capillary electrophoresis with indirect laser-induced fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1148:108-14 pubmed
    ..indirect laser-induced fluorescence detection (ILIFD) method is described for the simultaneous determination of esculin, esculetin, isofraxidin, genistein, naringin and sophoricoside...
  40. Biljali S, Hadjimitova V, Topashka Ancheva M, Momekova D, Traykov T, Karaivanova M. Antioxidant and antiradical properties of esculin, and its effect in a model of epirubicin-induced bone marrow toxicity. Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2012;54:42-9 pubmed
    To evaluate the effect of esculin, a plant coumarin glucoside, on free radicals and against epirubicin-induced toxicity on bone marrow cells...
  41. Ballal M, Rajeswari -, Bindu A, Shivananda C. Correlation of the suicide phenomenon in Aeromonas species with virulence and enteropathogenicity. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2001;44:421-5 pubmed
    ..caviae strains tested, none were lethal. The present data suggest that the suicide phenomenon may explain strain specific [A. veronii biotype sobria, A. hydrophila] and species specific [A. caviae] virulence and enteropathogenicity. ..
  42. Hu Y, Chen X, Duan H, Hu Y, Mu X. Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients inhibit secretion of IL-6, IL-8, E-selectin and TXB2 in LPS-induced rat intestinal microvascular endothelial cells. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2009;31:550-5 pubmed publisher
    ..All these changes were significant. Taken together, the data suggest that all seven active ingredients of PD can effectively reduce inflammatory response, thus relieving intestinal dysfunction via multiple pathways. ..
  43. Cote C, Honeyman A. The LicT protein acts as both a positive and a negative regulator of loci within the bgl regulon of Streptococcus mutans. Microbiology. 2003;149:1333-40 pubmed
    ..In addition, the presence of the S. mutans licT gene has been shown to be able to activate a cryptic beta-glucoside-specific operon found in Escherichia coli. ..
  44. Hu Y, Guo Z, Lue B, Xu X. Enzymatic synthesis of esculin ester in ionic liquids buffered with organic solvents. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:3845-52 pubmed publisher
    The enzymatic esterification of esculin catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) was carried out in ionic liquid (IL)-organic solvent mixed systems in comparison with individual systems...
  45. Botina S, Trenina M, Tsygankov I, Sukhodolets V. [Comparison of genotypic and biochemical characteristics of Streptococcus thermophilus strains isolated from sour milk products]. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2007;43:670-6 pubmed
  46. Choi H, Chung T, Kim J, Jeong H, Joo M, Cha J, et al. Aesculin inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase and activator protein 1 in lipopolysachride-induced RAW264.7 cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2012;14:267-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that aesculin is a potent drug candidate that protects against the inflammatory destruction of ECM. ..
  47. James A, Yeoman P. Detection of specific bacterial enzymes by high contrast metal chelate formation. Part I. 8-Hydroxyquinoline-beta-D-glucoside, an alternative to aesculin in the differentiation of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1987;267:188-93 pubmed
    ..The method described allows use of a 36 place 'minipin' inoculator without any danger of 'nearest neighbour' interference and constitutes a cost-effective method suitable for either manual or automatic reading. ..
  48. Firstenberg Eden R, Shelef L. A new rapid automated method for the detection of Listeria from environmental swabs and sponges. Int J Food Microbiol. 2000;56:231-7 pubmed
    ..Spectral pattern changes in a liquid growth medium, resulting from esculin hydrolysis by Listeria in contaminated swabs and sponges, were automatically monitored by the BioSys instrument ..
  49. Vaz Moreira I, Nobre M, Nunes O, Manaia C. Pseudosphingobacterium domesticum gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from home-made compost. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007;57:1535-8 pubmed
    ..The name Pseudosphingobacterium domesticum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed, with strain DC-186(T) (=CCUG 54353(T)=LMG 23837(T)) as the type strain. ..
  50. Karhukorpi J, Päivänurmi M. Differentiation of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A from pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica biotypes by detection of ?-glucosidase activity: comparison of two chromogenic culture media and Vitek2. J Med Microbiol. 2014;63:34-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus all the methods evaluated in this study may be used to differentiate between YE BT1A and other Y. enterocolitica biotypes. ..
  51. Nakazawa F, Hoshino E, Fukunaga M, Jinno T, Asai Y, Yamamoto H, et al. Amended biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic position of Treponema medium. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2003;18:127-30 pubmed
    ..vincentii in the production of indole, and from T. denticola in the hydrolysis of esculin. Also, sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) protein profile analysis and ..
  52. Rechenberg D, Schriber M, Attin T. Bacterial leakage through temporary fillings in core buildup composite material - an in vitro study. J Adhes Dent. 2012;14:371-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, covering Cavit-W with a bonded resin material resulted in a bacteria-tight seal for two months. ..
  53. Li C, Chen A, Chen X, Ma X, Chen X, Hu Z. Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis for separation and simultaneous determination of fraxin, esculin and esculetin in Cortex fraxini and its medicinal preparations. Biomed Chromatogr. 2005;19:696-702 pubmed
    ..capillary electrophoresis method has been developed for the separation and simultaneous determination of fraxin, esculin and esculetin in Cortex fraxini and its preparation for the first time...