Summary: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.

Top Publications

  1. Schill H, Nizamov S, Bottanelli F, Bierwagen J, Belov V, Hell S. 4-Trifluoromethyl-substituted coumarins with large Stokes shifts: synthesis, bioconjugates, and their use in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. Chemistry. 2013;19:16556-65 pubmed publisher
    ..with available (hetero)aryl- or (hetero)arylethenylacetic acids followed by intramolecular condensation afforded coumarins with 3-(hetero)aryl or 3-[2-(hetero)aryl]ethenyl groups...
  2. García Beltrán O, Mena N, Yañez O, Caballero J, Vargas V, Nunez M, et al. Design, synthesis and cellular dynamics studies in membranes of a new coumarin-based "turn-off" fluorescent probe selective for Fe2+. Eur J Med Chem. 2013;67:60-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that AGD interacts with the lipid bilayer at the level of the glycerol moieties. ..
  3. Lin Y, Sun X, Yuan Q, Yan Y. Combinatorial biosynthesis of plant-specific coumarins in bacteria. Metab Eng. 2013;18:69-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Coumarins are plant secondary metabolites that have demonstrated a variety of important therapeutic properties, such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-coagulant effects, as well as anti-cancer and anti-AIDS activities...
  4. Dong W, Zhang Z, Liu Z, Liu H, Wang X, Bi S, et al. Protective effects of osthole, a natural derivative of coumarin, against intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice. Int J Mol Med. 2013;31:1367-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the findings of the present study provide insight into the mechanisms through which osthole exerts its protective effects against intestinal I/R injury. ..
  5. Yu P, Li J, Zhu Z, Kong H, Jin H, Zhang J, et al. Praeruptorin D and E attenuate lipopolysaccharide/hydrochloric acid induced acute lung injury in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013;710:39-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggested that PD and PE might be useful in the therapy of lung injury...
  6. Ren L, Du X, Hu M, Yan C, Liang T, Li Q. Design, synthesis and antitumor activity of novel 4-methyl-(3'S,4'S)-cis-khellactone derivatives. Molecules. 2013;18:4158-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, compound 3a exhibited strong cytotoxicity, with IC50 values ranging from 8.51 to 29.65 ?M. The results showed that 4-methyl-cis-khellactone derivatives with S,S configuration could be a potential antitumor agents. ..
  7. Riveiro M, De Kimpe N, Moglioni A, Vazquez R, Monczor F, Shayo C, et al. Coumarins: old compounds with novel promising therapeutic perspectives. Curr Med Chem. 2010;17:1325-38 pubmed
    Natural as well as synthetic coumarins have recently drawn much attention due to its broad pharmacological activities...
  8. Xiong Y, Wang J, Wu F, Li J, Zhou L, Kong L. Effects of (±)-praeruptorin A on airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness and NF-?B signaling pathway in a mouse model of allergic airway disease. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;683:316-24 pubmed publisher
  9. Maresca A, Scozzafava A, Supuran C. 7,8-disubstituted- but not 6,7-disubstituted coumarins selectively inhibit the transmembrane, tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms IX and XII over the cytosolic ones I and II in the low nanomolar/subnanomolar range. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:7255-8 pubmed publisher
    Two series of disubstituted coumarins incorporating ether and acetyl/propionyl moieties in positions 6,7- and 7,8- of the heterocyclic ring were synthesized investigated for the inhibition of the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4...

More Information


  1. Jinturkar K, Anish C, Kumar M, Bagchi T, Panda A, Misra A. Liposomal formulations of Etoposide and Docetaxel for p53 mediated enhanced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cell lines. Biomaterials. 2012;33:2492-507 pubmed publisher
    ..The study opens up a new strategy to treat lung cancer especially in cases of drug resistance. Moreover direct delivery to lung may provide an important role in complete remission of the disease due to target specificity. ..
  2. Shin E, Lee C, Sung S, Kim Y, Hwang B, Lee M. Antifibrotic activity of coumarins from Cnidium monnieri fruits in HSC-T6 hepatic stellate cells. J Nat Med. 2011;65:370-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Activity-guided fractionation of the CHCl(3) fraction of C. monnieri led to the isolation of ten coumarins: osthol (1), meranzin (2), auraptenol (3), meranzin hydrate (4), 7-hydroxy-8-methoxy coumarin (5), imperatorin (..
  3. Xiong Y, Wang J, Wu F, Li J, Kong L. The effects of (±)-Praeruptorin A on airway inflammation, remodeling and transforming growth factor-?1/Smad signaling pathway in a murine model of allergic asthma. Int Immunopharmacol. 2012;14:392-400 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that PA significantly suppressed airway inflammation and airway remodeling induced by ovalbumin challenge, and is a potential candidate for the treatment of asthma. ..
  4. Iranshahi M, Masullo M, Asili A, Hamedzadeh A, Jahanbin B, Festa M, et al. Sesquiterpene coumarins from Ferula gumosa. J Nat Prod. 2010;73:1958-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures of 1-3 were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. The cytotoxic activity of the sesquiterpene coumarin derivatives was evaluated against a small panel of cancer cell lines. ..
  5. Keri R, Hosamani K, Shingalapur R, Hugar M. Analgesic, anti-pyretic and DNA cleavage studies of novel pyrimidine derivatives of coumarin moiety. Eur J Med Chem. 2010;45:2597-605 pubmed publisher
    ..5-7(a-e)] were synthesized from various 4-bromomethyl coumarins 1(a-e)...
  6. Kancheva V, Boranova P, Nechev J, Manolov I. Structure-activity relationships of new 4-hydroxy bis-coumarins as radical scavengers and chain-breaking antioxidants. Biochimie. 2010;92:1138-46 pubmed publisher
    The main antioxidant properties of five new 4-hydroxy-bis-coumarins during bulk lipid autoxidation at 80 degrees C and 0.1 mM and 1.0 mM concentrations were studied and compared with 4-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (1)...
  7. Genovese S, Epifano F. Auraptene: a natural biologically active compound with multiple targets. Curr Drug Targets. 2011;12:381-6 pubmed
  8. Ma Y, Zheng Y, Zeng X, Jiang L, Chen H, Liu R, et al. Novel docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles based on PCL-Tween 80 copolymer for cancer treatment. Int J Nanomedicine. 2011;6:2679-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Nanoparticles using PCL-Tween 80 copolymer as drug delivery vehicles may have a promising outcome for cancer patients. ..
  9. Shen X, Chen G, Zhu G, Cai J, Wang L, Hu Y, et al. 3'-O, 4'-O-aromatic acyl substituted 7,8-pyranocoumarins: a new class of P-glycoprotein modulators. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012;64:90-100 pubmed publisher
    ..3,4-Dimethoxyl substituted aromatic acyls, bearing a methoxy that might interact with Pgp as hydrogen bond accepter, were shown to be the most potent for reversing MDR. ..
  10. Wang Z, Kim J, Wang M, Shu S, Ahn Y. Larvicidal activity of Cnidium monnieri fruit coumarins and structurally related compounds against insecticide-susceptible and insecticide-resistant Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti. Pest Manag Sci. 2012;68:1041-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding indicates that the coumarins and the insecticides do not share a common mode of action...
  11. Yang L, Li X, Yang Q, Zhang K, Zhang N, Guo Y, et al. The neuroprotective effect of praeruptorin C against NMDA-induced apoptosis through down-regulating of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors. Toxicol In Vitro. 2013;27:908-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that Pra-C partially protects cortical neurons by inhibiting the expression of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors and regulating the Bcl-2 family. ..
  12. Yu P, Ci W, Wang G, Zhang J, Wu S, Xu W, et al. Praeruptorin A inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in murine macrophages through inhibition of NF-?B pathway activation. Phytother Res. 2011;25:550-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results suggest that PA may exert antiinflammatory effects in vitro in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages through inhibition of NF-?B signal pathway activation. ..
  13. Rosselli S, Maggio A, Faraone N, Spadaro V, Morris Natschke S, Bastow K, et al. The cytotoxic properties of natural coumarins isolated from roots of Ferulago campestris (Apiaceae) and of synthetic ester derivatives of aegelinol. Nat Prod Commun. 2009;4:1701-6 pubmed
    Grandivittin (1), agasyllin (2), aegelinol benzoate (3) and felamidin (20), four natural coumarins isolated from Ferulago campestris, and several synthetic ester derivatives of aegelinol (4) were tested against four tumor cell lines...
  14. Olmedo D, Sancho R, Bedoya L, López Pérez J, Del Olmo E, Munoz E, et al. 3-Phenylcoumarins as inhibitors of HIV-1 replication. Molecules. 2012;17:9245-57 pubmed publisher
  15. Anand P, Singh B, Singh N. A review on coumarins as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012;20:1175-80 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Coumarins are the phytochemicals with wide range of biological activities including AChE inhibition...
  16. Kellner S, Seidu Larry S, Burhenne J, Motorin Y, Helm M. A multifunctional bioconjugate module for versatile photoaffinity labeling and click chemistry of RNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:7348-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively, the azide function can be used for further derivatization by click-chemistry. This allows e.g. the introduction of an additional fluorophore for excitation with visible light...
  17. Zhao J, Zhou M, Liu Y, Zhang G, Luo Y. Chromones and coumarins from the dried fructus of Cnidium monnieri. Fitoterapia. 2011;82:767-71 pubmed publisher
    ..on the ethanolic extract of the dried fructus of Cnidium monnieri offered three chromones and eight coumarins. Among them, a new chromone and a new coumarin were identified and elucidated as 5,7-dihydroxy-6-[(2Z)-4-(?-d-..
  18. Davis R, Vullo D, Maresca A, Supuran C, Poulsen S. Natural product coumarins that inhibit human carbonic anhydrases. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013;21:1539-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study is the first to more widely investigate NP coumarins for CA inhibition following the recent discovery of a NP coumarin CA inhibitor...
  19. Shi Y, Zhang B, Chen X, Xu D, Wang Y, Dong H, et al. Osthole protects lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice by preventing down-regulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2013;48:819-24 pubmed publisher
    ..ACE2 inhibitor blocked the protective effect of osthole in NR 8383 cell lines. Taken together, our study showed that osthole improved survival rate and attenuated LPS-induced ALI and ACE2 may play a role in it. ..
  20. Li L, Seeram N. Maple syrup phytochemicals include lignans, coumarins, a stilbene, and other previously unreported antioxidant phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:11673-9 pubmed publisher
    ..7)], 2 coumarins [scopoletin (8) and fraxetin (9)], a stilbene [(E)-3,3'-dimethoxy-4,4'-dihydroxystilbene (10)], and 13 phenolic ..
  21. Jing W, Song Y, Yan R, Wang Y. Identification of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes involved in metabolism of (+)-praeruptorin A, a calcium channel blocker, by human liver microsomes using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2013;77:175-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, formations of all metabolites were predominantly inhibited by CYP3A4 antibody (37-68%). These findings shed a light on main involvement of CYP3A4 in human hepatic elimination of APs, indicating potential drug interactions. ..
  22. Li F, Gong Q, Wang L, Shi J. Osthole attenuates focal inflammatory reaction following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35:1686-90 pubmed
    ..The present study demonstrated that osthole may be a novel neuroprotective therapy in the treatment of focal ischemic stroke. ..
  23. Edwards M, Williams M, Maxwell A, McKay A. Mass spectrometry reveals that the antibiotic simocyclinone D8 binds to DNA gyrase in a "bent-over" conformation: evidence of positive cooperativity in binding. Biochemistry. 2011;50:3432-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This general approach will be applicable to other systems with multiple binding sites and highlights mass spectrometry's role as a powerful emerging tool for unraveling the complexities of biomolecular interactions. ..
  24. Kao S, Su J, Chen C, Yu M, Bai K, Chang J, et al. Osthole inhibits the invasive ability of human lung adenocarcinoma cells via suppression of NF-?B-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;261:105-15 pubmed publisher
  25. Chiang C, Cheng M, Peng C, Huang H, Chen I. A novel dimeric coumarin analog and antimycobacterial constituents from Fatoua pilosa. Chem Biodivers. 2010;7:1728-36 pubmed publisher
  26. Xiong Y, Wu F, Wang J, Li J, Kong L. Attenuation of airway hyperreactivity and T helper cell type 2 responses by coumarins from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141:314-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Its major constituents, coumarins, were presumed to be responsible for its efficacy...
  27. Woehrlin F, Fry H, Abraham K, Preiss Weigert A. Quantification of flavoring constituents in cinnamon: high variation of coumarin in cassia bark from the German retail market and in authentic samples from indonesia. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:10568-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, a high variation was observed in one of the trees, whereas no coumarin was detected in the samples of two other trees. In conclusion, coumarin levels in cassia cinnamon can vary widely even within a single tree...
  28. Devji T, Reddy C, Woo C, Awale S, Kadota S, Carrico Moniz D. Pancreatic anticancer activity of a novel geranylgeranylated coumarin derivative. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011;21:5770-3 pubmed publisher
  29. Li Y, Qi Z, Wang H, Fu X, Duan C. Palladium-catalyzed oxidative Heck coupling reaction for direct synthesis of 4-arylcoumarins using coumarins and arylboronic acids. J Org Chem. 2012;77:2053-7 pubmed publisher
    ..protocol for the direct synthesis of 4-arylcoumarins via palladium-catalyzed oxidative Heck coupling reaction of coumarins and arylboronic acids was developed...
  30. Marquis A, Genovese S, Epifano F, Grenier D. The plant coumarins auraptene and lacinartin as potential multifunctional therapeutic agents for treating periodontal disease. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:80 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we evaluated the effect of auraptene and lacinartin, two natural oxyprenylated coumarins, on the growth, adherence properties, and collagenase activity of Porphyromonas gingivalis...
  31. Mojarrab M, Delazar A, Moghadam S, Nazemiyeh H, Nahar L, Kumarasamy Y, et al. Armenin and isoarmenin--two prenylated coumarins from the aerial parts of Artemisia armeniaca. Chem Biodivers. 2011;8:2097-103 pubmed publisher
    ..preparative HPLC analyses of the MeOH extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia armeniaca yielded four prenylated coumarins, 7-hydroxy-8-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbutoxy)coumarin (named armenin), 8-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbutoxy)coumarin (..
  32. Ruan H, Zhang Z, Liang X, Fu Y, Su M, Liu Q, et al. Metabolism of dl-praeruptorin A in rat liver microsomes using HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Arch Pharm Res. 2011;34:1311-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Hydroxylation was the primary metabolic pathway of Pd-Ia, and possible chemical structures of the metabolites were identified. Further research is now needed to link the metabolism of Pd-Ia to its drug-drug interactions. ..
  33. Singhuber J, Baburin I, Ecker G, Kopp B, Hering S. Insights into structure-activity relationship of GABAA receptor modulating coumarins and furanocoumarins. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;668:57-64 pubmed publisher
    The coumarins imperatorin and osthole are known to exert anticonvulsant activity...
  34. Nazari Z, Iranshahi M. Biologically active sesquiterpene coumarins from Ferula species. Phytother Res. 2011;25:315-23 pubmed publisher
    ..antiviral, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitory and antiinflammatory activity have been attributed to sesquiterpene coumarins; structures containing a common coumarin group and a sesquiterpene moiety...
  35. Zhang Z, Liu Y, Su M, Liang X, Wang W, Zhu X. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion study of dl-praeruptorin A of Peucedanum praeruptorum in rats by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Phytomedicine. 2011;18:527-32 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no long-term accumulation of Pd-Ia in rat tissues. Total recoveries of Pd-Ia within 24 h were low (0.097% in bile, 0.120% in urine and 0.009% in feces), which might be resulted from liver first pass effect. ..
  36. Huang L, Bi H, Liu Y, Wang Y, Xue X, Huang M. CAR-mediated up-regulation of CYP3A4 expression in LS174T cells by Chinese herbal compounds. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2011;26:331-40 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that these herbal compounds can significantly up-regulate the CYP3A4 gene via the CAR-mediated pathway, which has important implications in herb-drug interactions. ..
  37. Ngo N, Nguyen V, Vo H, Vang O, Duus F, Ho T, et al. Cytotoxic Coumarins from the Bark of Mammea siamensis. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010;58:1487-91 pubmed
    ..named surangin D), was isolated from the bark of Mammea siamensis collected in Vietnam, along with four known coumarins, surangins B and C, and theraphins B and C, and seven xanthones, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone, 7-hydroxy-1-..
  38. Qin Y, Fan W, Chen H, Yao N, Tang W, Tang J, et al. In vitro and in vivo investigation of glucose-mediated brain-targeting liposomes. J Drug Target. 2010;18:536-49 pubmed publisher
    ..43 times higher than that of LIP, and 3.10 times higher than that of CLP. Both pharmacokinetics and distribution in mice were also investigated to show that this novel brain targeting drug delivery system was promising. ..
  39. Tanabe K, Matsushima Nishiwaki R, Yamaguchi S, Iida H, Dohi S, Kozawa O. Mechanisms of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced interleukin-6 synthesis in glioma cells. J Neuroinflammation. 2010;7:16 pubmed publisher
  40. Maresca A, Supuran C. Coumarins incorporating hydroxy- and chloro-moieties selectively inhibit the transmembrane, tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms IX and XII over the cytosolic ones I and II. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:4511-4 pubmed publisher
    A series of coumarins incorporating hydroxy-, chloro- and/or chloromethyl-moieties in positions 3-, 4-, 6- and 7- of the heterocyclic ring were investigated for the inhibition of the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC
  41. Shin E, Choi K, Yoo H, Lee C, Hwang B, Lee M. Inhibitory effects of coumarins from the stem barks of Fraxinus rhynchophylla on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33:1610-4 pubmed
    ..Activity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of six coumarins such as esculetin (1), scopoletin (2), fraxetin (3), fraxidin (4) esculin (5) and fraxin (6)...
  42. Liang T, Yue W, Li Q. Chemopreventive effects of Peucedanum praeruptorum DUNN and its major constituents on SGC7901 gastric cancer cells. Molecules. 2010;15:8060-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell growth decreased higher with the combined treatment of PA and DOX than that with the chemotherapy agent applied alone, suggesting that PA could reduce the dose of DOX for the desired effects. ..
  43. Cardoso S, Barreto M, Lourenço M, Henriques M, Candea A, Kaiser C, et al. Antitubercular activity of new coumarins. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2011;77:489-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These results could be considered a good starting point for further studies to develop new lead compounds to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. ..
  44. Sashidhara K, Kumar A, Dodda R, Krishna N, Agarwal P, Srivastava K, et al. Coumarin-trioxane hybrids: synthesis and evaluation as a new class of antimalarial scaffolds. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:3926-30 pubmed publisher
  45. Kostova I, Bhatia S, Grigorov P, Balkansky S, Parmar V, Prasad A, et al. Coumarins as antioxidants. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18:3929-51 pubmed
    b>Coumarins, a well-known class of naturally occurring compounds, display a remarkable array of biochemical and pharmacological actions, some of which suggest that certain members of this group of compounds may significantly affect the ..
  46. Yu P, Jin H, Zhang J, Wang G, Li J, Zhu Z, et al. Pyranocoumarins isolated from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in murine macrophages through inhibition of NF-?B and STAT3 activation. Inflammation. 2012;35:967-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results suggest that pyranocoumarins may exert anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages through the inhibition of NF-?B and STAT3 activation. ..
  47. Drabikova K, Perecko T, Nosal R, Rackova L, Ambrozova G, Lojek A, et al. Different effect of two synthetic coumarin-stilbene hybrid compounds on phagocyte activity. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010;31 Suppl 2:73-8 pubmed
    ..At present, great attention is devoted to the important class of phenolic compounds - coumarins - due to their antiinflammatory/antioxidant activities...
  48. Ho I, Lai T, Wu R, Tsai M, Wu C, Lee G, et al. Design and synthesis of triazolyl coumarins as Hg2+ selective fluorescent chemosensors. Analyst. 2012;137:5770-6 pubmed publisher
  49. Xu X, Zhang Y, Qu D, Jiang T, Li S. Osthole induces G2/M arrest and apoptosis in lung cancer A549 cells by modulating PI3K/Akt pathway. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2011;30:33 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was also observed after treating A549 cells with Osthole. Our findings suggest that Osthole may have a therapeutic application in the treatment of human lung cancer. ..
  50. Liao P, Chien S, Ho C, Wang E, Lee S, Kuo Y, et al. Osthole regulates inflammatory mediator expression through modulating NF-?B, mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase C, and reactive oxygen species. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:10445-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Osthole also inhibited NF-?B activation and ROS release in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Our current results indicated that osthole is the major anti-inflammatory ingredient of Cnidium monnieri seed ethanol extract. ..
  51. Belluti F, Fontana G, Dal Bo L, Carenini N, Giommarelli C, Zunino F. Design, synthesis and anticancer activities of stilbene-coumarin hybrid compounds: Identification of novel proapoptotic agents. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:3543-50 pubmed publisher
    The naturally occurring coumarins and resveratrol, attract great attention due to their wide range of biological properties, including anticancer, antileukemic, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities; moreover, their cancer ..
  52. Brenzan M, Santos A, Nakamura C, Filho B, Ueda Nakamura T, Young M, et al. Effects of (-) mammea A/BB isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense leaves and derivatives on mitochondrial membrane of Leishmania amazonensis. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the compound (3) may be acting to depolarize the mitochondrial membrane potential of the cells, leading to death of the parasite...
  53. Ee G, Mah S, Teh S, Rahmani M, Go R, Taufiq Yap Y. Soulamarin, a new coumarin from stem bark of Calophyllum soulattri. Molecules. 2011;16:9721-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures of these compounds were established based on spectral evidence (1D and 2D NMR)...