citrinin

Summary

Summary: Antibiotic and mycotoxin from Aspergillus niveus and Penicillium citrinum.

Top Publications

  1. Liu B, Wu T, Su M, Chung C, Yu F. Evaluation of citrinin occurrence and cytotoxicity in Monascus fermentation products. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:170-5 pubmed
    ..However, the presence of the mycotoxin citrinin (CTN), a secondary metabolite of Monascus species, in fermentation products is a potential threat to public ..
  2. Keblys M, Bernhoft A, Höfer C, Morrison E, Larsen H, Flåøyen A. The effects of the Penicillium mycotoxins citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxin A, patulin, penicillic acid, and roquefortine C on in vitro proliferation of porcine lymphocytes. Mycopathologia. 2004;158:317-24 pubmed
    The in vitro effect of each of the Penicillium mycotoxins citrinin (CIT), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT), penicillic acid (PIA) and roquefortine C (RQC) on mitogen induced lymphocyte proliferation was ..
  3. Lee C, Wang J, Pan T. Synchronous analysis method for detection of citrinin and the lactone and acid forms of monacolin K in red mold rice. J AOAC Int. 2006;89:669-77 pubmed
    ..agent monacolin K (MK), including the lactone form (MKL) and the acid form (MKA) and mycotoxin citrinin (CT)...
  4. Park S, Kim R, Ryu C, Choi S, Lee C, Kim J, et al. Citrinin, a mycotoxin from Penicillium citrinum, plays a role in inducing motility of Paenibacillus polymyxa. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2008;65:229-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The swarming motility of P. polymyxa strain E681 was greatly induced by a secondary metabolite, citrinin, produced by Penicillium citrinum KCTC6549 in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations of 2.5-15...
  5. Ostrý V, Malir F, Ruprich J. Producers and important dietary sources of ochratoxin A and citrinin. Toxins (Basel). 2013;5:1574-86 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Citrinin (CIT) is another important mycotoxin, too, and its research turns towards nephrotoxicity...
  6. Wang C, Yang H, Chen M, Wang Y, Li F, Luo C, et al. Real-time quantitative analysis of the influence of blue light on citrinin biosynthetic gene cluster expression in Monascus. Biotechnol Lett. 2012;34:1745-8 pubmed publisher
    When Monascus MX was grown under blue light instead of in the dark, citrinin production increased from 478 mg l(-1) to 698 mg l(-1)...
  7. Devi P, Naik C, Rodrigues C. Biotransformation of citrinin to decarboxycitrinin using an organic solvent-tolerant marine bacterium, Moraxella sp. MB1. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2006;8:129-38 pubmed
    ..AY936933. This bacterium was used for the transformation of a toxin, citrinin, into decarboxycitrinin in a biphasic system...
  8. Knasmuller S, Cavin C, Chakraborty A, Darroudi F, Majer B, Huber W, et al. Structurally related mycotoxins ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B, and citrinin differ in their genotoxic activities and in their mode of action in human-derived liver (HepG2) cells: implications for risk assessment. Nutr Cancer. 2004;50:190-7 pubmed
    ..the effects of three structurally related mycotoxins, namely, ochratoxin A (OTA), ochratoxin B (OTB), and citrinin (CIT), on human health, we investigated their acute toxic, mitogenic, and genotoxic effects in the human-derived ..
  9. Liu B, Yu F, Wu T, Li S, Su M, Wang M, et al. Evaluation of genotoxic risk and oxidative DNA damage in mammalian cells exposed to mycotoxins, patulin and citrinin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2003;191:255-63 pubmed
    ..In the present study, patulin (PAT) and citrinin (CTN), two prevalent mycotoxins, were evaluated for their genotoxic effects and oxidative damage to mammalian ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Chen L, Liu W, Hu X, Huang K, Wu J, Zhang Q. Citrinin derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium citrinum. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2011;59:515-7 pubmed
    Three new citrinin derivatives, penicitrinols C, D, and E (1-3), along with two known compounds, citrinin (4) and decarboxydihydrocitrinone (5), were isolated from Penicillium citrinum...
  2. Overy D, Frisvad J. New Penicillium species associated with bulbs and root vegetables. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2003;26:631-9 pubmed
    ..albocoremium. Moreover, the following metabolites produced by these species are known mycotoxins: citrinin, penicillic acid and terrestric acid by P. radicicola and terrestric acid and penitrem A by P. tulipae.
  3. Sakai K, Kinoshita H, Shimizu T, Nihira T. Construction of a citrinin gene cluster expression system in heterologous Aspergillus oryzae. J Biosci Bioeng. 2008;106:466-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The approximate region covering the citrinin biosynthetic gene cluster from Monascus purpureus was introduced into A...
  4. Iwahashi H, Kitagawa E, Suzuki Y, Ueda Y, Ishizawa Y, Nobumasa H, et al. Evaluation of toxicity of the mycotoxin citrinin using yeast ORF DNA microarray and Oligo DNA microarray. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:95 pubmed
    ..b>Citrinin, one of the very well known mycotoxins that was first isolated from Penicillium citrinum, is produced by more ..
  5. Chan W. Citrinin induces apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway and inhibition of survival signals in embryonic stem cells, and causes developmental injury in blastocysts. Biochem J. 2007;404:317-26 pubmed
    The mycotoxin CTN (citrinin), a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, has cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on various mammalian cells...
  6. El Adlouni C, Tozlovanu M, Naman F, Faid M, Pfohl Leszkowicz A. Preliminary data on the presence of mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, citrinin and aflatoxin B1) in black table olives "Greek style" of Moroccan origin. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2006;50:507-12 pubmed
    ..in particular Aspergillus and/or Penicillium, are able to develop on olive and produce ochratoxin A (OTA) and/or citrinin (CIT) and/or aflatoxin B (AFB) after harvest, during drying and storage of olives...
  7. Schmidt Heydt M, Rüfer C, Raupp F, Bruchmann A, Perrone G, Geisen R. Influence of light on food relevant fungi with emphasis on ochratoxin producing species. Int J Food Microbiol. 2011;145:229-37 pubmed publisher
    ..verrucosum was analysed. For comparison the influence of light on various other food relevant fungi, including citrinin producers, was also tested...
  8. Kumar R, Dwivedi P, Dhawan A, Das M, Ansari K. Citrinin-generated reactive oxygen species cause cell cycle arrest leading to apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway in mouse skin. Toxicol Sci. 2011;122:557-66 pubmed publisher
    The mycotoxin, citrinin (CTN), is a contaminant of various food and feed materials. Several in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that CTN has broad toxicity spectra; however, dermal toxicity is not known...
  9. Bouslimi A, Bouaziz C, Ayed Boussema I, Hassen W, Bacha H. Individual and combined effects of ochratoxin A and citrinin on viability and DNA fragmentation in cultured Vero cells and on chromosome aberrations in mice bone marrow cells. Toxicology. 2008;251:1-7 pubmed publisher
    Ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CTN) are two common contaminant mycotoxins which can occur jointly in a wide range of food commodities...
  10. Bragulat M, Martinez E, Castella G, Cabañes F. Ochratoxin A and citrinin producing species of the genus Penicillium from feedstuffs. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008;126:43-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Much less information is available about citrinin (CIT) and CIT producing species in cereals and their by products...
  11. Sabater Vilar M, Maas R, Fink Gremmels J. Mutagenicity of commercial Monascus fermentation products and the role of citrinin contamination. Mutat Res. 1999;444:7-16 pubmed
    ..evidence that one of the secondary metabolites produced by Monascus is identical in structure to the mycotoxin citrinin. Thus, a sensitive HPLC method was developed to analyse these food colorants for contamination with citrinin...
  12. Zachetti V, Granero A, Robledo S, Zón M, Fernandez H. Development of an amperometric biosensor based on peroxidases to quantify citrinin in rice samples. Bioelectrochemistry. 2013;91:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..11.1.7,H2O2-oxide-reductases) to determine the content of citrinin mycotoxin in rice samples is proposed by the first time...
  13. Yu F, Liao Y, Chang C, Liu B. Citrinin induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells via activation of the mitochondrial pathway. Toxicol Lett. 2006;161:143-51 pubmed
    The mycotoxin citrinin (CTN), a frequent natural contaminants of certain food and feeds, is known to be cytotoxic and genotoxic to various mammalian cells...
  14. Bailly J, Querin A, Le Bars Bailly S, Benard G, Guerre P. Citrinin production and stability in cheese. J Food Prot. 2002;65:1317-21 pubmed
    b>Citrinin is a nephrotoxic fungal metabolite that has been demonstrated to be mutagenic in hepatocytes...
  15. Chen C, Chan W. Inhibition of citrinin-induced apoptotic biochemical signaling in human hepatoma G2 cells by resveratrol. Int J Mol Sci. 2009;10:3338-57 pubmed publisher
    The mycotoxin citrinin (CTN), a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, exerts cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on various mammalian cells...
  16. Bragulat M, Abarca M, Cabañes F. Low occurrence of patulin- and citrinin-producing species isolated from grapes. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2008;47:286-9 pubmed
    To assess the ability of fungi isolated from grapes to produce patulin and citrinin. A total of 446 Aspergillus isolates belonging to 20 species and 101 Penicillium isolates were inoculated in Czapek yeast extract agar and yeast extract ..
  17. Speijers G, Speijers M. Combined toxic effects of mycotoxins. Toxicol Lett. 2004;153:91-8 pubmed
    ..This is the case for citrinin and ochratoxin A, but as the workshop focuses on trichotecenes and so this paper concentrates on these...
  18. Shimizu T, Kinoshita H, Ishihara S, Sakai K, Nagai S, Nihira T. Polyketide synthase gene responsible for citrinin biosynthesis in Monascus purpureus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:3453-7 pubmed
    b>Citrinin produced by Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species is a polyketide compound that has nephrotoxic activity in mammals and is bactericidal toward gram-positive bacteria...
  19. Shu P, Lin C. Simple and sensitive determination of citrinin in Monascus by GC-selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry. Anal Sci. 2002;18:283-7 pubmed
    A new method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of citrinin in Monascus by gas-chromatography-selected ion monitoring (SIM) mass spectrometry has been developed...
  20. Lu Z, Lin Z, Wang W, Du L, Zhu T, Fang Y, et al. Citrinin dimers from the halotolerant fungus Penicillium citrinum B-57. J Nat Prod. 2008;71:543-6 pubmed publisher
    ..compounds from microorganisms, a halotolerant fungal strain, Penicillium citrinum B-57, which mainly produces citrinin derivatives, was isolated from sediments collected from the Jilantai salt field...
  21. Li L, Shao Y, Li Q, Yang S, Chen F. Identification of Mga1, a G-protein alpha-subunit gene involved in regulating citrinin and pigment production in Monascus ruber M7. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010;308:108-14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, its potential to produce the mycotoxin citrinin poses a threat to food safety...
  22. Kumari H, Naidu K, Vishwanatha S, Narasimhamurthy K, Vijayalakshmi G. Safety evaluation of Monascus purpureus red mould rice in albino rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:1739-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that toxicity studies with RMR of M. purpureus did not cause any toxic effects in albino rats...
  23. Chang C, Yu F, Wu T, Wang L, Liu B. Mycotoxin citrinin induced cell cycle G2/M arrest and numerical chromosomal aberration associated with disruption of microtubule formation in human cells. Toxicol Sci. 2011;119:84-92 pubmed publisher
    As a nephrotoxic mycotoxin, citrinin (CTN) contaminates various foodstuffs and animal feed commodities...
  24. Lee C, Hung H, Wang J, Pan T. Improving the ratio of monacolin K to citrinin production of Monascus purpureus NTU 568 under dioscorea medium through the mediation of pH value and ethanol addition. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:6493-502 pubmed
    ..found to stimulate monacolin K (cholesterol-lowering agent) formation in our previous study, but the mycotoxin-citrinin has never been studied...
  25. Blaszkewicz M, Muñoz K, Degen G. Methods for analysis of citrinin in human blood and urine. Arch Toxicol. 2013;87:1087-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Citrinin (CIT), produced by several Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus species, has been detected as contaminant in feeds, grains, and other food commodities...
  26. Heussner A, Dietrich D, O BRIEN E. In vitro investigation of individual and combined cytotoxic effects of ochratoxin A and other selected mycotoxins on renal cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2006;20:332-41 pubmed
    ..This is particularly true for ochratoxin A (OTA), ochratoxin B (OTB), citrinin (CIT) and occasionally for patulin (PAT) as they are all produced by a number of Penicillium and Aspergillus ..
  27. Singh N, Sharma A, Dwivedi P, Patil R, Kumar M. Citrinin and endosulfan induced teratogenic effects in Wistar rats. J Appl Toxicol. 2007;27:143-51 pubmed
    ..The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the teratogenic potential of citrinin (CIT) and endosulfan either alone or in combination in pregnant rats during gestational days 6-20...
  28. Singh N, Sharma A, Dwivedi P, Patil R, Kumar M. Citrinin and endosulfan induced maternal toxicity in pregnant Wistar rats: pathomorphological study. J Appl Toxicol. 2007;27:589-601 pubmed
    ..The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the maternal toxicity of citrinin (CIT) and endosulfan administered per os either alone or in combination in pregnant rats during gestational days ..
  29. Duan Z, Lin Z, Yao H, Gao Y, Zhang K, Zhao S, et al. Preparation of artificial antigen and egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) of citrinin for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Biomed Environ Sci. 2009;22:237-43 pubmed publisher
    To prepare artificial antigens and anti-citrinin egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) to build an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for citrinin (CTN)...
  30. Jia X, Xu Z, Zhou L, Sung C. Elimination of the mycotoxin citrinin production in the industrial important strain Monascus purpureus SM001. Metab Eng. 2010;12:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..industrial strain Monascus purpureus SM001 has been greatly limited by the synchronous production of mycotoxin citrinin. Here we have tried both traditional mutagenesis and metabolic engineering methods to eliminate the production of ..
  31. Fu G, Xu Y, Li Y, Tan W. Construction of a replacement vector to disrupt pksCT gene for the mycotoxin citrinin biosynthesis in Monascus aurantiacus and maintain food red pigment production. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl 1:137-42 pubmed
    More and more people pay attention to citrinin produced by Monascus, which has nephrotoxic activity in mammals. It was reported that pksCT gene is responsible for citrinin biosynthesis in Monascus purpureus...
  32. Donmez Altuntas H, Dumlupinar G, Imamoglu N, Hamurcu Z, Liman B. Effects of the mycotoxin citrinin on micronucleus formation in a cytokinesis-block genotoxicity assay in cultured human lymphocytes. J Appl Toxicol. 2007;27:337-41 pubmed
    ..In the present study, the mycotoxin citrinin (CTN) was evaluated for its genotoxic effects to human peripheral blood lymphocytes from six different ..
  33. Chan W. Citrinin induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells. IUBMB Life. 2008;60:171-9 pubmed publisher
    The mycotoxin citrinin (CTN) is a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, and exerts cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on various mammalian cells. CTN causes cell injury, including apoptosis...
  34. Kumar M, Dwivedi P, Sharma A, Singh N, Patil R. Ochratoxin A and citrinin nephrotoxicity in New Zealand White rabbits: an ultrastructural assessment. Mycopathologia. 2007;163:21-30 pubmed
    In the present investigation, ochratoxin A (OTA) (0.75 mg/kg feed) and citrinin (CIT) (15 mg/kg feed) were fed alone and in combination to young growing New Zealand White rabbits for 60 days to evaluate renal ultrastructural alterations...
  35. Wichmann G, Herbarth O, Lehmann I. The mycotoxins citrinin, gliotoxin, and patulin affect interferon-gamma rather than interleukin-4 production in human blood cells. Environ Toxicol. 2002;17:211-8 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that mycotoxins are responsible for this effect and therefore investigated the influence of citrinin, gliotoxin, and patulin on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
  36. Singh N, Sharma A, Dwivedi P, Patil R, Kumar M. Experimentally induced citrinin and endosulfan toxicity in pregnant Wistar rats: histopathological alterations in liver and kidneys of fetuses. J Appl Toxicol. 2008;28:901-7 pubmed publisher
    In the present investigation, citrinin (CIT) (10 mg kg(-1) feed) and endosulfan (1 mg kg(-1) body weight) were administered orally alone and in combination to pregnant Wistar rats from gestational day 6 to 20 and their fetuses were ..
  37. Chan W. Effects of citrinin on maturation of mouse oocytes, fertilization, and fetal development in vitro and in vivo. Toxicol Lett. 2008;180:28-32 pubmed publisher
    The mycotoxin citrinin (CTN), a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, exerts cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on various mammalian cells...
  38. Pattanagul P, Pinthong R, Phianmongkhol A, Tharatha S. Mevinolin, citrinin and pigments of adlay angkak fermented by Monascus sp. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008;126:20-3 pubmed publisher
    ..secondary metabolites such as mevinolin and pigments are produced; the fungi also produce toxin substance called citrinin. This study conducted the cultivation of M. purpureus (ATCC 16365, BCC 6131, DMKU and FTCMU) and M...
  39. Wang J, Lee C, Pan T. Improvement of monacolin K, gamma-aminobutyric acid and citrinin production ratio as a function of environmental conditions of Monascus purpureus NTU 601. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003;30:669-76 pubmed
    ..b>Citrinin, another secondary metabolite, is toxic to humans, thus lowering the acceptability of red mold rice to the ..
  40. Pfohl Leszkowicz A, Petkova Bocharova T, Chernozemsky I, Castegnaro M. Balkan endemic nephropathy and associated urinary tract tumours: a review on aetiological causes and the potential role of mycotoxins. Food Addit Contam. 2002;19:282-302 pubmed
    ..This paper reviews the different hypotheses about the aetiology of endemic uropathy and pays particular attention to the role of fungal toxins. ..
  41. Bennett J, Klich M. Mycotoxins. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003;16:497-516 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the most important ones associated with human and veterinary diseases, including aflatoxin, citrinin, ergot akaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone.
  42. Klarić M, Zeljezic D, Rumora L, Peraica M, Pepeljnjak S, Domijan A. A potential role of calcium in apoptosis and aberrant chromatin forms in porcine kidney PK15 cells induced by individual and combined ochratoxin A and citrinin. Arch Toxicol. 2012;86:97-107 pubmed publisher
    ..the involvement of calcium signalling in genotoxicity, apoptosis and necrosis evoked by ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CTN) alone or in combination in porcine kidney PK15 cells...
  43. Flajs D, Peraica M. Toxicological properties of citrinin. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2009;60:457-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Citrinin (CTN) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin produced by several fungal strains belonging to the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus...
  44. Huang Y, Lai C, Lou S, Yeh J, Chan W. Activation of JNK and PAK2 is essential for citrinin-induced apoptosis in a human osteoblast cell line. Environ Toxicol. 2009;24:343-56 pubmed publisher
    The mycotoxin citrinin (CTN), a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, exerts cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on various mammalian cells. CTN causes cell injury, including apoptosis...
  45. Tabata S, Iida K, Kimura K, Iwasaki Y, Nakazato M, Kamata K, et al. [Investigation of ochratoxin a, B and citrinin contamination in various commercial foods]. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2008;49:111-5 pubmed
    Ochratoxin A (OTA), ochratoxin B (OTB) and citrinin (CIT) in commercial foods were simultaneously determined and confirmed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (..
  46. Heperkan D, Meric B, Sismanoglu G, Dalkiliç G, Güler F. Mycobiota, mycotoxigenic fungi, and citrinin production in black olives. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;571:203-10 pubmed
  47. Arévalo F, Granero A, Fernandez H, Raba J, Zón M. Citrinin (CIT) determination in rice samples using a micro fluidic electrochemical immunosensor. Talanta. 2011;83:966-73 pubmed publisher
    The development of an electrochemical immunosensor incorporated in a micro fluidic cell for quantification of citrinin (CIT) mycotoxin in rice samples is described for the first time...
  48. Liu B, Chi J, Hsiao Y, Tsai K, Lee Y, Lin C, et al. The fungal metabolite, citrinin, inhibits lipopolysaccharide/interferon-?-induced nitric oxide production in glomerular mesangial cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10:1608-15 pubmed publisher
    The mycotoxin, citrinin (CTN), is a secondary metabolite of the fermented products of Monascus. The mycotoxin can either suppress or stimulate immune responses...
  49. Wu C, Kuo Y, Lee C, Hsu Y, Pan T. Synchronous high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector and mass spectrometry for the determination of citrinin, monascin, ankaflavin, and the lactone and acid forms of monacolin K in red mold rice. J AOAC Int. 2011;94:179-90 pubmed
    ..the cholesterol-lowering agent monacolin K (MK) in both its lactone (MKL) and acid (MKA) forms and the mycotoxin citrinin (CT)...
  50. Chan W, Shiao N. Effect of citrinin on mouse embryonic development in vitro and in vivo. Reprod Toxicol. 2007;24:120-5 pubmed
    b>Citrinin (CTN), a mycotoxin that is often found as a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, has been demonstrated to have cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on various mammalian cells...
  51. Wu T, Yang J, Yu F, Liu B. Evaluation of nephrotoxic effects of mycotoxins, citrinin and patulin, on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:4398-404 pubmed publisher
    b>Citrinin (CTN) and patulin (PAT) are fungal secondary metabolites which are found in food and feed and showed organotoxicity in mature animals...
  52. Hsu L, Hsu Y, Liang Y, Lin Z, Kuo Y, Pan T. Protective effect of deferricoprogen isolated from Monascus purpureus NTU 568 on citrinin-induced apoptosis in HEK-293 cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:7880-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Red mold rice (RMR) contains citrinin, a nephrotoxic agent capable of exerting oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis...
  53. Li Y, Wu H, Guo L, Zheng Y, Guo Y. Microsphere-based flow cytometric immunoassay for the determination of citrinin in red yeast rice. Food Chem. 2012;134:2540-5 pubmed publisher
    The determination of citrinin (CIT) by a microsphere-based flow cytometric immunoassay (MFCI) has been developed. In the method, the carboxyl-modified microspheres were conjugated with CIT-Ovalbumin (OVA) antigen...