aflatoxin b1


Summary: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.

Top Publications

  1. Rawal S, Coulombe R. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 in turkey liver microsomes: the relative roles of cytochromes P450 1A5 and 3A37. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;254:349-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The data support the conclusion that P450 1A5 is the dominant enzyme responsible for AFB(1) bioactivation and metabolism at environmentally-relevant AFB(1) concentrations in turkey liver...
  2. Prado G, Madeira J, Morais V, Oliveira M, Souza R, Peluzio J, et al. Reduction of aflatoxin B1 in stored peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Food Prot. 2011;74:1003-6 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae was inoculated 3 h before the pathogen in IAC Caiapó seeds and incubated for 7 days at 25°C. The use of S. cerevisiae is a promising strategy for biological control of aflatoxin contamination in peanuts. ..
  3. Reddy K, Farhana N, Salleh B. Occurrence of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 in Malaysian foods used for human consumption. J Food Sci. 2011;76:T99-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Aspergillus spp. and AFB1 was not detected in any cookies tested. Although this survey was not comprehensive, it provides valuable information on aflatoxin levels in foods marketed in Malaysia. ..
  4. Hanioka N, Nonaka Y, Saito K, Negishi T, Okamoto K, Kataoka H, et al. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Chemosphere. 2012;89:526-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent mycotoxin that induces hepatocellular carcinoma in many animal species, including humans...
  5. Williams J, Deschl U, Williams G. DNA damage in fetal liver cells of turkey and chicken eggs dosed with aflatoxin B1. Arch Toxicol. 2011;85:1167-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Turkey embryos appeared to be slightly more susceptible to AFB damage, although no difference in the survival between chicken and turkey fetuses was observed. ..
  6. Obuseh F, Jolly P, Jiang Y, Shuaib F, Waterbor J, Ellis W, et al. Aflatoxin B1 albumin adducts in plasma and aflatoxin M1 in urine are associated with plasma concentrations of vitamins A and E. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2010;80:355-68 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the relationship between aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in plasma and the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) metabolite in urine and plasma ..
  7. Joannis Cassan C, Tozlovanu M, Hadjeba Medjdoub K, Ballet N, Pfohl Leszkowicz A. Binding of zearalenone, aflatoxin B1, and ochratoxin A by yeast-based products: a method for quantification of adsorption performance. J Food Prot. 2011;74:1175-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study are useful for comparing the adsorption efficiency of various yeast products and understanding the mechanisms involved in adsorption. ..
  8. Lu J, Yang W, Lin Y, Jin S, Yuh C. Hepatitis B virus X antigen and aflatoxin B1 synergistically cause hepatitis, steatosis and liver hyperplasia in transgenic zebrafish. Acta Histochem. 2013;115:728-39 pubmed publisher
    b>Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and the hepatitis B virus X antigen (HBx) are linked to the formation of liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  9. Abdel Hadi A, Carter D, Magan N. Temporal monitoring of the nor-1 (aflD) gene of Aspergillus flavus in relation to aflatoxin B? production during storage of peanuts under different water activity levels. J Appl Microbiol. 2010;109:1914-22 pubmed publisher
    ..flavus in stored peanuts at three water activity levels (a(w) , 0·95, 0·90 and 0·85) for 6 weeks...

More Information


  1. Rawal S, Yip S, Coulombe R. Cloning, expression and functional characterization of cytochrome P450 3A37 from turkey liver with high aflatoxin B1 epoxidation activity. Chem Res Toxicol. 2010;23:1322-9 pubmed publisher
    ..86 +/- 0.75 nmol/min/nmol P450, respectively. These data strongly suggest that P450 3A37, along with P450 1A5, plays an important role in AFB(1) epoxidation in turkey liver. ..
  2. Huang B, Xiao H, Zhang J, Zhang L, Yang H, Zhang Y, et al. Dual-label time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for simultaneous detection of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A. Arch Toxicol. 2009;83:619-24 pubmed publisher
    A dual-label time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) for simultaneous quantification of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) is described...
  3. Hussain Z, Khan M, Khan A, Javed I, Saleemi M, Mahmood S, et al. Residues of aflatoxin B1 in broiler meat: effect of age and dietary aflatoxin B1 levels. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:3304-7 pubmed publisher
    This study describes the effect of dietary levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and age of the birds upon the residue level in liver and muscles of broiler chicks...
  4. Nayak S, Sashidhar R. Metabolic intervention of aflatoxin B1 toxicity by curcumin. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;127:641-4 pubmed publisher
    ..001) excretion in the urine, DNA adduct (p<0.05) in the liver and albumin adduct (p<0.001) in the serum. The experimental results substantiates that curcumin intervention ameliorates the AFB(1) induced toxicity. ..
  5. Yen C, Hung J, Ueng Y, Liu S, Chen S, Liu H, et al. Glycine N-methyltransferase affects the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and blocks its carcinogenic effect. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;235:296-304 pubmed publisher
    ..9 microM. Therefore, GNMT is a tumor suppressor for HCC and it exerts protective effects in hepatocytes via direct interaction with AFB(1), resulting in reduced AFB(1)-DNA adducts formation and cell death. ..
  6. Adjovi Y, Bailly S, Gnonlonfin B, Tadrist S, Querin A, Sanni A, et al. Analysis of the contrast between natural occurrence of toxigenic Aspergilli of the Flavi section and aflatoxin B1 in cassava. Food Microbiol. 2014;38:151-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by Aspergilli of the section Flavi that may contaminate food, in the field or during storage. Cassava represents an important staple food in sub-Saharan Africa...
  7. Nogueira J, Gonçalez E, Galleti S, Facanali R, Marques M, Felicio J. Ageratum conyzoides essential oil as aflatoxin suppressor of Aspergillus flavus. Int J Food Microbiol. 2010;137:55-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability to inhibit aflatoxin production as a new biological activity of A.conyzoides L. indicates that it may be considered as a useful tool for a better understanding of the complex pathway of aflatoxin biosynthesis. ..
  8. Kutz R, Sampson J, Pompeu L, Ledoux D, Spain J, Vazquez Anon M, et al. Efficacy of Solis, NovasilPlus, and MTB-100 to reduce aflatoxin M1 levels in milk of early to mid lactation dairy cows fed aflatoxin B1. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:3959-63 pubmed publisher
    ..52%). Results indicated that SO and NOV at 0.56% of the diet were effective in reducing milk AFM(1) concentrations in cows consuming a total mixed ration containing 112 microg of AFB(1)/kg of diet DM. ..
  9. Rasooly R, Hernlem B, Friedman M. Low levels of aflatoxin B1, ricin, and milk enhance recombinant protein production in mammalian cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71682 pubmed publisher
    ..tissue culture medium by adding low levels of environmental stressors, such as 1 µM of the fungal toxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), 1 ng of the castor bean protein toxin ricin, or 1% reconstituted milk, enhances transcription and ..
  10. Diaz G, Murcia H, Cepeda S. Cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 in chickens and quail. Poult Sci. 2010;89:2461-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study indicate that CYP2A6 and, to a lesser extent, CYP1A1 are responsible for the bioactivation of AFB(1) into AFBO in both quail and chicken hepatic microsomes...
  11. Chen S, Zhang H. Development of a microwave-assisted-extraction-based method for the determination of aflatoxins B1, G1, B2, and G2 in grains and grain products. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013;405:1623-30 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and 8.7 %. A total of 36 samples from local markets were analyzed, and aflatoxin B(1) was found to be the predominant toxin, with concentrations ranging from 0.42 to 3.41 ?g/kg. ..
  12. Merrick B, Phadke D, Auerbach S, Mav D, Stiegelmeyer S, Shah R, et al. RNA-Seq profiling reveals novel hepatic gene expression pattern in aflatoxin B1 treated rats. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61768 pubmed publisher
    Deep sequencing was used to investigate the subchronic effects of 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a potent hepatocarcinogen, on the male rat liver transcriptome prior to onset of histopathological lesions or tumors...
  13. Miliţă N, Mihăescu G, Chifiriuc C. [Aflatoxins--health risk factors]. Bacteriol Virusol Parazitol Epidemiol. 2010;55:19-24 pubmed
    ..After metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in the mammalian body, result two metabolites M1 and M2 as hydroxylated derivatives of the parent ..
  14. Gross Steinmeyer K, Stapleton P, Tracy J, Bammler T, Strom S, Eaton D. Sulforaphane- and phenethyl isothiocyanate-induced inhibition of aflatoxin B1-mediated genotoxicity in human hepatocytes: role of GSTM1 genotype and CYP3A4 gene expression. Toxicol Sci. 2010;116:422-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The downregulation of CYP3A4 by SFN may have important implications for drug interactions. ..
  15. Ratnavathi C, Komala V, Kumar B, Das I, Patil J. Natural occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in sorghum grown in different geographical regions of India. J Sci Food Agric. 2012;92:2416-20 pubmed publisher
    ..However, 0.75% (12) of total samples contained aflatoxin above the safety limit. The overall occurrence of toxin from Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan was below 5 µg kg(-1). ..
  16. Long X, Yao J, Zeng Z, Ma Y, Huang X, Wei Z, et al. Polymorphisms in the coding region of X-ray repair complementing group 4 and aflatoxin B1-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2013;58:171-81 pubmed publisher
    ..the role of polymorphisms in the coding region of this gene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) caused by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)...
  17. Partanen H, El Nezami H, Leppanen J, Myllynen P, Woodhouse H, Vahakangas K. Aflatoxin B1 transfer and metabolism in human placenta. Toxicol Sci. 2010;113:216-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a common dietary contaminant, is a major risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early onset of HCC in some countries in Africa and South-East Asia indicates the importance of early life exposure...
  18. Yang J, Bai F, Zhang K, Bai S, Peng X, Ding X, et al. Effects of feeding corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and B2 on hepatic functions of broilers. Poult Sci. 2012;91:2792-801 pubmed publisher
  19. Shuaib F, Jolly P, Ehiri J, Jiang Y, Ellis W, Stiles J, et al. Association between anemia and aflatoxin B1 biomarker levels among pregnant women in Kumasi, Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:1077-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This study found a strong, consistent association between anemia in pregnancy and aflatoxins. ..
  20. Agar G, Alpsoy L, Bozari S, Erturk F, Yildirim N. Determination of protective role of selenium against aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage. Toxicol Ind Health. 2013;29:396-403 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the protective role of selenium (Se(4+)) against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced DNA damage was determined using random amplified polymorphic DNA on two plants including Vicia ..
  21. Bernabucci U, Colavecchia L, Danieli P, Basiricò L, Lacetera N, Nardone A, et al. Aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 affect the oxidative status of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2011;25:684-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that, even though by different mechanisms, AFB(1) and FB(1) may induce cytotoxicity through an impairment of the oxidative status of PBMC. ..
  22. Armando M, Dogi C, Rosa C, Dalcero A, Cavaglieri L. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and the reduction of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin B1 production at different interacting environmental conditions, in vitro. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2012;29:1443-9 pubmed publisher
  23. Ma Q, Gao X, Zhou T, Zhao L, Fan Y, Li X, et al. Protective effect of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on egg quality, biochemical and histopathological changes in layers exposed to aflatoxin B1. Poult Sci. 2012;91:2852-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, ANSB060 also ameliorated the damage of liver and kidney tissue and restored them to normal. Hence, ANSB060 had the ability to inhibit the damage induced by AFB1; it will have a great potential in industrial applications. ..
  24. Bouhlel I, Limem I, Skandrani I, Nefatti A, Ghedira K, Dijoux Franca M, et al. Assessment of isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside from Acacia salicina: protective effects toward oxidation damage and genotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B1 and nifuroxazide. J Appl Toxicol. 2010;30:551-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these observations provide evidence that isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside isolated from the leaves of A. salicina is able to protect cells against the consequences of oxidative stress. ..
  25. Britzi M, Friedman S, Miron J, Solomon R, Cuneah O, Shimshoni J, et al. Carry-over of aflatoxin B1 to aflatoxin M1 in high yielding Israeli cows in mid- and late-lactation. Toxins (Basel). 2013;5:173-83 pubmed publisher
    The potent hepatotoxin and carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a common mycotoxin contaminant of grains used in animal feeds...
  26. Wu H, Wang Q, Yang H, Tsai W, Chen C, Santella R. Global DNA methylation in a population with aflatoxin B1 exposure. Epigenetics. 2013;8:962-9 pubmed publisher
    ..reported that global DNA hypomethylation, measured as Sat2 methylation in white blood cells (WBC), and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure were associated with increased hepatocellular carcinoma risk...
  27. Denli M, Blandon J, Guynot M, Salado S, Perez J. Effects of dietary AflaDetox on performance, serum biochemistry, histopathological changes, and aflatoxin residues in broilers exposed to aflatoxin B(1). Poult Sci. 2009;88:1444-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results showed that addition of AflaDetox may reduce the adverse effects produced by the presence of AFB(1) in broiler chickens diets. ..
  28. Alpsoy L, Yalvac M. Key roles of vitamins A, C, and E in aflatoxin B1-induced oxidative stress. Vitam Horm. 2011;86:287-305 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter reviews the mechanism of AFB(1)-induced oxidative stress and focuses on the protective effects of vitamins A, C, and E on reducing this stress. ..
  29. Bianco G, Russo R, Marzocco S, Velotto S, Autore G, Severino L. Modulation of macrophage activity by aflatoxins B1 and B2 and their metabolites aflatoxins M1 and M2. Toxicon. 2012;59:644-50 pubmed publisher
  30. Shouman B, El Morsi D, Shabaan S, Abdel Hamid A, Mehrim A. Aflatoxin B1 level in relation to child's feeding and growth. Indian J Pediatr. 2012;79:56-61 pubmed publisher
    ..TLC analysis was performed for aflatoxin B1 level in studied children and their mothers. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in 17 out of 46 (36...
  31. Merrick B, Auerbach S, Stockton P, Foley J, Malarkey D, Sills R, et al. Testing an aflatoxin B1 gene signature in rat archival tissues. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012;25:1132-44 pubmed publisher
    ..with eventual tumor development could be detected in archival liver, kidney, and lung of rats exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) for 90 days in feed at 1 ppm. These tissues originated from the same rats used in the microarray study...
  32. Yunus A, Razzazi Fazeli E, Bohm J. Aflatoxin B(1) in affecting broiler's performance, immunity, and gastrointestinal tract: a review of history and contemporary issues. Toxins (Basel). 2011;3:566-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to these issues, the metabolism of aflatoxin B(1) and recently proposed hypotheses regarding biphasic effects of the mycotoxin in broilers are briefly discussed. ..
  33. Roebuck B, Johnson D, Sutter C, Egner P, Scholl P, Friesen M, et al. Transgenic expression of aflatoxin aldehyde reductase (AKR7A1) modulates aflatoxin B1 metabolism but not hepatic carcinogenesis in the rat. Toxicol Sci. 2009;109:41-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results imply that the prevention of protein adducts mediated by AKR are not critical to protection against AFB(1) tumorigenicity. ..
  34. Elshafie S, Elmubarak A, El Nagerabi S, Elshafie A. Aflatoxin B1 contamination of traditionally processed peanuts butter for human consumption in Sudan. Mycopathologia. 2011;171:435-9 pubmed publisher
    ..There is therefore urgent need for strong form of quality control measures and public awareness. The use of excellent grade peanuts and care during processing and storage are priority. ..
  35. Tang D, Zhong Z, Niessner R, Knopp D. Multifunctional magnetic bead-based electrochemical immunoassay for the detection of aflatoxin B1 in food. Analyst. 2009;134:1554-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The as-prepared immunoassay provides a promising approach for the screening of organic pollutants because it is simple, rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and without the need of sample pre-concentration. ..
  36. Liu R, Jin Q, Tao G, Shan L, Huang J, Liu Y, et al. Photodegradation kinetics and byproducts identification of the Aflatoxin B1 in aqueous medium by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 2010;45:553-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study first reports the appearance of these photodegradation products and the proposed degradation pathway in aqueous media. ..
  37. Solcan C, Gogu M, Floristean V, Oprisan B, Solcan G. The hepatoprotective effect of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) berries on induced aflatoxin B1 poisoning in chickens 1. Poult Sci. 2013;92:966-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of oil from SB berries against toxicity induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens...
  38. Abdel Wahhab M, Hassan N, El Kady A, Khadrawy Y, El Nekeety A, Mohamed S, et al. Red ginseng extract protects against aflatoxin B1 and fumonisins-induced hepatic pre-cancerous lesions in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:733-42 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of ginseng extract (GE) against pre-cancerous lesions in female Sprague-Dawley rats treated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin (FB)...
  39. Kumar A, Shukla R, Singh P, Dubey N. Chemical composition, antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil and its safety assessment as plant based antimicrobial. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:539-43 pubmed publisher
    ..3 and 0.2 microl ml(-1), respectively. The O. sanctum EO and eugenol also inhibited the aflatoxin B1 production completely at 0.2 and 0.1 microl ml(-1), respectively...
  40. Gross Steinmeyer K, Stapleton P, Tracy J, Bammler T, Strom S, Buhler D, et al. Modulation of aflatoxin B1-mediated genotoxicity in primary cultures of human hepatocytes by diindolylmethane, curcumin, and xanthohumols. Toxicol Sci. 2009;112:303-10 pubmed publisher
    ..DIM), isoxanthohumol (IXN), or 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN) to reduce DNA adduct formation of the hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB)...
  41. Battacone G, Nudda A, Palomba M, Mazzette A, Pulina G. The transfer of aflatoxin M1 in milk of ewes fed diet naturally contaminated by aflatoxins and effect of inclusion of dried yeast culture in the diet. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:4997-5004 pubmed publisher
    ..1) the transfer of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) into the milk of dairy ewes fed diets naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1); 2) the effect of the addition of dried yeast culture in the diet on this transfer; and 3) the ..
  42. Pál L, Dublecz K, Weber M, Balogh K, Erdélyi M, Szigeti G, et al. Effect of combined treatment with aflatoxin B1 and T-2 toxin and metabolites on some production traits and lipid peroxide status parameters of broiler chickens. Acta Vet Hung. 2009;57:75-84 pubmed publisher
    ..31 and 0.26 mg/kg) or with that containing a combination of T-2 and HT-2 toxin (0.32 and 0.25 mg/kg) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, 0.38 mg/kg) for 21 days...
  43. Yu F, Gribas A, Vdovenko M, Sakharov I. Development of ultrasensitive direct chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for determination of aflatoxin B1 in food products. Talanta. 2013;107:25-9 pubmed publisher
    A direct competitive chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was developed...
  44. Zhang Z, Lu H, Huan F, Meghan C, Yang X, Wang Y, et al. Cytochrome P450 2A13 mediates the neoplastic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells at a low concentration of aflatoxin B1. Int J Cancer. 2014;134:1539-48 pubmed publisher
    ..ATR-mediated the dysfunction of apoptosis and DNA damage repair might be involved. These results help establish a linkage between airborne AFB1 and human respiratory carcinoma. ..
  45. Qi L, Li L, Chen Y, Chen Z, Bai T, Xiang B, et al. Genome-wide and differential proteomic analysis of hepatitis B virus and aflatoxin B1 related hepatocellular carcinoma in Guangxi, China. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e83465 pubmed publisher
    Both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure can cause liver damage as well as increase the probability of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  46. Guo S, Shi D, Liao S, Su R, Lin Y, Pan J, et al. Influence of selenium on body weights and immune organ indexes in ducklings intoxicated with aflatoxin B?. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;146:167-70 pubmed publisher
    ..01). These results revealed that AFB(1) significantly affect ducklings' growth and immune organs development. However, selenium significantly ameliorated the negative effects induced by AFB(1)...
  47. Kim J, Bunderson B, Croasdell A, Coulombe R. Functional characterization of alpha-class glutathione s-transferases from the Turkey (meleagris gallopavo). Toxicol Sci. 2011;124:45-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The observation that recombinant tGSTAs detoxify AFBO, whereas their hepatic forms do not, implies that the hepatic forms of these enzymes are silenced by one or more regulatory mechanisms...
  48. Kang ethe E, Lang a K. Aflatoxin B1 and M1 contamination of animal feeds and milk from urban centers in Kenya. Afr Health Sci. 2009;9:218-26 pubmed
    ..A total of 830 animal feed and 613 milk samples from four urban centers were analyzed for aflatoxin B1 and M1 respectively using competitive enzyme immunoassay...
  49. Choi K, Chung W, Kwon J, Yu J, Jang Y, Park S, et al. Inhibitory effects of quercetin on aflatoxin B1-induced hepatic damage in mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:2747-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, it is suggested that quercetin does not directly protect against AFB(1)-mediated liver damage in vivo, but exerts a partial role in promoting antioxidative defense systems and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. ..
  50. Shyamal S, Latha P, Suja S, Shine V, Anuja G, Sini S, et al. Hepatoprotective effect of three herbal extracts on aflatoxin B1-intoxicated rat liver. Singapore Med J. 2010;51:326-31 pubmed
    ..This study reports on the protective effects of these three herbal ethanolic extracts on the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-intoxicated livers of albino male Wistar rats...
  51. Hassan A, Kenawy A, Abbas W, Abdel Wahhab M. Prevention of cytogenetic, histochemical and biochemical alterations in Oreochromis niloticus by dietary supplement of sorbent materials. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2010;73:1890-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the two tested clays were safe and can be used as potential aflatoxin binders in animal feed...
  52. Corcuera L, Arbillaga L, Vettorazzi A, Azqueta A, Lopez de Cerain A. Ochratoxin A reduces aflatoxin B1 induced DNA damage detected by the comet assay in Hep G2 cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:2883-9 pubmed publisher
    Mycotoxins aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) can be present together in food commodities. These food contaminants are considered to be genotoxins, acting by different mechanisms...
  53. Tian J, Ban X, Zeng H, He J, Huang B, Wang Y. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak. Int J Food Microbiol. 2011;145:464-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicated that the essential oil from C. virosa var. latisecta (CVEO) has potential as a preservative to control food spoilage. ..
  54. Benford D, Leblanc J, Setzer R. Application of the margin of exposure (MoE) approach to substances in food that are genotoxic and carcinogenic: example: aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48 Suppl 1:S34-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been consistently shown to be a potent mutagen and is a liver carcinogen in humans and a wide range of animal species. The Fisher rat appears to be the most sensitive animal model...
  55. Woo L, Egner P, Belanger C, Wattanawaraporn R, Trudel L, Croy R, et al. Aflatoxin B1-DNA adduct formation and mutagenicity in livers of neonatal male and female B6C3F1 mice. Toxicol Sci. 2011;122:38-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The gender difference in the subsequent development of HCC highlights the importance of elucidating additional factors that modulate HCC development. ..
  56. Shukla R, Kumar A, Singh P, Dubey N. Efficacy of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil and its monoterpene aldehyde constituents against fungi isolated from some edible legume seeds and aflatoxin B1 production. Int J Food Microbiol. 2009;135:165-70 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that L. alba EO and two of its constituents could be safely used as effective preservative for food legumes against fungal infections and mycotoxins...
  57. Li C, Wang Y, Dong W, Xiang S, Liang H, Wang H, et al. Hepatic oval cell lines generate hepatocellular carcinoma following transfection with HBx gene and treatment with aflatoxin B1 in vivo. Cancer Lett. 2011;311:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies have demonstrated that chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure are among the most important risk factors for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  58. Alpsoy L, Yildirim A, Agar G. The antioxidant effects of vitamin A, C, and E on aflatoxin B1-induced oxidative stress in human lymphocytes. Toxicol Ind Health. 2009;25:121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Simultaneous supplementation with vitamin A, C, and E restored these parameters to that of normal range. In conclusion, vitamin A, C, and E exhibited protective effects in human lymphocytes by inhibiting AFB(1)-induced ROS generation. ..
  59. El Sayed Y, Khalil R. Toxicity, biochemical effects and residue of aflatoxin B(1) in marine water-reared sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:1606-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that marine water sea bass is a species highly sensitive to AFB(1). In addition, consumption of sea bass reared on AFB(1)-contaminated diet could have a negative health impact on human health. ..
  60. Upadhaya S, Sung H, Lee C, Lee S, Kim S, Cho K, et al. Comparative study on the aflatoxin B1 degradation ability of rumen fluid from Holstein steers and Korean native goats. J Vet Sci. 2009;10:29-34 pubmed
    The aflatoxin B1 degrading abilities of two different ruminants were compared in this study. One set of experiments evaluated the aflatoxin B1 degradation ability of different rumen fluid donors (steers vs...
  61. Xu X, Liu X, Li Y, Ying Y. A simple and rapid optical biosensor for detection of aflatoxin B1 based on competitive dispersion of gold nanorods. Biosens Bioelectron. 2013;47:361-7 pubmed publisher
    This report illustrates a promising one-step and label-free optical biosensor for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) that is most commonly found in foods and highly dangerous even at very low concentrations...
  62. Zhang L, Ye Y, An Y, Tian Y, Wang Y, Tang H. Systems responses of rats to aflatoxin B1 exposure revealed with metabonomic changes in multiple biological matrices. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:614-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide an overview of biochemical consequences of AFB1 exposure and comprehensive insights into the metabolic aspects of AFB1-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. ..
  63. Yang L, Ding H, Gu Z, Zhao J, Chen H, Tian F, et al. Selection of single chain fragment variables with direct coating of aflatoxin B1 to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:8927-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our research presents a quick and robust selection technique for antihapten recombinant antibody from large naive libraries. ..
  64. Ilic Z, Crawford D, Vakharia D, Egner P, Sell S. Glutathione-S-transferase A3 knockout mice are sensitive to acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;242:241-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans...
  65. Rawal S, Mendoza K, Reed K, Coulombe R. Structure, genetic mapping, and function of the cytochrome P450 3A37 gene in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Cytogenet Genome Res. 2009;125:67-73 pubmed publisher
    ..often responsible for the toxic and carcinogenic effects of natural food-borne toxicants, such as the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)...
  66. Wouters A, Casagrande R, Wouters F, Watanabe T, Boabaid F, Cruz C, et al. An outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning in dogs associated with aflatoxin B1-contaminated maize products. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2013;25:282-7 pubmed publisher
    ..liquid chromatography analysis of the corn meal from 2 affected farms revealed 1,640 ppb and 1,770 ppb of aflatoxin B1, respectively...
  67. Besaratinia A, Kim S, Hainaut P, Pfeifer G. In vitro recapitulating of TP53 mutagenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma associated with dietary aflatoxin B1 exposure. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:1127-37, 1137.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this model system, AFB(1)-induced DNA adduction and mutagenesis recapitulate the unique mutational features of TP53 in AFB(1)-associated human HCC. ..
  68. Yunus A, Awad W, Kroger S, Zentek J, Bohm J. In vitro aflatoxin B(1) exposure decreases response to carbamylcholine in the jejunal epithelium of broilers. Poult Sci. 2010;89:1372-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The negative effect of this increased anion secretion on active glucose uptake was, however, not prominent and may be considered as moderate or progressive in nature. ..
  69. Ma Y, Kong Q, Hua H, Luo T, Jiang Y. Aflatoxin B1 up-regulates insulin receptor substrate 2 and stimulates hepatoma cell migration. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47961 pubmed publisher
    b>Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent carcinogen that can induce hepatocellular carcinoma. AFB1-8,9-exo-epoxide, one of AFB1 metabolites, acts as a mutagen to react with DNA and induce gene mutations, including the tumor suppressor p53...
  70. Mary V, Theumer M, Arias S, Rubinstein H. Reactive oxygen species sources and biomolecular oxidative damage induced by aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in rat spleen mononuclear cells. Toxicology. 2012;302:299-307 pubmed publisher
    b>Aflatoxin B1 (AFB(1)) and fumonisin B1 (FB(1)) are mycotoxins widely found as cereal contaminants...
  71. Sindhu S, Chempakam B, Leela N, Suseela Bhai R. Chemoprevention by essential oil of turmeric leaves (Curcuma longa L.) on the growth of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin production. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:1188-92 pubmed publisher
    ..GC-MS analysis of the oil showed ?-phellandrene, p-cymene and terpinolene as the major components in turmeric leaf oil. The possibility of using these phytochemical components as bio-preservatives for storage of spices is discussed...
  72. Kotan E, Alpsoy L, Anar M, Aslan A, Agar G. Protective role of methanol extract of Cetraria islandica (L.) against oxidative stress and genotoxic effects of AFB? in human lymphocytes in vitro. Toxicol Ind Health. 2011;27:599-605 pubmed publisher
    ..dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels against effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB?) induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in human lymphocytes in vitro...
  73. Jeannot E, Boorman G, Kosyk O, Bradford B, Shymoniak S, Tumurbaatar B, et al. Increased incidence of aflatoxin B1-induced liver tumors in hepatitis virus C transgenic mice. Int J Cancer. 2012;130:1347-56 pubmed publisher
    Viral hepatitis and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure are common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  74. Shirabe K, Toshima T, Taketomi A, Taguchi K, Yoshizumi T, Uchiyama H, et al. Hepatic aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts and TP53 mutations in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma despite low exposure to aflatoxin B1 in southern Japan. Liver Int. 2011;31:1366-72 pubmed publisher
    Hepatitis B or C virus infection is considered to be the main cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Japan. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a carcinogen associated with HCC in regions with high exposure...
  75. Gao S, Chen X, Zhu R, Choi B, Kim S, Kim B. Dual effects of phloretin on aflatoxin B1 metabolism: activation and detoxification of aflatoxin B1. Biofactors. 2012;38:34-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the protective effects of phloretin against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) activation to the ultimate carcinogenic intermediate, AFB(1)-8, 9-epoxide (AFBO), and its subsequent ..
  76. Josse R, Dumont J, Fautrel A, Robin M, Guillouzo A. Identification of early target genes of aflatoxin B1 in human hepatocytes, inter-individual variability and comparison with other genotoxic compounds. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;258:176-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary human hepatocytes and differentiated HepaRG cells were exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) that induces DNA damage following enzyme-mediated bioactivation...
  77. Asim M, Sarma M, Thayumanavan L, Kar P. Role of aflatoxin B1 as a risk for primary liver cancer in north Indian population. Clin Biochem. 2011;44:1235-40 pubmed publisher
    The present study was designed to determine whether aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure has any role to play in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients from northern India...
  78. Polonelli L, Giovati L, Magliani W, Conti S, Sforza S, Calabretta A, et al. Vaccination of lactating dairy cows for the prevention of aflatoxin B1 carry over in milk. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26777 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccination of lactating animals with conjugated AnAFB(1) may represent a solution to the public hazard constituted by milk and cheese contaminated with AFs. ..
  79. Raiola A, Meca G, Manes J, Ritieni A. Bioaccessibility of deoxynivalenol and its natural co-occurrence with ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 in Italian commercial pasta. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:280-7 pubmed publisher
    ..10?g/kg. The mean value of gastric bioaccessibility verified for the DON resulted of 23.1%, whereas mean duodenal bioaccessibility was 12.1%. ..
  80. Wu S, Duan N, Zhu C, Ma X, Wang M, Wang Z. Magnetic nanobead-based immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A using upconversion nanoparticles as multicolor labels. Biosens Bioelectron. 2011;30:35-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Multicolor UCNPs have the potential to be used in other applications for detecting toxins in the field of food safety and other fields. ..