Summary: Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.

Top Publications

  1. Leong Y, Latiff A, Ahmad N, Rosma A. Exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in human body fluids. A short review. Mycotoxin Res. 2012;28:79-87 pubmed publisher
    b>Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary fungal metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus...
  2. Khlangwiset P, Shephard G, Wu F. Aflatoxins and growth impairment: a review. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2011;41:740-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Aflatoxins, fungal toxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in a variety of food crops, are well known as potent human hepatocarcinogens...
  3. Reiter E, Dutton M, Agus A, Nordkvist E, Mwanza M, Njobeh P, et al. Uncertainty from sampling in measurements of aflatoxins in animal feedingstuffs: application of the Eurachem/CITAC guidelines. Analyst. 2011;136:4059-69 pubmed publisher
  4. Ehrlich K, Chang P, Scharfenstein L, Cary J, Crawford J, Townsend C. Absence of the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene, norA, allows accumulation of deoxyaflatoxin B1 in Aspergillus flavus cultures. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010;305:65-70 pubmed publisher
    Biosynthesis of the highly toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins in select Aspergillus species from the common intermediate O-methylsterigmatocystin has been postulated to require only the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, OrdA (AflQ)...
  5. Rocha L, Nakai V, Braghini R, Reis T, Kobashigawa E, Correa B. Mycoflora and co-occurrence of fumonisins and aflatoxins in freshly harvested corn in different regions of Brazil. Int J Mol Sci. 2009;10:5090-103 pubmed publisher
    Natural mycoflora and co-occurrence of fumonisins (FB(1), FB(2)) and aflatoxins (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1) and AFG(2)) in freshly harvested corn grain samples from four regions of Brazil were investigated...
  6. Klarić M, Cvetnić Z, Pepeljnjak S, Kosalec I. Co-occurrence of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, and zearalenone in cereals and feed, determined by competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and thin-layer chromatography. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2009;60:427-34 pubmed publisher
    Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium species frequently contaminate crops. For this reason mycotoxins such as aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FBs), and zearalenone (ZEA) are found in food and feed in a wide range of ..
  7. Bansal J, Pantazopoulos P, Tam J, Cavlovic P, Kwong K, Turcotte A, et al. Surveys of rice sold in Canada for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and fumonisins. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2011;28:767-74 pubmed publisher
    ..different countries, including the United States, Canada, Pakistan, India and Thailand, were analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins by separate liquid chromatographic methods in two different years...
  8. Taylor M, Jackson C, Tattersall D, French N, Peat T, Newman J, et al. Identification and characterization of two families of F420 H2-dependent reductases from Mycobacteria that catalyse aflatoxin degradation. Mol Microbiol. 2010;78:561-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Aflatoxins are polyaromatic mycotoxins that contaminate a range of food crops as a result of fungal growth and contribute to serious health problems in the developing world because of their toxicity and mutagenicity...
  9. Li W, Herrman T, Dai S. Determination of aflatoxins in animal feeds by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with isotope dilution. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2011;25:1222-30 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the present study is to develop a simple, fast method for detection of aflatoxins in animal feeds...

More Information


  1. de Alencar E, Faroni L, Soares N, da Silva W, Carvalho M. Efficacy of ozone as a fungicidal and detoxifying agent of aflatoxins in peanuts. J Sci Food Agric. 2012;92:899-905 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study the fungicidal and detoxifying effects of ozone on aflatoxins in peanuts was investigated...
  2. Kiyota T, Hamada R, Sakamoto K, Iwashita K, Yamada O, Mikami S. Aflatoxin non-productivity of Aspergillus oryzae caused by loss of function in the aflJ gene product. J Biosci Bioeng. 2011;111:512-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly suggest that the amino-acid substitutions in AFLJ of A. oryzae induce inactivation at the protein level...
  3. Bianco G, Russo R, Marzocco S, Velotto S, Autore G, Severino L. Modulation of macrophage activity by aflatoxins B1 and B2 and their metabolites aflatoxins M1 and M2. Toxicon. 2012;59:644-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Aflatoxins are natural contaminants frequently found both in food and feed...
  4. Li X, Li P, Zhang Q, Li Y, Zhang W, Ding X. Molecular characterization of monoclonal antibodies against aflatoxins: a possible explanation for the highest sensitivity. Anal Chem. 2012;84:5229-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these antibodies, 1C11 exhibited the highest sensitivity against all four major kinds of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2) (IC(50) 0.0012-0...
  5. Yabe K, Chihaya N, Hatabayashi H, Kito M, Hoshino S, Zeng H, et al. Production of M-/GM-group aflatoxins catalyzed by the OrdA enzyme in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Fungal Genet Biol. 2012;49:744-54 pubmed publisher
    Aspergillus parasiticus produces the minor aflatoxins M(1) (AFM(1)), M(2) (AFM(2)), GM(1) (AFGM(1)), and GM(2) (AFGM(2)), as well as the major aflatoxins B(1) (AFB(1)), B(2) (AFB(2)), G(1) (AFG(1)), and G(2) (AFG(2)). Feeding of A...
  6. Chen D, Cao X, Tao Y, Wu Q, Pan Y, Huang L, et al. Development of a sensitive and robust liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and a pressurized liquid extraction for the determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in animal derived foods. J Chromatogr A. 2012;1253:110-9 pubmed publisher
    ..LC-MS/MS) with a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B?, B?, G?, G?, M? and M?, and ochratoxin A in the muscle, liver, kidney and fat of swine, bovine and sheep, ..
  7. Woloshuk C, Shim W. Aflatoxins, fumonisins, and trichothecenes: a convergence of knowledge. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2013;37:94-109 pubmed publisher
    ..More importantly, these fungi produce aflatoxins, fumonisins, and trichothecenes, respectively, which threaten health and food security worldwide...
  8. Streit E, Schatzmayr G, Tassis P, Tzika E, Marin D, Taranu I, et al. Current situation of mycotoxin contamination and co-occurrence in animal feed--focus on Europe. Toxins (Basel). 2012;4:788-809 pubmed publisher
    ..Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A) are covered by EU legislation (regulation or ..
  9. Vidal A, Marin S, Ramos A, Cano Sancho G, Sanchis V. Determination of aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in wheat and oat based bran supplements sold in the Spanish market. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;53:133-8 pubmed publisher
    The aflatoxins (AFs), deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA) are mycotoxins produced by fungal species which can contaminate, alone or simultaneously, cereal-based raw materials...
  10. Ghiasian S, Shephard G, Yazdanpanah H. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins from maize in Iran. Mycopathologia. 2011;172:153-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The maximum AFB1 (276.3 ?g/kg) and highest level of total aflatoxins (AFT) (316.9 ?g/kg) were detected in a maize sample collected from Kermanshah province...
  11. Amaike S, Keller N. Aspergillus flavus. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2011;49:107-33 pubmed publisher
    ..flavus in competitive exclusion studies. In this review, we discuss A. flavus as an agricultural and medical threat and summarize recent research advances in genomics, elucidation of parameters of pathogenicity, and control measures...
  12. Luna A, Luiz R, Lima I, Março P, Valderrama P, Boque R, et al. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B2 and G2 in peanuts using spectrofluorescence coupled with parallel factor analysis. Anal Chim Acta. 2013;778:9-14 pubmed publisher
    In the present study a method for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B2 and G2 in peanuts has been developed...
  13. Hathout A, Mohamed S, El Nekeety A, Hassan N, Aly S, Abdel Wahhab M. Ability of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus reuteri to protect against oxidative stress in rats fed aflatoxins-contaminated diet. Toxicon. 2011;58:179-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatments with L1 or L2 succeeded to induce a significant improvement in all the biochemical parameters and histological picture of the liver. Moreover, L2 was more effective than L1 and both can be used safely in functional foods. ..
  14. Abbas H, Zablotowicz R, Horn B, Phillips N, Johnson B, Jin X, et al. Comparison of major biocontrol strains of non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus for the reduction of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid in maize. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2011;28:198-208 pubmed publisher
    ..Neither K49 nor NRRL 21882 produce CPA and when challenged with K54 and F3W4, CPA and aflatoxins were reduced by 84-97% and 83-98%, respectively...
  15. Yu J, Fedorova N, Montalbano B, Bhatnagar D, Cleveland T, Bennett J, et al. Tight control of mycotoxin biosynthesis gene expression in Aspergillus flavus by temperature as revealed by RNA-Seq. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2011;322:145-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Subtle changes in the expression levels of aflS to aflR appear to control transcription activation of the aflatoxin cluster...
  16. Roze L, Chanda A, Wee J, Awad D, Linz J. Stress-related transcription factor AtfB integrates secondary metabolism with oxidative stress response in aspergilli. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:35137-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that AtfB is a key player in the regulatory circuit that integrates secondary metabolism and cellular response to oxidative stress. ..
  17. Daniel J, Lewis L, Redwood Y, Kieszak S, Breiman R, Flanders W, et al. Comprehensive assessment of maize aflatoxin levels in Eastern Kenya, 2005-2007. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:1794-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Prevention measures should focus on reducing homegrown maize contamination at the household level to avert future outbreaks. ..
  18. Brown R, Chen Z, Warburton M, Luo M, Menkir A, Fakhoury A, et al. Discovery and characterization of proteins associated with aflatoxin-resistance: evaluating their potential as breeding markers. Toxins (Basel). 2010;2:919-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Several resistant lines have been subjected to QTL mapping to identify loci associated with the aflatoxin-resistance phenotype. Results of proteome and characterization studies are discussed. ..
  19. Chang P, Scharfenstein L, Luo M, Mahoney N, Molyneux R, Yu J, et al. Loss of msnA, a putative stress regulatory gene, in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus increased production of conidia, aflatoxins and kojic acid. Toxins (Basel). 2011;3:82-104 pubmed publisher
    Production of the harmful carcinogenic aflatoxins by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus has been postulated to be a mechanism to relieve oxidative stress. The msnA gene of A. parasiticus and A...
  20. Obuseh F, Jolly P, Kulczycki A, Ehiri J, Waterbor J, Desmond R, et al. Aflatoxin levels, plasma vitamins A and E concentrations, and their association with HIV and hepatitis B virus infections in Ghanaians: a cross-sectional study. J Int AIDS Soc. 2011;14:53 pubmed publisher
  21. Linz J, Chanda A, Hong S, Whitten D, Wilkerson C, Roze L. Proteomic and biochemical evidence support a role for transport vesicles and endosomes in stress response and secondary metabolism in Aspergillus parasiticus. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:767-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Of particular significance, proteomic and biochemical analysis strongly suggested that additional secondary metabolic pathways as well as proteins involved in response to heat, osmotic, and oxidative stress are housed in V fraction...
  22. Olarte R, Horn B, Dorner J, Monacell J, Singh R, Stone E, et al. Effect of sexual recombination on population diversity in aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and evidence for cryptic heterokaryosis. Mol Ecol. 2012;21:1453-76 pubmed publisher
    Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs) in crops worldwide. Natural populations of A...
  23. Cary J, Harris Coward P, Ehrlich K, Mack B, Kale S, Larey C, et al. NsdC and NsdD affect Aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production. Eukaryot Cell. 2012;11:1104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support previous studies showing that there is a strong association between conidiophore and sclerotium development and aflatoxin production in A. flavus...
  24. Miliţă N, Mihăescu G, Chifiriuc C. [Aflatoxins--health risk factors]. Bacteriol Virusol Parazitol Epidemiol. 2010;55:19-24 pubmed
    b>Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by a group of strains, mainly Aspergillus and Penicillium species...
  25. Chaytor A, See M, Hansen J, de Souza A, Middleton T, Kim S. Effects of chronic exposure of diets with reduced concentrations of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol on growth and immune status of pigs. J Anim Sci. 2011;89:124-35 pubmed publisher
  26. Chanda A, Roze L, Linz J. A possible role for exocytosis in aflatoxin export in Aspergillus parasiticus. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:1724-7 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of the evidence, we propose that export of the mycotoxin aflatoxin in Aspergillus parasiticus occurs by exocytosis, and we present a model to illustrate this export mechanism. ..
  27. Matur E, Ergul E, Akyazi I, Eraslan E, Cirakli Z. The effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract on the weight of some organs, liver, and pancreatic digestive enzyme activity in breeder hens fed diets contaminated with aflatoxins. Poult Sci. 2010;89:2213-20 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae extract reduces the toxic effects of AF on pancreatic lipase and chymotrypsin activity. Therefore, it may be useful to supplement feedstuff with S. cerevisiae extract to reduce the effects of AF in laying breeder hens. ..
  28. Caloni F, Cortinovis C. Toxicological effects of aflatoxins in horses. Vet J. 2011;188:270-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins principally produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, which are both natural contaminants of food and feedstuff...
  29. Leema G, Kaliamurthy J, Geraldine P, Thomas P. Keratitis due to Aspergillus flavus: clinical profile, molecular identification of fungal strains and detection of aflatoxin production. Mol Vis. 2010;16:843-54 pubmed
    ..The production of sclerotia and a beige ring in culture appear to be useful markers of aflatoxin-producing potential in strains of A. flavus isolated from keratitis. ..
  30. Georgianna D, Fedorova N, Burroughs J, Dolezal A, Bok J, Horowitz Brown S, et al. Beyond aflatoxin: four distinct expression patterns and functional roles associated with Aspergillus flavus secondary metabolism gene clusters. Mol Plant Pathol. 2010;11:213-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene clusters for the production of aflatoxins, CPA and seven other unknown compound(s) were identified as belonging to one clade...
  31. Chang P, Scharfenstein L, Wei Q, Bhatnagar D. Development and refinement of a high-efficiency gene-targeting system for Aspergillus flavus. J Microbiol Methods. 2010;81:240-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The improvement allowed gene manipulation using the reusable pyrG marker as shown by the restoration of laeA-mediated aflatoxin production in an A. flavus laeA-deleted mutant. ..
  32. Liu Y, Wu F. Global burden of aflatoxin-induced hepatocellular carcinoma: a risk assessment. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:818-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Aflatoxin may play a causative role in 4.6-28.2% of all global HCC cases. ..
  33. Cary J, Rajasekaran K, Brown R, Luo M, Chen Z, Bhatnagar D. Developing resistance to aflatoxin in maize and cottonseed. Toxins (Basel). 2011;3:678-96 pubmed publisher
    ..has been identified, so several strategies must be utilized simultaneously to ensure a healthy crop, free of aflatoxins. The most widely explored strategy for the control of aflatoxin contamination is the development of preharvest ..
  34. Chen S, Zhang H. Development of a microwave-assisted-extraction-based method for the determination of aflatoxins B1, G1, B2, and G2 in grains and grain products. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013;405:1623-30 pubmed publisher
    ..describes the use of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) as a pretreatment technique for the determination of aflatoxins B(1), G(1), B(2), and G(2) in grains and grain products...
  35. Turner P, Flannery B, Isitt C, Ali M, Pestka J. The role of biomarkers in evaluating human health concerns from fungal contaminants in food. Nutr Res Rev. 2012;25:162-79 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Aflatoxins, fumonisins and deoxynivalenol are amongst those mycotoxins of particular concern from a human health ..
  36. Gong Y, Wilson S, Mwatha J, Routledge M, Castelino J, Zhao B, et al. Aflatoxin exposure may contribute to chronic hepatomegaly in Kenyan school children. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:893-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to aflatoxin was associated with childhood chronic hepatomegaly in 2002. These preliminary data suggest an additional health risk that may be related to aflatoxin exposure in children, a hypothesis that merits further testing. ..
  37. Warburton M, Williams W, Hawkins L, Bridges S, Gresham C, Harper J, et al. A public platform for the verification of the phenotypic effect of candidate genes for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation and Aspergillus flavus infection in maize. Toxins (Basel). 2011;3:754-65 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, ten genes have been identified as possible candidate genes and put through the candidate gene testing pipeline, and results are presented here to demonstrate the utility of the pipeline...
  38. Pechanova O, Pechan T, Williams W, Luthe D. Proteomic analysis of the maize rachis: potential roles of constitutive and induced proteins in resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. Proteomics. 2011;11:114-27 pubmed publisher
    ..flavus challenge demonstrates that resistant rachis relies on constitutive defenses, while susceptible rachis is more dependent on inducible defenses. ..
  39. Pietri A, Rastelli S, Bertuzzi T. Ochratoxin A and aflatoxins in liquorice products. Toxins (Basel). 2010;2:758-70 pubmed publisher
    The occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins (AFs) in liquorice products made in Italy was surveyed...
  40. Skládanka J, Nedělník J, Adam V, Dolezal P, Moravcová H, Dohnal V. Forage as a primary source of mycotoxins in animal diets. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8:37-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FUM) and aflatoxins (AFL) are among the most common mycotoxins...
  41. Obuseh F, Jolly P, Jiang Y, Shuaib F, Waterbor J, Ellis W, et al. Aflatoxin B1 albumin adducts in plasma and aflatoxin M1 in urine are associated with plasma concentrations of vitamins A and E. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2010;80:355-68 pubmed publisher
    ..88; CI=1.71-20.14; p=0.005) and (OR=5.84; CI=1.15-29.54; p=0.03) respectively. These data indicate that aflatoxin may modify plasma micronutrient status. Thus, preventing aflatoxin exposure may reduce vitamin A and E deficiencies. ..
  42. Mateo E, Gil Serna J, Patino B, Jimenez M. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in stored barley grain in Spain and impact of PCR-based strategies to assess the occurrence of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic Aspergillus spp. Int J Food Microbiol. 2011;149:118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, and OTA were detected in 12.4%, 2.9%, 4.8%, 2.9%, and 20% of the samples, respectively. Aflatoxins and OTA co-occurred in 4.8% of the samples. Maximum mycotoxin levels (ng/g) were 0.61 (AFB1), 0.06 (AFB2), 0...
  43. Roze L, Chanda A, Linz J. Compartmentalization and molecular traffic in secondary metabolism: a new understanding of established cellular processes. Fungal Genet Biol. 2011;48:35-48 pubmed publisher
  44. Ehrlich K, Li P, Scharfenstein L, Chang P. HypC, the anthrone oxidase involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:3374-7 pubmed publisher
  45. Price M, Conners S, Tachdjian S, Kelly R, Payne G. Aflatoxin conducive and non-conducive growth conditions reveal new gene associations with aflatoxin production. Fungal Genet Biol. 2005;42:506-18 pubmed
    ..One of these genes was consistently downregulated with AF production. Overexpression of this gene resulted in repression of AF biosynthesis. The cellular function of this gene is currently unresolved. ..
  46. Chang P, Wilkinson J, Horn B, Yu J, Bhatnagar D, Cleveland T. Genes differentially expressed by Aspergillus flavus strains after loss of aflatoxin production by serial transfers. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;77:917-25 pubmed
    b>Aflatoxins are carcinogenic fungal secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and other closely related species...
  47. Kale S, Cary J, Baker C, Walker D, Bhatnagar D, Bennett J. Genetic analysis of morphological variants of Aspergillus parasiticus deficient in secondary metabolite production. Mycol Res. 2003;107:831-40 pubmed
    b>Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary metabolites produced mainly by Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus. To study AF regulation, previously isolated non-toxigenic A...
  48. Calvo A, Bok J, Brooks W, Keller N. veA is required for toxin and sclerotial production in Aspergillus parasiticus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:4733-9 pubmed
  49. Hernández Hierro J, Garcia Villanova R, Rodríguez Torrero P, Toruño Fonseca I. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in red paprika for retail sale in Spain: occurrence and evaluation of a simultaneous analytical method. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:751-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Aflatoxins are the only mycotoxins with legal limits for spices in the European Union. A further limit for ochratoxin A is expected to be adopted soon. Thus, rapid simultaneous methods for quantifying the five mycotoxins are sought...
  50. Cai J, Zeng H, Shima Y, Hatabayashi H, Nakagawa H, Ito Y, et al. Involvement of the nadA gene in formation of G-group aflatoxins in Aspergillus parasiticus. Fungal Genet Biol. 2008;45:1081-93 pubmed publisher
    ..strain were cultured for 3 days in YES medium, the mutants each produced about 50% of the amounts of G-group aflatoxins that the wild-type strain produced...
  51. Rodrigues P, Venancio A, Kozakiewicz Z, Lima N. A polyphasic approach to the identification of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus Section Flavi isolated from Portuguese almonds. Int J Food Microbiol. 2009;129:187-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Chemical characterization involved the screening of the isolates for aflatoxins B (AFB) and G (AFG), and also for cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), by HPLC with fluorescence and UV detection, ..
  52. Partanen H, El Nezami H, Leppanen J, Myllynen P, Woodhouse H, Vahakangas K. Aflatoxin B1 transfer and metabolism in human placenta. Toxicol Sci. 2010;113:216-25 pubmed publisher
    ..AFL was the only metabolite detected in both perfusions and in vitro incubations. Since AFL is less mutagenic, but putatively as carcinogenic as AFB1, the formation of AFL may not protect the fetus from the toxicity of AFB1. ..
  53. Gnonlonfin G, Hell K, Fandohan P, Siame A. Mycoflora and natural occurrence of aflatoxins and fumonisin B1 in cassava and yam chips from Benin, West Africa. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008;122:140-7 pubmed
    The presence of fungi, aflatoxins and fumonisin B1 in cassava and yam chips (during 28 processing and storage) were evaluated during two consecutive seasons in two agroecological zones of Benin (Northern Guinea Savannah, NGS and Sudan ..
  54. Degola F, Berni E, Dall Asta C, Spotti E, Marchelli R, Ferrero I, et al. A multiplex RT-PCR approach to detect aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;103:409-17 pubmed
    ..targeted with specific primers to highlight their expression in mycelia cultivated under inducing conditions for aflatoxins production...
  55. Ip S, Che C. Determination of aflatoxins in Chinese medicinal herbs by high-performance liquid chromatography using immunoaffinity column cleanup Improvement of recovery. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1135:241-4 pubmed
    Although analytical methods are available for the determination of aflatoxins in medicinal herbs, none of them can be applied satisfactorily to all sample matrices. The difficulty arises from the complex chemical composition of the herbs...
  56. Razzaghi Abyaneh M, Shams Ghahfarokhi M, Allameh A, Kazeroon Shiri A, Ranjbar Bahadori S, Mirzahoseini H, et al. A survey on distribution of Aspergillus section Flavi in corn field soils in Iran: population patterns based on aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid and sclerotia production. Mycopathologia. 2006;161:183-92 pubmed
    ..Flavi from Mazandaran and Semnan provinces with totally different climatic conditions in Iran were examined for aflatoxins (AFs; B and G types), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and sclerotia production...
  57. Hawkins L, Windham G, Williams W. Effect of different postharvest drying temperatures on Aspergillus flavus survival and aflatoxin content in five maize hybrids. J Food Prot. 2005;68:1521-4 pubmed
    ..flavus kernel infection, from 11 to 3%. This information is useful in determining a range of temperatures that can be used for drying seed when fungal infection, stress cracks, and seed viability are of interest. ..
  58. Guo B, Chen Z, Lee R, Scully B. Drought stress and preharvest aflatoxin contamination in agricultural commodity: genetics, genomics and proteomics. J Integr Plant Biol. 2008;50:1281-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression studies in developing corn kernels are in agreement with the proteomic studies that defense-related genes could be upregulated or downregulated by abiotic stresses...
  59. Chanda A, Roze L, Pastor A, Frame M, Linz J. Purification of a vesicle-vacuole fraction functionally linked to aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. J Microbiol Methods. 2009;78:28-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The purified organelles exhibited significant size heterogeneity with a range of sizes similar to that observed in whole cells and protoplasts. ..
  60. Sheibani A, Tabrizchi M, Ghaziaskar H. Determination of aflatoxins B1 and B2 using ion mobility spectrometry. Talanta. 2008;75:233-8 pubmed publisher
    This paper describes total determination of aflatoxins B1 and B2 in pistachio samples using corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). A new injection port was designed to introduce liquid samples into the IMS...
  61. Richard J. Some major mycotoxins and their mycotoxicoses--an overview. Int J Food Microbiol. 2007;119:3-10 pubmed
    ..Evidence of their periodic, historical occurrence exists until the recognition of aflatoxins in the early 1960s...