cantharidin

Summary

Summary: A toxic compound, isolated from the Spanish fly or blistering beetle (Lytta (Cantharis) vesicatoria) and other insects. It is a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A). This compound can produce severe skin inflammation, and is extremely toxic if ingested orally.

Top Publications

  1. Kuo J, Chu Y, Yang J, Lin J, Lai K, Kuo H, et al. Cantharidin induces apoptosis in human bladder cancer TSGH 8301 cells through mitochondria-dependent signal pathways. Int J Oncol. 2010;37:1243-50 pubmed
    b>Cantharidin has shown potent anticancer activities on many types of human cancer cells...
  2. Bajsa J, Pan Z, Duke S. Transcriptional responses to cantharidin, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, in Arabidopsis thaliana reveal the involvement of multiple signal transduction pathways. Physiol Plant. 2011;143:188-205 pubmed publisher
    b>Cantharidin is a natural compound isolated from the blister beetle (Epicauta spp.). It is a potent inhibitor of protein serine/threonine phosphatases (PPPs), especially PP2A and PP4...
  3. McCluskey A, Ackland S, Bowyer M, Baldwin M, Garner J, Walkom C, et al. Cantharidin analogues: synthesis and evaluation of growth inhibition in a panel of selected tumour cell lines. Bioorg Chem. 2003;31:68-79 pubmed
    ..firstly screened for their ability to inhibit protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A) as the lead compounds cantharidin (1) and norcantharidin (2) are known PP1 and PP2A inhibitors...
  4. Li W, Xie L, Chen Z, Zhu Y, Sun Y, Miao Y, et al. Cantharidin, a potent and selective PP2A inhibitor, induces an oxidative stress-independent growth inhibition of pancreatic cancer cells through G2/M cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:1226-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Cantharidin is an active constituent of mylabris, a traditional Chinese medicine...
  5. Kok S, Chui C, Lam W, Chen J, Lau F, Wong R, et al. Mechanistic insight into a novel synthetic cantharidin analogue in a leukaemia model. Int J Mol Med. 2006;18:375-9 pubmed
    b>Cantharidin isolated from Mylabris caraganae and other insects is used traditionally as an anti-cancer drug especially on hepatoma and leukaemia...
  6. Day R, Harbord M, Forbes A, Segal A. Cantharidin blisters: a technique for investigating leukocyte trafficking and cytokine production at sites of inflammation in humans. J Immunol Methods. 2001;257:213-20 pubmed
    ..Filter paper discs are placed on the skin, impregnated with cantharidin and covered with impermeable film held by adhesive tape...
  7. McCluskey A, Keane M, Walkom C, Bowyer M, Sim A, Young D, et al. The first two cantharidin analogues displaying PP1 selectivity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2002;12:391-3 pubmed
    High pressure Diels-Alder reactions of furan and dimethylmaleate, and thiophene and maleimide resulted in two cantharidin analogues, 3 and 6 possessing PP1 selectivity (>40- and >30-fold selectivity) over PP2A...
  8. Li H, Fang Q, Zhang H, Zang C, Zhang B, Nie Q, et al. [Preparation and characterization of non-ionic surfactant vesicle of cantharidin]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2010;35:2546-50 pubmed
    To study the preparation of cantharidin entrapped non-ionic surfactant vesicle (noisome)and evaluate its quality. The niosome loaded with cantharidin was prepared using injection method by non-ionic surfactants as the carrier...
  9. Williams L, Moller W, Merisor E, Kraus W, Rosner H. In vitro anti-proliferation/cytotoxic activity of cantharidin (Spanish Fly) and related derivatives. West Indian Med J. 2003;52:10-3 pubmed
    The anti-cancer therapeutic promise of cantharidin is limited because of its high mammalian toxicity...

More Information

Publications65

  1. Ivetić Tkalcević V, Hrvacic B, Bosnar M, Cuzic S, Bosnjak B, Erakovic Haber V, et al. Cantharidin-induced inflammation in mouse ear model for translational research of novel anti-inflammatories. Transl Res. 2012;160:137-45 pubmed publisher
    The murine model of cantharidin-induced ear inflammation was profiled in detail for its alignment with the human model and to explore the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of the macrolide antibiotics, clarithromycin and ..
  2. Nakatani T, Konishi T, Miyahara K, Noda N. Three novel cantharidin-related compounds from the Chinese blister beetle, Mylabris phalerata Pall. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004;52:807-9 pubmed
    Three novel cantharidin analogues were isolated from the Chinese blister beetle, Mylabris phalerata PALL. (Meloidae), which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cancer...
  3. Maglio D, Teng R, Thyrum P, Nightingale C, Nicolau D. Pharmacokinetic profile of meropenem, administered at 500 milligrams every 8 hours, in plasma and cantharidin-induced skin blister fluid. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:1771-3 pubmed
    The pharmacokinetic disposition of meropenem, administered at 500 mg every 8 h, in plasma and cantharidin-induced blister fluid is described...
  4. Thaqi A, Scott J, Gilbert J, Sakoff J, McCluskey A. Synthesis and biological activity of Delta-5,6-norcantharimides: importance of the 5,6-bridge. Eur J Med Chem. 2010;45:1717-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Cantharidin (1) and norcantharidin (2) are potent protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitors that also display high levels of anticancer activity against a broad range of tumor cells lines...
  5. Chen X, Liu J, Zhang Y. Cantharidin impedes the activity of protein serine/threonine phosphatase in Plutella xylostella. Mol Biosyst. 2014;10:240-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Cantharidin, a natural toxin produced by the blister beetle, was reported to be toxic to some pests, but the mechanism of its toxicity in insects remains undefined...
  6. Bonness K, Aragon I, Rutland B, Ofori Acquah S, Dean N, Honkanen R. Cantharidin-induced mitotic arrest is associated with the formation of aberrant mitotic spindles and lagging chromosomes resulting, in part, from the suppression of PP2Aalpha. Mol Cancer Ther. 2006;5:2727-36 pubmed
    b>Cantharidin, a natural vesicant, inhibits the activity of several PPP family phosphatases, displays antitumor activity, and induces apoptosis in many types of tumor cells...
  7. Sagawa M, Nakazato T, Uchida H, Ikeda Y, Kizaki M. Cantharidin induces apoptosis of human multiple myeloma cells via inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway. Cancer Sci. 2008;99:1820-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The traditional Chinese medicine cantharidin (CTD) has been shown to inhibit cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis of various cancer cells...
  8. Ghaffarifar F. Leishmania major: in vitro and in vivo anti-leishmanial effect of cantharidin. Exp Parasitol. 2010;126:126-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Cantharidin is a natural poisonous compound secreted by male blister beetles...
  9. Huan S, Wang K, Yeh S, Lee C, Lin L, Liu D, et al. Scutellaria baicalensis alleviates cantharidin-induced rat hemorrhagic cystitis through inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression. Molecules. 2012;17:6277-89 pubmed publisher
    b>Cantharidin, an active component in mylabris, is used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat scabies and hepatoma, but accompanied by hemorrhagic cystitis...
  10. Mebs D, Pogoda W, Schneider M, Kauert G. Cantharidin and demethylcantharidin (palasonin) content of blister beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae) from southern Africa. Toxicon. 2009;53:466-8 pubmed
    In two species of meloid beetles, Hycleus oculatus and Hycleus tinctus, from southern Africa, cantharidin and demethylcantharidin (palasonin) were assayed quantitatively. For cantharidin the mean value per specimen was about 1 mg for H...
  11. Liu D, Chen Z. The effects of cantharidin and cantharidin derivates on tumour cells. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2009;9:392-6 pubmed
    Natural product extracts are a rich source of small molecules that display antitumor activity. Cantharidin, in the form of the dried body of the Chinese blister beetles: Mylabris phalerata or M...
  12. Kelker M, Page R, Peti W. Crystal structures of protein phosphatase-1 bound to nodularin-R and tautomycin: a novel scaffold for structure-based drug design of serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitors. J Mol Biol. 2009;385:11-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, since tautomycin is a linear non-peptide-based toxin, our reported structure will aid the design of lead compounds for novel PP1-specific pharmaceuticals. ..
  13. Zheng L, Bao Y, Wu Y, Yu C, Meng X, Li Y. Cantharidin reverses multidrug resistance of human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells via down-regulation of P-glycoprotein expression. Cancer Lett. 2008;272:102-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cantharidin was found to have a significant reversal on MDR in our model...
  14. Shou L, Zhang Q, Li W, Xie X, Chen K, Lian L, et al. Cantharidin and norcantharidin inhibit the ability of MCF-7 cells to adhere to platelets via protein kinase C pathway-dependent downregulation of ?2 integrin. Oncol Rep. 2013;30:1059-66 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cantharidin is an active constituent of mylabris, a traditional Chinese medicine...
  15. Huan S, Lee H, Liu D, Wu C, Wang C. Cantharidin-induced cytotoxicity and cyclooxygenase 2 expression in human bladder carcinoma cell line. Toxicology. 2006;223:136-43 pubmed
    ..The toxic effects of mylabris on bladder are attributed to its active principle: cantharidin. In the present study, we explored how cantharidin induces cytotoxicity in the bladder...
  16. Deng L, Dong J, Wang W. Exploiting protein phosphatase inhibitors based on cantharidin analogues for cancer drug discovery. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2013;13:1166-76 pubmed
    b>Cantharidin (CTD), a natural toxin, can inhibit a variety of tumor cell lines, especially hepatocellular carcinoma cells. It is a strong inhibitor of protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) and type 2A (PP2A)...
  17. Moed L, Shwayder T, Chang M. Cantharidin revisited: a blistering defense of an ancient medicine. Arch Dermatol. 2001;137:1357-60 pubmed
    b>Cantharidin, a vesicant produced by beetles in the order Coleoptera, has a long history in both folk and traditional medicine. In dermatology, topical cantharidin has long been used to treat warts and molluscum...
  18. Bulgakov V, Tchernoded G, Mischenko N, Khodakovskaya M, Glazunov V, Radchenko S, et al. Effect of salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, ethephon and cantharidin on anthraquinone production by Rubia cordifolia callus cultures transformed with the rolB and rolC genes. J Biotechnol. 2002;97:213-21 pubmed
    ..cordifolia calluses, whereas ethephon did not. A treatment of the cultures by cantharidin, the protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor, resulted in massive induction of anthraquinone accumulation in the ..
  19. Shin H, Shin H, Guo Z, Blancaflor E, Masson P, Chen R. Complex regulation of Arabidopsis AGR1/PIN2-mediated root gravitropic response and basipetal auxin transport by cantharidin-sensitive protein phosphatases. Plant J. 2005;42:188-200 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that protein phosphatases, sensitive to cantharidin and okadaic acid, are likely involved in regulating AGR1/PIN2-mediated root basipetal auxin transport and ..
  20. Efferth T, Rauh R, Kahl S, Tomicic M, Böchzelt H, Tome M, et al. Molecular modes of action of cantharidin in tumor cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005;69:811-8 pubmed
    ..Traditional Chinese medicine is a rich source of potential anticancer agents. In particular, cantharidin (CAN), the active principle ingredient from the blister beetle, Mylabris, has anti-tumor activity, but the ..
  21. Huh J, Kang K, Chae C, Kim H, Ahn K, Kim S. Roles of p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways during cantharidin-induced apoptosis in U937 cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004;67:1811-8 pubmed
    b>Cantharidin is an active compound from blister beetles traditionally used for the treatment of cancer. It is known to exert its antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis in cancer cells...
  22. Nikbakhtzadeh M, Dettner K, Boland W, Gäde G, Dötterl S. Intraspecific transfer of cantharidin within selected members of the family Meloidae (Insecta: Coleoptera). J Insect Physiol. 2007;53:890-9 pubmed
    The use of deuterium-labelled cantharidin (CAN-D(2)) to study details of cantharidin transfer in blister beetles indicates that the dynamics of organ-selective cantharidin accumulation may differ over time...
  23. McCluskey A, Walkom C, Bowyer M, Ackland S, Gardiner E, Sakoff J. Cantharimides: a new class of modified cantharidin analogues inhibiting protein phosphatases 1 and 2A. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2001;11:2941-6 pubmed
    b>Cantharidin and its analogues have been of considerable interest as potent inhibitors of the serine/threonine protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A). However, limited modifications to the parent compounds is tolerated...
  24. Dinh P, Corraza F, Mestdagh K, Kassengera Z, Doyen V, Michel O. Validation of the cantharidin-induced skin blister as an in vivo model of inflammation. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011;72:912-20 pubmed publisher
    Pharmacological profiling techniques, such as the cantharidin-induced skin blister, may be used to assess the anti-inflammatory properties of novel drugs...
  25. Sánchez Barbudo I, Camarero P, Garcia Montijano M, Mateo R. Possible cantharidin poisoning of a great bustard (Otis tarda). Toxicon. 2012;59:100-3 pubmed publisher
    A possible cantharidin intoxication of a great bustard (Otis tarda) was described...
  26. Manzanero S, Rutten T, Kotseruba V, Houben A. Alterations in the distribution of histone H3 phosphorylation in mitotic plant chromosomes in response to cold treatment and the protein phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin. Chromosome Res. 2002;10:467-76 pubmed
    ..phosphorylation, root meristems of different plant species were treated with the protein phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin or with ice-water...
  27. Bertini I, Calderone V, Fragai M, Luchinat C, Talluri E. Structural basis of serine/threonine phosphatase inhibition by the archetypal small molecules cantharidin and norcantharidin. J Med Chem. 2009;52:4838-43 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibition of a subgroup of human serine/threonine protein phosphatases is responsible for the cytotoxicity of cantharidin and norcantharidin against tumor cells...
  28. Yeh C, Su C, Hwang J, Chou M. Therapeutic effects of cantharidin analogues without bridging ether oxygen on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Eur J Med Chem. 2010;45:3981-5 pubmed publisher
    Previous research indicates that cantharidin, norcantharidin and their analogues exhibit anticancer activity due to their inhibition of cancer cell lines such as HL60, HT29 and L1210...
  29. Liu J, Gao J, Liu X. [Advances in the study of Cantharidin and its derivatives]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2003;26:453-5 pubmed
  30. Price W, Stobbe C, Park S, Chapman J. Radiosensitization of tumour cells by cantharidin and some analogues. Int J Radiat Biol. 2004;80:269-79 pubmed
    ..Of these agents, cantharidin (LS-1), which is an inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A), showed good radiosensitizing ..
  31. Huang W, Ko S, Tsai H, Chung J, Chiang J, Chen K, et al. Cantharidin induces G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer colo 205 cells through inhibition of CDK1 activity and caspase-dependent signaling pathways. Int J Oncol. 2011;38:1067-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Cantharidin (CTD) is a traditional Chinese medicine and an effective component isolated from blister beetle, and it has been demonstrated to have anticancer, antibiotic, antivirus activities and immune-regulated functions...
  32. Swingle M, Ni L, Honkanen R. Small-molecule inhibitors of ser/thr protein phosphatases: specificity, use and common forms of abuse. Methods Mol Biol. 2007;365:23-38 pubmed
    ..and cantharidin (blister beetles, approx 1500 species)...
  33. Kok S, Chui C, Lam W, Chen J, Tang J, Lau F, et al. Induction of apoptosis on carcinoma cells by two synthetic cantharidin analogues. Int J Mol Med. 2006;17:151-7 pubmed
    b>Cantharidin isolated from Mylabris caraganae and other insects has been used as an anti-cancer drug in China for many years. However, its toxicity on the renal system and suppression effect on bone marrow limits its usage clinically...
  34. Eldridge R, Casida J. Cantharidin effects on protein phosphatases and the phosphorylation state of phosphoproteins in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1995;130:95-100 pubmed
    Our earlier studies indicated that the action of cantharidin (CA) in mice is associated with binding to protein phosphatase 2A in liver cytosol and inhibition of its phosphorylase a phosphatase activity...
  35. Cona A, Rea G, Botta M, Corelli F, Federico R, Angelini R. Flavin-containing polyamine oxidase is a hydrogen peroxide source in the oxidative response to the protein phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin in Zea mays L. J Exp Bot. 2006;57:2277-89 pubmed
    ..H2O2)-producing enzyme, to the oxidative burst induced in maize mesocotyl by the phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin was examined...
  36. Sakoff J, Ackland S, Baldwin M, Keane M, McCluskey A. Anticancer activity and protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibition of a new generation of cantharidin analogues. Invest New Drugs. 2002;20:1-11 pubmed
    b>Cantharidin (Spanish Fly) is a natural toxin and an inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A), which have key roles in cell cycle progression...
  37. Dang Y, Hu C, An L, Zhu C. Study of the physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability of the solid dispersion of cantharidin with polyethylene glycol 4000. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2010;32:157-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Cantharidin (CA) is partially water-soluble. Solid dispersion of CA (CA-SD) in polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000) was carried out by a solvent-fusion method to increase its dissolution rate and oral bioavailability...
  38. Kok S, Chui C, Lam W, Chen J, Lau F, Cheng G, et al. Apoptotic activity of a novel synthetic cantharidin analogue on hepatoma cell lines. Int J Mol Med. 2006;17:945-9 pubmed
    b>Cantharidin isolated from Mylabris caraganae and other insects is used traditionally as an anti-cancer drug. However, its toxicity on the renal system and suppression effect on bone marrow limits its clinical usage...
  39. Chang C, Liu D, Lin S, Liang H, Hou W, Huang W, et al. Liposome encapsulation reduces cantharidin toxicity. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:3116-21 pubmed publisher
    Several reports have demonstrated that cantharidin is a strong anticancer compound in vitro; however, its in vivo usefulness is often limited due to its high systemic toxicity...
  40. Efferth T. Microarray-based prediction of cytotoxicity of tumor cells to cantharidin. Oncol Rep. 2005;13:459-63 pubmed
    b>Cantharidin (CAN) is the active principle of the Chinese blister beetle (Mylabris phalerata) which exerts profound cytotoxicity towards tumor cells...
  41. Baba Y, Hirukawa N, Sodeoka M. Optically active cantharidin analogues possessing selective inhibitory activity on Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2B (calcineurin): implications for the binding mode. Bioorg Med Chem. 2005;13:5164-70 pubmed
    b>Cantharidin is well known as a potent serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A) inhibitor, with less potent inhibitory activity for PP2B, which regulates T-cell proliferation...
  42. Coloe J, Morrell D. Cantharidin use among pediatric dermatologists in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Pediatr Dermatol. 2009;26:405-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Cantharidin is cited often in the dermatology and pediatric literature as a valuable treatment option for molluscum contagiosum (MC)...
  43. Li W, Chen Z, Gong F, Zong Y, Chen K, Li D, et al. Growth of the pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 is inhibited by protein phosphatase 2A inhibitors through overactivation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway. Eur J Cancer. 2011;47:2654-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that cantharidin, an active constituent of a traditional Chinese medicine, potently and selectively inhibited PP2A, yet ..
  44. Shan H, Cai Y, Liu Y, Zeng W, Chen H, Fan B, et al. Cytotoxicity of cantharidin analogues targeting protein phosphatase 2A. Anticancer Drugs. 2006;17:905-11 pubmed
    b>Cantharidin is a natural toxin that possesses potent anti-tumor properties. Its clinical application, however, is limited due to severe side-effects...
  45. Zhang W, Zhao H, Yan Y, Wang X, Zong Z, Liu Y. [Apoptosis induced by cantharidin in human pulmonary carcinoma cells A549 and its molecular mechanisms]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2005;27:330-4 pubmed
    To investigate the apoptosis-inducing effect of cantharidin in human lung cancer cells A549 and its molecular mechanisms. MTT assay was used to determine A549 cells proliferation...
  46. Twu N, Srinivasan R, Chou C, Wu L, Chiu C. Cantharidin and norcantharidin inhibit caprine luteal cell steroidogenesis in vitro. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2012;64:37-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Cantharidin and its analog norcantharidin are active constituents of Mylabris, have been demonstrated to ailments for a variety of cancers...
  47. Li W, Chen Z, Zong Y, Gong F, Zhu Y, Zhu Y, et al. PP2A inhibitors induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 through persistent phosphorylation of IKK? and sustained activation of the NF-?B pathway. Cancer Lett. 2011;304:117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, cantharidin potently inhibits PP2A but efficiently represses various cancer cells...
  48. Zhang J, Ying K, Xiao Z, Zhou B, Huang Q, Wu H, et al. Analysis of gene expression profiles in human HL-60 cell exposed to cantharidin using cDNA microarray. Int J Cancer. 2004;108:212-8 pubmed
    b>Cantharidin is a natural toxin that has antitumor properties and causes leukocytosis as well as increasing sensitivity of tumor cells resistant to other chemotherapeutic agents...
  49. Zhang C, Peng Y, Wang F, Tan X, Liu N, Fan S, et al. A synthetic cantharidin analog for the enhancement of doxorubicin suppression of stem cell-derived aggressive sarcoma. Biomaterials. 2010;31:9535-43 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cantharidin, a natural compound isolated from the beetles and other insects has been traditionally used as anticancer agent,..
  50. Chen X, Lü S, Zhang Y. Identification and biochemical characterization of protein phosphatase 5 from the cantharidin-producing blister beetle, Epicauta chinensis. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:24501-13 pubmed publisher
    ..A cDNA fragment encoding PP5 (EcPP5) was cloned and characterized from the cantharidin-producing blister beetle, E. chinensis...
  51. Dorn D, Kou C, Png K, Moore M. The effect of cantharidins on leukemic stem cells. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:2186-99 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cantharidin, a natural toxin from blister beetles, used as medicinal agent since antiquity, has been described to modulate ..
  52. Fietz O, Dettner K, Görls H, Klemm K, Boland W. (R)-(+)-palasonin, a cantharidin-related plant toxin, also occurs in insect hemolymph and tissues. J Chem Ecol. 2002;28:1315-27 pubmed
    Gas chromatographic and mass spectroscopic analyses of extracts of cantharidin-containing meloid, clerid, and staphylinid beetles revealed the presence of minor to significant amounts of palasonin, previously only known from seeds and ..
  53. Han J, Yu J, Wu H, Liu J, Song B, Xue D. [Inhibitory effect of compound cantharides capsule on the proliferation of xenografts of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG(2)215 in mice]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2012;34:821-5 pubmed publisher
  54. Hill T, Stewart S, Gordon C, Ackland S, Gilbert J, Sauer B, et al. Norcantharidin analogues: synthesis, anticancer activity and protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibition. ChemMedChem. 2008;3:1878-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Cantharidin (1) and its derivatives are of significant interest as serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitors. Additionally, compounds of this type have displayed growth inhibition of various tumour cell lines...
  55. Pitre A, Davis N, Paul M, Orr A, Skalli O. Synemin promotes AKT-dependent glioblastoma cell proliferation by antagonizing PP2A. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:1243-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively these results indicate that synemin positively regulates glioblastoma cell proliferation by helping sequester PP2A away from Akt, thereby favoring Akt activation. ..
  56. Poderoso C, Paz C, Gorostizaga A, Cornejo Maciel F, Mendez C, Podesta E. Protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2A activity is inhibited by cAMP in MA-10 cells. Endocr Res. 2002;28:319-23 pubmed
    ..As reported in other steroidogenic cells, cAMP-induced steroidogenesis in MA-10 cells is reduced by Cantharidin (Can) and also by Calyculin A (CA), two chemically unrelated PP1/PP2A inhibitors (data not shown)...