piperonyl butoxide


Summary: An insecticide synergist, especially for pyrethroids and ROTENONE.

Top Publications

  1. Bingham G, Gunning R, Gorman K, Field L, Moores G. Temporal synergism by microencapsulation of piperonyl butoxide and alpha-cypermethrin overcomes insecticide resistance in crop pests. Pest Manag Sci. 2007;63:276-81 pubmed
    A microencapsulated formulation that gives a burst release of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) several hours before a burst release of a conventional pyrethroid can effectively overcome metabolic resistance in Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, ..
  2. N Guessan R, Asidi A, Boko P, Odjo A, Akogbeto M, Pigeon O, et al. An experimental hut evaluation of PermaNet(®) 3.0, a deltamethrin-piperonyl butoxide combination net, against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in southern Benin. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010;104:758-65 pubmed publisher
    ..0 is a long-lasting combination net with deltamethrin present on the sides and a mixture of deltamethrin and piperonyl butoxide (PBO), an oxidase synergist, on the top panel...
  3. Kotze A, Dobson R, Chandler D. Synergism of rotenone by piperonyl butoxide in Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in vitro: potential for drug-synergism through inhibition of nematode oxidative detoxification pathways. Vet Parasitol. 2006;136:275-82 pubmed
    The anthelmintic properties of rotenone and its activity in combination with the cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide, were examined in in vitro assays with adults and larvae of Haemonchus contortus and larvae of Trichostrongylus ..
  4. Tungu P, Magesa S, Maxwell C, Malima R, Masue D, Sudi W, et al. Evaluation of PermaNet 3.0 a deltamethrin-PBO combination net against Anopheles gambiae and pyrethroid resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes: an experimental hut trial in Tanzania. Malar J. 2010;9:21 pubmed publisher
    ..combination net incorporating deltamethrin on the side panels and a mixture of deltamethrin and synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the top panel. PBO is an inhibitor of mixed function oxidases implicated in pyrethroid resistance...
  5. Yang Y, Wu Y, Chen S, Devine G, Denholm I, Jewess P, et al. The involvement of microsomal oxidases in pyrethroid resistance in Helicoverpa armigera from Asia. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;34:763-73 pubmed
    ..Selection with a mixture of fenvalerate and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) for 14 generations ('YGFP') resulted in resistance ratios of 2510, 2920 and 286...
  6. Romero A, Potter M, Haynes K. Evaluation of piperonyl butoxide as a deltamethrin synergist for pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs. J Econ Entomol. 2009;102:2310-5 pubmed
    ..We used the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO) to assess the role of P450s in deltamethrin resistance in three field-collected bed bug strains, LA-1, ..
  7. Sanchez Bruni S, Fusé L, Moreno L, Saumell C, Alvarez L, Fiel C, et al. Changes to oxfendazole chiral kinetics and anthelmintic efficacy induced by piperonyl butoxide in horses. Equine Vet J. 2005;37:257-62 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the effects of piperonyl butoxide (PB) (a metabolic inhibitor) on the plasma availability and enantiomeric behaviour of oxfendazole (OFZ) ..
  8. Nishino R, Fukuyama T, Tajima Y, Miyashita L, Watanabe Y, Ueda H, et al. Prior oral exposure to environmental immunosuppressive chemicals methoxychlor, parathion, or piperonyl butoxide aggravates allergic airway inflammation in NC/Nga mice. Toxicology. 2013;309:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..an organophosphate compound) or methoxychlor (an organochlorine compound), or to an insecticide synergist piperonyl butoxide, prior to OVA intraperitoneal sensitization and inhalation challenge...
  9. Muguruma M, Kawai M, Dewa Y, Nishimura J, Saegusa Y, Yasuno H, et al. Threshold dose of piperonyl butoxide that induces reactive oxygen species-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Arch Toxicol. 2009;83:183-93 pubmed publisher
    To determine the threshold dose of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) that induces hepatocellular tumor-promoting effects, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and drug-metabolizing enzymes that protect against ROS generation, partial ..

More Information


  1. Khot A, Bingham G, Field L, Moores G. A novel assay reveals the blockade of esterases by piperonyl butoxide. Pest Manag Sci. 2008;64:1139-42 pubmed publisher
    Conventional in vitro assays sometimes fail to reveal esterase inhibition by piperonyl butoxide (PBO), although synergism studies suggest loss of esterase-mediated sequestration of insecticide does take place...
  2. Young S, Gunning R, Moores G. The effect of piperonyl butoxide on pyrethroid-resistance-associated esterases in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pest Manag Sci. 2005;61:397-401 pubmed
    ..that pyrethroid-resistance-associated esterases in H armigera are inhibited by the insecticide synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO)...
  3. Kawai M, Saegusa Y, Dewa Y, Nishimura J, Kemmochi S, Harada T, et al. Elevation of cell proliferation via generation of reactive oxygen species by piperonyl butoxide contributes to its liver tumor-promoting effects in mice. Arch Toxicol. 2010;84:155-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is a pesticide synergist used with pyrethroids as a domestic insecticide, and it acts as a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen in rats and mice...
  4. Sánchez Arroyo H, Koehler P, Valles S. Effects of the synergists piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate on propoxur pharmacokinetics in Blattella germanica (Blattodea: Blattellidae). J Econ Entomol. 2001;94:1209-16 pubmed
    Effects of the synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) on propoxur pharmacokinetics were examined in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.)...
  5. Muguruma M, Arai K, Moto M, Nishimura J, Dewa Y, Mitsumori K. Piperonyl butoxide activates c-Jun and ATF-2 in the hepatocytes of mice. Arch Toxicol. 2008;82:749-53 pubmed publisher
    In order to clarify the possible mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis induced by piperonyl butoxide, we attempted to identify the transcription factor activated by piperonyl butoxide in the male ICR mouse liver. Administration of 0...
  6. Barker S, Altman P. A randomised, assessor blind, parallel group comparative efficacy trial of three products for the treatment of head lice in children--melaleuca oil and lavender oil, pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide, and a "suffocation" product. BMC Dermatol. 2010;10:6 pubmed publisher
    ..and safety of three topical pediculicides: a pediculicide containing melaleuca oil (tea tree oil) and lavender oil (TTO/LO); a head lice "suffocation" product; and a product containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (P/PB).
  7. Ning D, Wang H, Ding C, Lu H. Novel evidence of cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of phenanthrene in Phanerochaete chrysosporium under ligninolytic conditions. Biodegradation. 2010;21:889-901 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Piperonyl butoxide, a P450 inhibitor which had no effect on manganese peroxidase activity, significantly inhibited phenanthrene ..
  8. Fakoorziba M, Eghbal F, Vijayan V. Synergist efficacy of piperonyl butoxide with deltamethrin as pyrethroid insecticide on Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquitoe species. Environ Toxicol. 2009;24:19-24 pubmed publisher
    ..So, it is suggested that PBO is a good synergist in this area for decreasing the use of pesticides in environment in vector control. ..
  9. Subramanian V, Yadav J. Role of P450 monooxygenases in the degradation of the endocrine-disrupting chemical nonylphenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:5570-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The P450 enzyme inhibitor piperonyl butoxide caused significant inhibition (approximately 75%) of the degradation activity in nutrient-rich malt extract (..
  10. Yadav S, Mittal P, Saxena P, Singh R. Effect of synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the toxicity of some essential oils against mosquito larvae. J Commun Dis. 2009;41:33-8 pubmed
    Effect of a known synergist piperonyl butoxide on the toxicity of steam distillate essential oils of Jamarosa (Cymbopogan nardus), Pacholli (Pogostemon pacholli), Basil (Ocimum basilicum), and Peppermint (Mentha pipreta) plant species ..
  11. Pap L, Arvai G, Bertok B, Ribai Z, Bakonyvári I. Comparative evaluation of new synergists containing a butynyl-type synergophore group and piperonyl butoxide derivatives. Pest Manag Sci. 2001;57:186-90 pubmed
    Cross-substituted derivatives of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and MB-599 (proposed common name: verbutin) were synthesized and investigated as carbofuran and permethrin synergists against housefly, Musca domestica L...
  12. Horton M, Rundle A, Camann D, Boyd Barr D, Rauh V, Whyatt R. Impact of prenatal exposure to piperonyl butoxide and permethrin on 36-month neurodevelopment. Pediatrics. 2011;127:e699-706 pubmed publisher
    ..objective was to explore the association between prenatal exposure to permethrin (a common pyrethroid) and piperonyl butoxide (a pyrethroid synergist) and 36-month neurodevelopment...
  13. Willoughby L, Batterham P, Daborn P. Piperonyl butoxide induces the expression of cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Pest Manag Sci. 2007;63:803-8 pubmed
    b>Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is an insecticide synergist known to inhibit the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes...
  14. Macedo P, Schleier J, Reed M, Kelley K, Goodman G, Brown D, et al. Evaluation of efficacy and human health risk of aerial ultra-low volume applications of pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide for adult mosquito management in response to West Nile virus activity in Sacramento County, California. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2010;26:57-66 pubmed
    ..District decided on July 26, 2007, to conduct aerial applications of Evergreen EC 60-6 (60% pyrethrins: 6% piperonyl butoxide) over approximately 215 km2 in the north area of Sacramento County on the nights of July 30, July 31, and ..
  15. Bingham G, Strode C, Tran L, Khoa P, Jamet H. Can piperonyl butoxide enhance the efficacy of pyrethroids against pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti?. Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16:492-500 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) has been used as a synergist to help increase the efficacy of certain insecticides...
  16. Grosman N. Influence of pyrethroids and piperonyl butoxide on histamine release from isolated rat mast cells. Inflamm Res. 2007;56:473-8 pubmed
    ..both type I pyrethroids, and cyfluthrin, type II, used alone and together with the enhancing substance piperonyl butoxide (PBO) at concentration ratios of 1:5 and 1:10, were tested for influence on histamine release induced by ..
  17. Khan H, Akram W. Cyromazine resistance in a field strain of house flies, Musca domestica L.: Resistance risk assessment and bio-chemical mechanism. Chemosphere. 2017;167:308-313 pubmed publisher
    ..Synergism bioassays using enzyme inhibitors: piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF), and metabolic enzyme analyses revealed increased activity ..
  18. Peng T, Pan Y, Yang C, Gao X, Xi J, Wu Y, et al. Over-expression of CYP6A2 is associated with spirotetramat resistance and cross-resistance in the resistant strain of Aphis gossypii Glover. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2016;126:64-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) dramatically increased the toxicity of spirotetramat and alpha-cypermethrin in the resistant strain...
  19. Battaglia C, Gogal R, Zimmerman K, Misra H. Malathion, lindane, and piperonyl butoxide, individually or in combined mixtures, induce immunotoxicity via apoptosis in murine splenocytes in vitro. Int J Toxicol. 2010;29:209-20 pubmed publisher
    Lindane, malathion, and piperonyl butoxide were cultured singly or as mixtures with murine splenocytes to evaluate changes in cell death and caused cytotoxicity in a concentration- and time-dependent manner...
  20. Cisse M, Sangaré D, Oxborough R, Dicko A, Dengela D, Sadou A, et al. A village level cluster-randomized entomological evaluation of combination long-lasting insecticidal nets containing pyrethroid plus PBO synergist in Southern Mali. Malar J. 2017;16:477 pubmed publisher
    ..to control susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations through a mixture of pyrethroid with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist...
  21. Lambkin T, Furlong M. Metabolic mechanisms only partially explain resistance to pyrethroids in Australian broiler house populations of lesser mealworm (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J Econ Entomol. 2011;104:629-35 pubmed
    ..Adding piperonyl butoxide (PBO) had no effect on the susceptibility of the susceptible population to any of the insecticides, but it ..
  22. Brown J, Mickle R, Yates M, Zhai J. Optimizing an aerial spray for mosquito control. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2003;19:243-50 pubmed
    ..A 5-fold increase in mortality was achieved when we used optimization techniques to position the aircraft during a crosswind treatment test. ..
  23. Lawler S, Dritz D, Johnson C, Wolder M. Does synergized pyrethrin applied over wetlands for mosquito control affect Daphnia magna zooplankton or Callibaetis californicus mayflies?. Pest Manag Sci. 2008;64:843-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Some exposed sediments yielded pyrethrin (< or =34.5 ng g(-1)); most showed piperonyl butoxide (PBO) (< or =14.9 ng g(-1))...
  24. Muguruma M, Unami A, Kanki M, Kuroiwa Y, Nishimura J, Dewa Y, et al. Possible involvement of oxidative stress in piperonyl butoxide induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Toxicology. 2007;236:61-75 pubmed
    To clarify the possible mechanism of non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis induced by piperonyl butoxide (PBO), male F344 rats were administered an i.p. injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) to initiate hepatocarcinogenesis...
  25. Tsagkarakou A, Van Leeuwen T, Khajehali J, Ilias A, Grispou M, Williamson M, et al. Identification of pyrethroid resistance associated mutations in the para sodium channel of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Insect Mol Biol. 2009;18:583-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Three transcripts were identified corresponding to the k and l alternative exons. The mode of inheritance of resistance was confirmed as incompletely recessive, which is consistent with a target site mechanism for pyrethroids...
  26. Noyan E, Demir V. [Investigation of pediculosis carried out as the special study module No. 74, a part of Ege University Medical Faculty's educational program]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2006;30:32-4 pubmed
    ..Twenty female students had pediculosis capitis, but no male students were infested. The infestation rate in the girls was 55.5%. Positive cases were treated and 35.0% were found to be cured during a control performed one week later. ..
  27. Raghavendra K, Barik T, Sharma P, Bhatt R, Srivastava H, Sreehari U, et al. Chlorfenapyr: a new insecticide with novel mode of action can control pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors. Malar J. 2011;10:16 pubmed publisher
    ..on different substrates, cross-resistance pattern with different insecticides and potentiation studies using piperonyl butoxide were undertaken by following standard procedures...
  28. Tanaka T, Inomata A. Reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of maternal exposure to piperonyl butoxide (PBO) in F1 -generation mice. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2016;107:195-205 pubmed publisher
    Female mice were exposed maternally to piperonyl butoxide (PBO) through diet to provide levels of 0 (control), 0.015, 0.03, and 0...
  29. Delaunois A, Florquin S, Segura P, Montano L, Vargas M, Gustin P. Interactions between cytochrome P-450 activities and ozone-induced modulatory effects on endothelial permeability in rabbit lungs: influence of gender. Inhal Toxicol. 1999;11:999-1014 pubmed
    ..Some animals were pretreated with piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a well-known inhibitor of CYP450...
  30. Yang M, Zhang J, Zhu K, Xuan T, Liu X, Guo Y, et al. Mechanisms of organophosphate resistance in a field population of oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2009;71:3-15 pubmed publisher
    ..malathion, chlorpyrifos, and phoxim), responses to three metabolic synergists [triphenyl phosphate (TPP), piperonyl butoxide (PBO), and diethyl maleate (DEM)], activities of major detoxification enzymes [general esterases (ESTs), ..
  31. Ahmad M, Sayyed A, Crickmore N, Saleem M. Genetics and mechanism of resistance to deltamethrin in a field population of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pest Manag Sci. 2007;63:1002-10 pubmed
    ..Stability and dominance of resistance and cross-resistance suggest that insecticides with different modes of action should be recommended to reduce pyrethroid selection pressure. ..
  32. Kawai M, Saegusa Y, Kemmochi S, Harada T, Shimamoto K, Shibutani M, et al. Cytokeratin 8/18 is a useful immunohistochemical marker for hepatocellular proliferative lesions in mice. J Vet Med Sci. 2010;72:263-9 pubmed
    ..6% piperonyl butoxide (PBO) for 8 (Experiment I) or 25 weeks (Experiment II) after N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) initiation treatment,..
  33. Peterson R, Macedo P, Davis R. A human-health risk assessment for West Nile virus and insecticides used in mosquito management. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:366-72 pubmed
    ..Further, our results indicate that, based on human-health criteria, the risks from WNV exceed the risks from exposure to mosquito insecticides. ..
  34. Gross A, Tabanca N, Islam R, Ali A, Khan I, Kaplancikli Z, et al. Toxicity and Synergistic Activities of Chalcones Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae). J Med Entomol. 2017;54:382-386 pubmed publisher
    ..aegypti mosquitoes to examine its impact on activity of carbaryl, which was compared to piperonyl butoxide alone. Fourteen chalcone analogs had LC50 values in the range of 0.4-38 ppm against first-instar Ae...
  35. Veignie E, Rafin C, Woisel P, Cazier F. Preliminary evidence of the role of hydrogen peroxide in the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene by a non-white rot fungus Fusarium solani. Environ Pollut. 2004;129:1-4 pubmed
    ..This study proposed a hypothetic alternative metabolic pathway involved in PAH metabolism by Fusarium solani. ..
  36. Briët O, Penny M, Hardy D, Awolola T, Van Bortel W, Corbel V, et al. Effects of pyrethroid resistance on the cost effectiveness of a mass distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets: a modelling study. Malar J. 2013;12:77 pubmed publisher
    ..years (DALYs) averted during that period, depending on net type (standard pyrethroid-only LLIN or pyrethroid-piperonyl butoxide combination LLIN), resistance status, coverage and pre-intervention transmission level...
  37. Mzilahowa T, Chiumia M, Mbewe R, Uzalili V, Luka Banda M, Kutengule A, et al. Increasing insecticide resistance in Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis in Malawi, 2011-2015. Malar J. 2016;15:563 pubmed
    ..exposed to deltamethrin alone ranged from 2 to 31% and from 41 to 94% when pre-exposed to the synergist piperonyl butoxide followed by deltamethrin...
  38. Lesser C. Field trial efficacy of Anvil 10+10 and Biomist 31:66 against Ochlerotatus sollicitans in Delaware. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2002;18:36-9 pubmed
    ..05) than applications of Biomist at equal percentages of the maximum label rate. Applications of Anvil at rates of 50 and 67% were not effective. ..
  39. Allossogbe M, Gnanguenon V, Yovogan B, Akinro B, Anagonou R, Agossa F, et al. WHO cone bio-assays of classical and new-generation long-lasting insecticidal nets call for innovative insecticides targeting the knock-down resistance mechanism in Benin. Malar J. 2017;16:77 pubmed publisher
    ..These nets are treated with the piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist which inhibit the action of detoxification enzymes...
  40. Yun M, Shim I, Usui K. Involvement of cytochrome P-450 enzyme activity in the selectivity and safening action of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl. Pest Manag Sci. 2001;57:283-8 pubmed
    ..anhydride and ethanol, the herbicides PSE, bensulfuron-methyl, dimepiperate and dymron, or the inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Growth inhibition in C serotinus seedlings was more severe than that in rice seedlings...
  41. David A, Botías C, Abdul Sada A, Goulson D, Hill E. Sensitive determination of mixtures of neonicotinoid and fungicide residues in pollen and single bumblebees using a scaled down QuEChERS method for exposure assessment. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2015;407:8151-62 pubmed publisher
    ..was tested to quantify residues of 19 commonly used neonicotinoids and fungicides and the synergist, piperonyl butoxide, in 100 mg samples of pollen and in samples of individual bumblebees (Bombus terrestris)...
  42. Kawai M, Saegusa Y, Jin M, Dewa Y, Nishimura J, Harada T, et al. Mechanistic study on hepatocarcinogenesis of piperonyl butoxide in mice. Toxicol Pathol. 2009;37:761-9 pubmed publisher
    To clarify the mechanism of piperonyl butoxide (PBO)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice, male mice were subjected to a two-thirds partial hepatectomy, N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) initiation, and a diet containing 0.6% PBO for eight weeks...
  43. Geller Bernstein C, Pibourdin J, Dornelas A, Fondarai J. Efficacy of the acaricide: acardust for the prevention of asthma and rhinitis due to dust mite allergy, in children. Allerg Immunol (Paris). 1995;27:147-54 pubmed
    ..01), sneezing and lacrimation (p = 0.02); concurrent medication dropped significantly (p = 0.01) in the Acardust group. No side-effects were reported. We consider Acardust a safe and valuable preventive treatment in H.D.M. allergy. ..
  44. Al Nazawi A, Aqili J, Alzahrani M, McCall P, Weetman D. Combined target site (kdr) mutations play a primary role in highly pyrethroid resistant phenotypes of Aedes aegypti from Saudi Arabia. Parasit Vectors. 2017;10:161 pubmed publisher
    ..were raised to adults and assayed for resistance to permethrin, deltamethrin (with and without the synergist piperonyl butoxide, PBO), fenitrothion, and bendiocarb...
  45. Hallett K, Atfield A, Comber S, Hutchinson T. Developmental toxicity of metaldehyde in the embryos of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) co-exposed to the synergist piperonyl butoxide. Sci Total Environ. 2016;543:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..stagnalis embryos was co-exposed to metaldehyde and the pesticide synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Co-exposure to the PBO (measured concentrations between 0.47-0...
  46. Bynum E, Archer T. Susceptibility of populations of Banks grass mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) suspected of developing bifenthrin resistance from three maize fields. Exp Appl Acarol. 2002;27:303-12 pubmed
    ..The activity of a dimethoate + bifenthrin mixture and a three way mixture of dimethoate, bifenthrin, and piperonyl butoxide caused 5- and 38-fold increase in toxicity against the more resistant Banks grass mite.
  47. Chahine S, O Donnell M. Interactions between detoxification mechanisms and excretion in Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:462-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Dietary exposure to the insecticide synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was associated with reduced expression of two P450 genes (Cyp4e2, Cyp4p1) and two GST genes (GstD1, ..
  48. Chai R, Lee C. Insecticide resistance profiles and synergism in field populations of the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) from Singapore. J Econ Entomol. 2010;103:460-71 pubmed
    ..3x). One strain demonstrated broad-spectrum resistance to most of the insecticides. Synergism studies using piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) in combination with a discriminating dose (LD99) of ..
  49. Cornel A, Stanich M, McAbee R, Mulligan F. High level methoprene resistance in the mosquito Ochlerotatus nigromaculis (Ludlow) in central California. Pest Manag Sci. 2002;58:791-8 pubmed
    ..The synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate and 3-octylthio-1,1,1-trifluoro-2-propanone had little synergistic ..
  50. Abbas N, Khan H, Shad S. Cross-resistance, genetics, and realized heritability of resistance to fipronil in the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae): a potential vector for disease transmission. Parasitol Res. 2014;113:1343-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Synergism bioassay with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) indicated that fipronil resistance was associated with ..
  51. Huang F, Subramanyam B. Responses of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) to pirimiphos-methyl, spinosad, and combinations of pirimiphos-methyl and synergized pyrethrins. Pest Manag Sci. 2004;60:191-8 pubmed
    ..the susceptibility of this particular strain to pirimiphos-methyl, spinosad, pyrethrins synergized with piperonyl butoxide, and pirimiphos-methyl combined with synergized pyrethrins...
  52. Antonious G, Patel G, Snyder J, Coyne M. Pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide adsorption to soil organic matter. J Environ Sci Health B. 2004;39:19-32 pubmed
    ..Pys), the major insecticidal components obtained from the pyrethrum daisy Tanacetum cinerariifolium, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a pyrethrum synergist, were determined in soil using batch-equilibrium and reverse-phase thin-layer ..