Summary: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.

Top Publications

  1. Zheng Z, Wan Q, Liu J, Zhu H, Chu X, Du Q. Evidence for dynein and astral microtubule-mediated cortical release and transport of G?i/LGN/NuMA complex in mitotic cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:901-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that regulated cortical release and transport of LGN complex along astral microtubules may contribute to spindle positioning in mammalian cells. ..
  2. Samuel T, Fadlalla K, Turner T, Yehualaeshet T. The flavonoid quercetin transiently inhibits the activity of taxol and nocodazole through interference with the cell cycle. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62:1025-35 pubmed publisher
    ..proliferation of cancer cells, either singly or in combination with the microtubule-targeting drugs taxol and nocodazole. Although quercetin induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, 12...
  3. Lee J, Kim J, Margolis R, Fotedar R. Substrate degradation by the anaphase promoting complex occurs during mitotic slippage. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:1792-801 pubmed
    ..Using cells blocked in mitosis with the microtubule assembly inhibitor nocodazole, we show that mitotic APC substrates are degraded upon mitotic slippage...
  4. Yang Z, Kenny A, Brito D, Rieder C. Cells satisfy the mitotic checkpoint in Taxol, and do so faster in concentrations that stabilize syntelic attachments. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:675-84 pubmed publisher
    To determine why the duration of mitosis (DM) is less in Taxol than in nocodazole or Eg5 inhibitors we studied the relationship between Taxol concentration, the DM, and the mitotic checkpoint...
  5. Dey A, Nishiyama A, Karpova T, McNally J, Ozato K. Brd4 marks select genes on mitotic chromatin and directs postmitotic transcription. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4899-909 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, Brd4 marks M/G1 genes for transcriptional memory during mitosis, and upon exiting mitosis, this mark acts as a signal for initiating their prompt transcription in daughter cells. ..
  6. Nagano K, Shinkawa T, Mutoh H, Kondoh O, Morimoto S, Inomata N, et al. Phosphoproteomic analysis of distinct tumor cell lines in response to nocodazole treatment. Proteomics. 2009;9:2861-74 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis of distinct tumor cell lines in the presence or absence of the microtubule-interfering agent nocodazole. In total, 1525 phosphorylation sites assigned to 726 phosphoproteins were identified using LC-MS-based ..
  7. Costa Borges N, Paramio M, Santaló J, Ibáñez E. Demecolcine- and nocodazole-induced enucleation in mouse and goat oocytes for the preparation of recipient cytoplasts in somatic cell nuclear transfer procedures. Theriogenology. 2011;75:527-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we explored whether short treatments with DEM or another antimitotic, nocodazole (NOC), improve IE efficiency, and determined the most appropriate timing for nuclear transfer in the cytoplasts ..
  8. Quinones G, Danowski B, Devaraj A, Singh V, Ligon L. The posttranslational modification of tubulin undergoes a switch from detyrosination to acetylation as epithelial cells become polarized. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1045-57 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in both 2D polarized and 3D polarized cells, the modified microtubules are oriented to support vectorial cargo transport to areas of high need. ..
  9. Choi H, Fukui M, Zhu B. Role of cyclin B1/Cdc2 up-regulation in the development of mitotic prometaphase arrest in human breast cancer cells treated with nocodazole. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24312 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report our finding that treatment of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells with nocodazole, a prototypic microtubule inhibitor, results in strong up-regulation of cyclin B1 and Cdc2 levels, and their ..

More Information


  1. Koreishi M, Gniadek T, Yu S, Masuda J, Honjo Y, Satoh A. The golgin tether giantin regulates the secretory pathway by controlling stack organization within Golgi apparatus. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59821 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with the microtubule destabilizing drug nocodazole transforms the Golgi ribbon into individual Golgi stacks...
  2. Ge S, Skaar J, Pagano M. APC/C- and Mad2-mediated degradation of Cdc20 during spindle checkpoint activation. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:167-71 pubmed
    ..We propose that the degradation of Cdc20 represents a critical control mechanism to ensure inactivation of APC/C(Cdc20) in response to the SAC. ..
  3. Murthy K, Wadsworth P. Dual role for microtubules in regulating cortical contractility during cytokinesis. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:2350-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured the behavior of GFP-actin in mammalian cells treated with nocodazole under conditions that either completely eliminate microtubules or selectively disassemble astral microtubules...
  4. Blagosklonny M. The power of chemotherapeutic engineering: arresting cell cycle and suppressing senescence to protect from mitotic inhibitors. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:2295-8 pubmed
    ..By knowing the mechanisms of cell cycle arrest, death and senescence, we can design "rainbow combinations" that obediently kill or spare desired cells. Knowledge is power. ..
  5. Foley E, Maldonado M, Kapoor T. Formation of stable attachments between kinetochores and microtubules depends on the B56-PP2A phosphatase. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1265-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that PP2A, an essential tumour suppressor, tunes the balance of phosphorylation to promote chromosome-spindle interactions during cell division...
  6. Duncan F, Chiang T, Schultz R, Lampson M. Evidence that a defective spindle assembly checkpoint is not the primary cause of maternal age-associated aneuploidy in mouse eggs. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:768-76 pubmed publisher
    ..When SAC function was challenged with a low concentration of the spindle toxin nocodazole, oocytes from both young and old mice arrested at meiosis I, which is indicative of a functional checkpoint...
  7. Bekier M, Fischbach R, Lee J, Taylor W. Length of mitotic arrest induced by microtubule-stabilizing drugs determines cell death after mitotic exit. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009;8:1646-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiments suggest that there is a point of no return during prolonged mitotic block after which mitotic exit can no longer block death. ..
  8. Chan Y, Ma H, Wong W, Ho C, On K, Poon R. CDK1 inhibitors antagonize the immediate apoptosis triggered by spindle disruption but promote apoptosis following the subsequent rereplication and abnormal mitosis. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:1449-61 pubmed
    ..and various approaches that uncoupled mitotic events, we show that apoptosis was induced by both prolonged nocodazole treatment as well as by inhibition of CDK1 activity after a transient nocodazole block...
  9. O Connell C, Loncarek J, Hergert P, Kourtidis A, Conklin D, Khodjakov A. The spindle assembly checkpoint is satisfied in the absence of interkinetochore tension during mitosis with unreplicated genomes. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..A SAC is present during MUG as cells arrest in response to nocodazole, taxol, or monastrol treatments...
  10. Apontes P, Leontieva O, Demidenko Z, Li F, Blagosklonny M. Exploring long-term protection of normal human fibroblasts and epithelial cells from chemotherapy in cell culture. Oncotarget. 2011;2:222-33 pubmed
    ..long-term cell recovery (rather than on a short-term cell survival) after a 3-day exposure to MI (paclitaxel and nocodazole)...
  11. Coldwell M, Cowan J, Vlasak M, Mead A, Willett M, Perry L, et al. Phosphorylation of eIF4GII and 4E-BP1 in response to nocodazole treatment: a reappraisal of translation initiation during mitosis. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:3615-28 pubmed publisher
    ..One such commonly used chemical is the microtubule de-polymerization agent, nocodazole, which arrests cells in mitosis and has been used to demonstrate that translation rates are strongly reduced (..
  12. Schliekelman M, Cowley D, O Quinn R, Oliver T, Lu L, Salmon E, et al. Impaired Bub1 function in vivo compromises tension-dependent checkpoint function leading to aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 2009;69:45-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutant MEFs have a robust SAC in response to nocodazole treatment but an impaired response to Taxol...
  13. Brito D, Rieder C. The ability to survive mitosis in the presence of microtubule poisons differs significantly between human nontransformed (RPE-1) and cancer (U2OS, HeLa) cells. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2009;66:437-47 pubmed publisher compare the fate of human nontransformed (RPE-1) and cancer (HeLa, U2OS) cells as they entered mitosis in nocodazole or taxol...
  14. Li M, Li S, Yuan J, Wang Z, Sun S, Schatten H, et al. Bub3 is a spindle assembly checkpoint protein regulating chromosome segregation during mouse oocyte meiosis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7701 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that as a member of SAC, Bub3 is required for regulation of both meiosis I and II, and is potentially involved in kinetochore-microtubule attachment in mammalian oocytes. ..
  15. Meissner M, Pinter A, Michailidou D, Hrgovic I, Kaprolat N, Stein M, et al. Microtubule-targeted drugs inhibit VEGF receptor-2 expression by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:2084-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, both inhibition of the rate of gene transcription and increased mRNA turnover represent critical molecular mechanisms by which MT disruption inhibits VEGFR2 expression. ..
  16. POXLEITNER M, Dawson S, Cande W. Cell cycle synchrony in Giardia intestinalis cultures achieved by using nocodazole and aphidicolin. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:569-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The research presented here demonstrates reversible cell cycle arrest in G(1)/S and G(2)/M with aphidicolin and nocodazole, respectively...
  17. Brito D, Yang Z, Rieder C. Microtubules do not promote mitotic slippage when the spindle assembly checkpoint cannot be satisfied. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:623-9 pubmed publisher
    ..At 37 degrees C, the duration of mitosis in nocodazole, colcemid, or vinblastine concentrations that inhibit MT assembly varied from 20 to 30 h, revealing that ..
  18. Xiong B, Li S, Ai J, Yin S, Ouyang Y, Sun S, et al. BRCA1 is required for meiotic spindle assembly and spindle assembly checkpoint activation in mouse oocytes. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:718-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Taxol treatment resulted in the presence of BRCA1 onto the spindle microtubule fibers, whereas nocodazole treatment induced the localization of BRCA1 onto the chromosomes...
  19. Li D, Li P, Li G, Wang J, Wang E. The effect of nocodazole on the transfection efficiency of lipid-bilayer coated gold nanoparticles. Biomaterials. 2009;30:1382-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we found a transfection enhancer, nocodazole (NCZ), for dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DODAB, a cationic lipid) bilayer coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) ..
  20. Uchida K, Takagaki K, Kumada K, Hirayama Y, Noda T, Hirota T. Kinetochore stretching inactivates the spindle assembly checkpoint. J Cell Biol. 2009;184:383-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that the SAC monitors stretching of kinetochores rather than centromeres and that kinetochore stretching promotes silencing of the SAC signal. ..
  21. Franz Wachtel M, Eisler S, Krug K, Wahl S, Carpy A, Nordheim A, et al. Global detection of protein kinase D-dependent phosphorylation events in nocodazole-treated human cells. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012;11:160-70 pubmed publisher
    ..levels between constitutively active and kinase dead PKD1 strains of HEK293 cells, both treated with nocodazole, a microtubule-depolymerizing reagent that disrupts the Golgi complex and activates PKD1...
  22. Zhang Y, Ouyang Y, Hou Y, Schatten H, Chen D, Sun Q. Mitochondrial behavior during oogenesis in zebrafish: a confocal microscopy analysis. Dev Growth Differ. 2008;50:189-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The microtubule assembly inhibitor nocodazole and microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin B (CB) were used to analyze the role of microtubules and microfilaments ..
  23. Andersen J, Johnson C, Freel C, Parrish A, Day J, Buchakjian M, et al. Restraint of apoptosis during mitosis through interdomain phosphorylation of caspase-2. EMBO J. 2009;28:3216-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, U2OS cells treated with nocodazole were found to undergo mitotic catastrophe more readily when endogenous caspase-2 was replaced with the S340A ..
  24. Lee K, Kenny A, Rieder C. P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity is required during mitosis for timely satisfaction of the mitotic checkpoint but not for the fidelity of chromosome segregation. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2150-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that p38 activity promotes timely checkpoint satisfaction by indirectly influencing those motor proteins (e.g., Klp10, Klp67A) involved in regulating the dynamics of kinetochore microtubule ends. ..
  25. Goldyn A, Kaiser P, Spatz J, Ballestrem C, Kemkemer R. The kinetics of force-induced cell reorganization depend on microtubules and actin. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2010;67:241-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we conclude that acto-myosin, together with microtubules, regulate the kinetics of force-induced cell reorientation. ..
  26. Wei L, Liang X, Zhang Q, Li M, Yuan J, Li S, et al. BubR1 is a spindle assembly checkpoint protein regulating meiotic cell cycle progression of mouse oocyte. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:1112-21 pubmed
    ..Spindle disruption by nocodazole treatment caused relocation of BubR1 to kinetochores at metaphase I, anaphase I and metaphase II stages; spindle ..
  27. Hunsperger E, Roehrig J. Nocodazole delays viral entry into the brain following footpad inoculation with West Nile virus in mice. J Neurovirol. 2009;15:211-8 pubmed publisher
    ..C57BL/6J mice were treated with nocodazole, a microtubule inhibitor that blocks ART, prior to infection with WNV...
  28. Xie R, Nguyen S, McKeehan W, Liu L. Acetylated microtubules are required for fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. BMC Cell Biol. 2010;11:89 pubmed publisher
    ..Results show that interruption of microtubules with either microtubule stabilizing paclitaxel or destabilizing nocodazole similarly impairs the conversion of LC3I to LC3II, but does not block the degradation of LC3II-associated ..
  29. Peris L, Wagenbach M, Lafanechere L, Brocard J, Moore A, Kozielski F, et al. Motor-dependent microtubule disassembly driven by tubulin tyrosination. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:1159-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Detyrosination of transiently stabilized MTs may give rise to persistent subpopulations of disassembly-resistant polymers to sustain subcellular cytoskeletal differentiation. ..
  30. Hupalowska A, Kalaszczynska I, Hoffmann S, Tsurumi C, Kubiak J, Polanski Z, et al. Metaphase I arrest in LT/Sv mouse oocytes involves the spindle assembly checkpoint. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:1102-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show for the first time that there is a direct link between the SAC function and the heritable meiotic incompetence of a mammalian oocyte. ..
  31. Xiong B, Sun S, Lin S, Li M, Xu B, Ouyang Y, et al. Involvement of Polo-like kinase 1 in MEK1/2-regulated spindle formation during mouse oocyte meiosis. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:1804-9 pubmed
    ..Depolymerization of microtubules by nocodazole resulted in the complete disassembly of spindles, but Plk1 remained associated with p-MEK1/2, accumulating in ..
  32. Fuchs Y, Eisler S, Link G, Schlicker O, Bunt G, Pfizenmaier K, et al. A Golgi PKD activity reporter reveals a crucial role of PKD in nocodazole-induced Golgi dispersal. Traffic. 2009;10:858-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, nocodazole-induced Golgi complex break-up and dispersal was associated with local PKD activation as measured by reporter ..
  33. Endo K, Mizuguchi M, Harata A, Itoh G, Tanaka K. Nocodazole induces mitotic cell death with apoptotic-like features in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:2387-92 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the fate of budding yeast treated with nocodazole, a microtubule-depolymerizing drug...
  34. Kallas A, Pook M, Maimets M, Zimmermann K, Maimets T. Nocodazole treatment decreases expression of pluripotency markers Nanog and Oct4 in human embryonic stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19114 pubmed publisher
    b>Nocodazole is a known destabiliser of microtubule dynamics and arrests cell-cycle at the G2/M phase. In the context of the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) it is important to understand how this arrest influences the pluripotency of cells...
  35. Butler R, Wood J, Landers J, Cunliffe V. Genetic and chemical modulation of spastin-dependent axon outgrowth in zebrafish embryos indicates a role for impaired microtubule dynamics in hereditary spastic paraplegia. Dis Model Mech. 2010;3:743-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the microtubule-destabilising drug nocodazole abolished microtubule dynamics and growth cone motility, and enhanced phenotypic severity in spast-knockdown ..
  36. Matson D, Demirel P, Stukenberg P, Burke D. A conserved role for COMA/CENP-H/I/N kinetochore proteins in the spindle checkpoint. Genes Dev. 2012;26:542-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model to explain the differential response of human cells to nocodazole and paclitaxel.
  37. Matsui Y, Nakayama Y, Okamoto M, Fukumoto Y, Yamaguchi N. Enrichment of cell populations in metaphase, anaphase, and telophase by synchronization using nocodazole and blebbistatin: a novel method suitable for examining dynamic changes in proteins during mitotic progression. Eur J Cell Biol. 2012;91:413-9 pubmed publisher
    ..enriched by treatment with a combination of low concentrations of the microtubule-depolymerizing agent nocodazole and the myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin...
  38. Banville N, Fallon J, McLoughlin K, Kavanagh K. Disruption of haemocyte function by exposure to cytochalasin b or nocodazole increases the susceptibility of Galleria mellonella larvae to infection. Microbes Infect. 2011;13:1191-8 pubmed publisher
    Administration of non-toxic concentrations (10 ?M) of cytochalasin b and nocodazole to larvae of Galleria mellonella increased their susceptibility to infection by the yeast Candida albicans...
  39. Leblanc J, Zhang X, McKee D, Wang Z, Li R, Ma C, et al. The small GTPase Cdc42 promotes membrane protrusion during polar body emission via ARP2-nucleated actin polymerization. Mol Hum Reprod. 2011;17:305-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that treating oocytes with low concentrations of nocodazole diminished the size of metaphase I spindles and prevented polar body emission, and yet an active Cdc42 cap of ..
  40. Yuan J, Li M, Wei L, Yin S, Xiong B, Li S, et al. Astrin regulates meiotic spindle organization, spindle pole tethering and cell cycle progression in mouse oocytes. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:3384-95 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data strongly suggest that Astrin is critical for meiotic spindle assembly and maturation in mouse oocytes. ..
  41. Vaughan E, Geiger R, Miller A, Loh Marley P, Suzuki T, Miyata N, et al. Microtubule acetylation through HDAC6 inhibition results in increased transfection efficiency. Mol Ther. 2008;16:1841-7 pubmed publisher
    ..While disruption of microtubules with nocodazole was shown to greatly inhibit cytoplasmic plasmid trafficking, it did not abolish it...
  42. Von Dassow G, Verbrugghe K, Miller A, Sider J, Bement W. Action at a distance during cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:831-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the asters confer accuracy and precision to a primary furrow-inducing signal that can reach the cell surface from the spindle without transport on microtubules...
  43. Kim M, Liao J, Dowling M, Voong K, Parker S, Wang S, et al. TRAIL inactivates the mitotic checkpoint and potentiates death induced by microtubule-targeting agents in human cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2008;68:3440-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of T98G and HCT116 cells with nocodazole alone resulted in a robust mitotic block with initially little cell death; low levels of cell death were also ..
  44. Erturk A, Hellal F, Enes J, Bradke F. Disorganized microtubules underlie the formation of retraction bulbs and the failure of axonal regeneration. J Neurosci. 2007;27:9169-80 pubmed
    ..Our data pinpoint microtubules as a key regulatory target for axonal regeneration. ..
  45. Uetake Y, Sluder G. Cell-cycle progression without an intact microtuble cytoskeleton. Curr Biol. 2007;17:2081-6 pubmed
    ..We found that when normal human cells (hTERT RPE1 and primary fibroblasts) are continuously exposed to nocodazole, they remain in mitosis for 10-48 hr before they slip out of mitosis and arrest in G1; this finding is ..
  46. Momose F, Kikuchi Y, Komase K, Morikawa Y. Visualization of microtubule-mediated transport of influenza viral progeny ribonucleoprotein. Microbes Infect. 2007;9:1422-33 pubmed
    ..The treatment with nocodazole, a microtubule-depolymerizing agent, showed random distribution of the punctate NP in the cytoplasm...
  47. Witte H, Neukirchen D, Bradke F. Microtubule stabilization specifies initial neuronal polarization. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:619-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Application of low doses of the microtubule-destabilizing drug nocodazole selectively reduces the formation of future dendrites...
  48. Leng M, Chan D, Luo H, Zhu C, Qin J, Wang Y. MPS1-dependent mitotic BLM phosphorylation is important for chromosome stability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:11485-90 pubmed
    ..We propose that MPS1-dependent BLM phosphorylation is important for ensuring accurate chromosome segregation, and its deregulation may contribute to cancer. ..
  49. Attia S, Badary O, Hamada F, Hrabe de Angelis M, Adler I. The chemotherapeutic agents nocodazole and amsacrine cause meiotic delay and non-disjunction in spermatocytes of mice. Mutat Res. 2008;651:105-13 pubmed
    ..The possible risk of aneuploidy induction by the cancer chemotherapeutic drugs amsacrine (AMSA) and nocodazole (NOC) was investigated in male mice...
  50. Baudoin J, Alvarez C, Gaspar P, Metin C. Nocodazole-induced changes in microtubule dynamics impair the morphology and directionality of migrating medial ganglionic eminence cells. Dev Neurosci. 2008;30:132-43 pubmed
    ..A low (100 nM) concentration of nocodazole shortened the leading process of MGE cells that nevertheless continued to migrate at the same rate but ..
  51. Decordier I, Cundari E, Kirsch Volders M. Survival of aneuploid, micronucleated and/or polyploid cells: crosstalk between ploidy control and apoptosis. Mutat Res. 2008;651:30-9 pubmed publisher
    ..micronuclei and the induction of apoptosis in human cells after in vitro exposure to the microtubule inhibitor nocodazole. Exposure to high doses of nocodazole results in polyploidy due to mitotic slippage in the absence of a ..
  52. Zhang D, Yin S, Jiang M, Ma W, Hou Y, Liang C, et al. Cytoplasmic dynein participates in meiotic checkpoint inactivation in mouse oocytes by transporting cytoplasmic mitotic arrest-deficient (Mad) proteins from kinetochores to spindle poles. Reproduction. 2007;133:685-95 pubmed
    ..Some oocytes were treated with nocodazole before examination...
  53. Onishi K, Higuchi M, Asakura T, Masuyama N, Gotoh Y. The PI3K-Akt pathway promotes microtubule stabilization in migrating fibroblasts. Genes Cells. 2007;12:535-46 pubmed
  54. Even Ram S, Doyle A, Conti M, Matsumoto K, Adelstein R, Yamada K. Myosin IIA regulates cell motility and actomyosin-microtubule crosstalk. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:299-309 pubmed
    ..We conclude that myosin IIA negatively regulates cell migration and suggest that it maintains a balance between the actomyosin and microtubule systems by regulating microtubule dynamics. ..
  55. Yu L, Xiong B, Gao W, Wang C, Zhong Z, Huo L, et al. MEK1/2 regulates microtubule organization, spindle pole tethering and asymmetric division during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Cell Cycle. 2007;6:330-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that MEK1/2 may function as a centrosomal protein and may have roles in microtubule organization, spindle pole tethering and asymmetric division during mouse oocyte maturation. ..
  56. Marx K, Zhou T, Montrone A, McIntosh D, Braunhut S. A comparative study of the cytoskeleton binding drugs nocodazole and taxol with a mammalian cell quartz crystal microbalance biosensor: different dynamic responses and energy dissipation effects. Anal Biochem. 2007;361:77-92 pubmed
    ..biosensors for the detection of the effects of varying concentrations of the microtubule binding drugs taxol and nocodazole by measuring changes in the QCM steady state frequency (Deltaf) and motional resistance (DeltaR), shift values...
  57. Eves E, Shapiro P, Naik K, Klein U, Trakul N, Rosner M. Raf kinase inhibitory protein regulates aurora B kinase and the spindle checkpoint. Mol Cell. 2006;23:561-74 pubmed